Chapter 6 The Human Body Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.  Permission required for reproduction or display. 6-
Objectives 6-
Introduction <ul><li>Anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The study of the structure of an organism, such as the human body </li>...
Structural Organization 6-
Cell Function 6-
Body Organization <ul><li>Cells </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vital organs </li...
10 Major Organ Systems <ul><li>Circulatory </li></ul><ul><li>Digestive </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrine </li></ul><ul><li>Integ...
Homeostasis <ul><li>Organ systems work together to maintain a constant internal environment (homeostasis). </li></ul><ul><...
Homeostasis <ul><li>Body fluids  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two main compartments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intracellular flui...
Body Cavities 6-
Abdominal Quadrants 6-
 
Body Planes 6-
Summary <ul><li>Define anatomy and physiology </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the structure and function of a typical cell </li...
Musculoskeletal System  6-
Musculoskeletal System <ul><li>Gives the body its shape </li></ul><ul><li>Allows the body to move </li></ul><ul><li>Protec...
Skeletal System <ul><li>Consists of 206 bones of varying types </li></ul><ul><li>Bones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Store mineral...
Skeletal System 6-
Skeletal System 6-
6- <ul><li>Bones are classified by shape and size. </li></ul>
Bones of the Skull 6-
The Neck
Vertebral (Spinal) Column
Vertebral (Spinal) Column 6-
Vertebral Discs 6-
Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves 6-
The Chest (Thorax) <ul><li>Thorax </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed by of 12  thoracic vertebrae  and 12 pairs of ribs </li></u...
The Upper Extremity <ul><ul><li>Shoulder girdle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three bones  come together, allowing arm to...
Upper Extremity 6- Shoulder Girdle
The Upper Extremity <ul><ul><li>Wrist and hand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ball-and-socket joint  </li></ul></ul></ul><...
6- The Lower Extremity  <ul><li>Ankle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A hinge joint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows flexion/extens...
The Lower Extremity <ul><li>Foot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains 7 tarsal bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 metatarsal bon...
The Pelvis <ul><li>Posteriorly, the ilium, ischium, and pubis bones are joined by the sacrum </li></ul><ul><li>Anteriorly,...
The Muscular System <ul><li>Gives the body shape </li></ul><ul><li>Protects internal organs </li></ul><ul><li>Provides for...
Joints Hinge Ball and Socket
The Muscular System <ul><li>Muscles are classified according to their structure and function. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skelet...
6- <ul><li>Skeletal muscles and bones work together as levers. </li></ul>
Smooth Muscle <ul><li>Involuntary </li></ul><ul><li>Strong, slow contractions </li></ul><ul><li>Found in </li></ul><ul><ul...
Cardiac Muscle <ul><li>Found only in the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Produces heart’s contraction and pumps blood </li></ul><u...
Attachment of Muscles <ul><li>Tendons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attach muscle to bone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ligaments </li></...
Comparison of Muscle Types 6- Skeletal Smooth Cardiac Location Attached to bone by tendons Walls of the esophagus, stomach...
Location of Muscles
Summary <ul><li>Identify 2 major subdivisions of the skeleton, and list its bones </li></ul><ul><li>How many bones are in ...
Respiratory System 6-
Respiratory System 6-
Respiratory System 6-
Swallowing 6-
Respiratory System 6-
Respiratory System 6-
Respiratory System 6-
Ventilation <ul><li>Breathing (pulmonary ventilation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of moving air into and out of the lung...
<ul><li>Inspiration (inhalation)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of breathing in and moving air into the lungs </li></ul></...
Inhalation–Air Flows into Lungs Diaphragm
 
<ul><li>Diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax. </li></ul><ul><li>As the muscles relax, all dimensions of the thorax decr...
Exhalation–Air Flows out of Lungs Diaphragm
Respiratory System <ul><li>Respiration- exchange of gases  </li></ul><ul><li>Tidal volume- amount of air moved into and ou...
Mechanics of Breathing <ul><li>Chemoreceptors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medulla oblonga...
Mechanics of Breathing  6-
Structures that Support Ventilation <ul><li>Chest wall </li></ul><ul><li>Pleurae </li></ul><ul><li>Diaphragm </li></ul><ul...
Respiration <ul><li>Respiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange of gases between a living organism and its environment </li...
Respiration <ul><li>Alveolar/capillary gas exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Cell/capillary gas exchange </li></ul>6-
Control of Breathing <ul><li>Brain stem controls breathing. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases breathing rate if the carbon d...
Control of Breathing C-3,4,5  Keep the Diaphragm  Alive
Normal Breathing Characteristics <ul><li>Normal rate and depth </li></ul><ul><li>Regular rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>Good bre...
Recognizing Inadequate Breathing <ul><li>Irregular rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>Labored breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle ret...
Signs and Symptoms of Inadequate Breathing Nasal flaring Excessive use of accessory muscles Chest  tightness Cyanosis Numb...
Retractions Nasal Flaring Seesaw  Breathing Diaphragmatic Breathing Inadequate Breathing: Infants and Children
Infant and Child Anatomy <ul><li>Structures less rigid </li></ul><ul><li>Airway smaller </li></ul><ul><li>Tongue proportio...
Summary <ul><li>Function of the respiratory system </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomy and function of the upper and lower airway, w...
Circulatory System 6-
Circulatory System <ul><li>Cardiovascular system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pump (heart) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid (bloo...
Circulatory System <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivers oxygen-rich blood and nutrients to body tissues </li><...
The Heart 6-
Heart
Blood Flow through the Heart 6-
Right Atrium Right Ventricle Left Atrium Left Ventricle Receives blood from veins; pumps to right ventricle Receives blood...
Electrical Conduction System <ul><li>SA node </li></ul><ul><li>AV node </li></ul><ul><li>Purkinje fibers </li></ul>
Blood Flow through the Heart 6-
Blood <ul><li>Transport system  </li></ul><ul><li>Works with lymphatic system to protect the body against infection </li><...
Blood Components 6-
Blood Vessels 6- Arteries  -> arterioles -> capillaries -> venules ->  veins
Cardiovascular Pressures
Veins Contain One-Way Valves 6-
Major Arteries  6-
Major Veins 6-
Physiology of Circulation  6- <ul><li>Pulse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The wave of blood through the arteries formed when the l...
Physiology of the Circulatory System <ul><li>Blood pressure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of force exerted against walls of...
Inadequate circulation of blood through an organ or structure Results in inadequate oxygen supply to cells and causes buil...
<ul><li>Skin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cool, pale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clammy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyanotic </li><...
<ul><li>Breathing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid, shallow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restless, anx...
Summary <ul><li>Components and function of the circulatory system </li></ul><ul><li>Name the chambers of the hart </li></u...
Nervous System  6-
Nervous System  6-
6- <ul><li>The brain is housed in the cranium. </li></ul>
Meninges <ul><li>Picture of pia, dura and arachnoid </li></ul>
Areas of the Brain 6-
Spinal Cord <ul><li>Relays electrical signals to and from the brain and peripheral nerves </li></ul>6-
Peripheral  Nervous System (PNS) 6-
Autonomic Nervous System <ul><li>Sympathetic division  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobilizes energy, particularly in stressful s...
Effects of stimulation on the ANS <ul><li>Sympathetic  Fight or Flight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart rates increases </li></...
Summary <ul><li>What is a pulse </li></ul><ul><li>What is blood pressure and what part of the heart is represented in each...
Integumentary System  6-
Integumentary System 6-
The Skin  <ul><li>Protects the body from the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Tr...
Digestive System  6-
Digestive System  <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ingestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digestion </li></ul></ul><u...
Digestive System Components  6-
Digestive System <ul><li>Peristalsis </li></ul><ul><li>Process of digestion </li></ul>6-
Endocrine System  6-
Endocrine System  <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretes chemicals (hormones) directly into the circulatory syst...
Endocrine  System Components  6-
Reproductive System 6-
Reproductive System <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes cells (sperm, eggs) that allow continuation of the human ...
Male Reproductive System 6-
Female Reproductive System 6-
Urinary System 6-
Urinary System <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removes body wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assists in regulatin...
Urinary System <ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kidneys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ureters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Questions? 6-
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Aehlert emt 2e_ppt_ch06

1,920 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
0 Comments
6 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,920
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
6
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Aehlert emt 2e_ppt_ch06

  1. 1. Chapter 6 The Human Body Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 6-
  2. 2. Objectives 6-
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The study of the structure of an organism, such as the human body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physiology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The study of the normal functions of an organism, such as the human body </li></ul></ul>6-
  4. 4. Structural Organization 6-
  5. 5. Cell Function 6-
  6. 6. Body Organization <ul><li>Cells </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vital organs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organ systems </li></ul>6-
  7. 7. 10 Major Organ Systems <ul><li>Circulatory </li></ul><ul><li>Digestive </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrine </li></ul><ul><li>Integumentary </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous </li></ul><ul><li>Reproductive </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary </li></ul>6-
  8. 8. Homeostasis <ul><li>Organ systems work together to maintain a constant internal environment (homeostasis). </li></ul><ul><li>Cell metabolism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerobic metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anaerobic metabolism </li></ul></ul>6-
  9. 9. Homeostasis <ul><li>Body fluids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two main compartments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intracellular fluid (ICF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid within the walls of body cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accounts for about two-thirds of body water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extracellular fluid (ECF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid within the blood vessels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid within the tissues </li></ul></ul></ul>6-
  10. 10. Body Cavities 6-
  11. 11. Abdominal Quadrants 6-
  12. 13. Body Planes 6-
  13. 14. Summary <ul><li>Define anatomy and physiology </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the structure and function of a typical cell </li></ul><ul><li>Homeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>Cell metabolism, aerobic metabolism and anaerobic metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Intracellular and extracellular fluid </li></ul><ul><li>Body cavities and organ with in each </li></ul><ul><li>List the 4 quadrants of the abdomen and name their organs </li></ul><ul><li>Planes of the body </li></ul>
  14. 15. Musculoskeletal System 6-
  15. 16. Musculoskeletal System <ul><li>Gives the body its shape </li></ul><ul><li>Allows the body to move </li></ul><ul><li>Protects major organs of the body </li></ul>6-
  16. 17. Skeletal System <ul><li>Consists of 206 bones of varying types </li></ul><ul><li>Bones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Store minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many bones contain bone marrow. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bone marrow produces blood cells. </li></ul></ul></ul>6-
  17. 18. Skeletal System 6-
  18. 19. Skeletal System 6-
  19. 20. 6- <ul><li>Bones are classified by shape and size. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Bones of the Skull 6-
  21. 22. The Neck
  22. 23. Vertebral (Spinal) Column
  23. 24. Vertebral (Spinal) Column 6-
  24. 25. Vertebral Discs 6-
  25. 26. Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves 6-
  26. 27. The Chest (Thorax) <ul><li>Thorax </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed by of 12 thoracic vertebrae and 12 pairs of ribs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoracic cavity contains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lungs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Esophagus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Great vessels </li></ul></ul></ul>6-
  27. 28. The Upper Extremity <ul><ul><li>Shoulder girdle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three bones come together, allowing arm to be moved: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clavicle, scapula, umerus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Upper Extremity 6- Shoulder Girdle
  29. 30. The Upper Extremity <ul><ul><li>Wrist and hand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ball-and-socket joint </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Principal bones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carpals, metacarpals, phalanges </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 31. 6- The Lower Extremity <ul><li>Ankle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A hinge joint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows flexion/extension of foot </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. The Lower Extremity <ul><li>Foot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains 7 tarsal bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 metatarsal bones form substance of foot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toes are formed by phalanges </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. The Pelvis <ul><li>Posteriorly, the ilium, ischium, and pubis bones are joined by the sacrum </li></ul><ul><li>Anteriorly, the pubic symphysis is where the right and left pubis are joined </li></ul>
  33. 34. The Muscular System <ul><li>Gives the body shape </li></ul><ul><li>Protects internal organs </li></ul><ul><li>Provides for movement of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains posture </li></ul><ul><li>Helps stabilize joints </li></ul><ul><li>Produces body heat </li></ul>6-
  34. 35. Joints Hinge Ball and Socket
  35. 36. The Muscular System <ul><li>Muscles are classified according to their structure and function. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skeletal (voluntary) muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth (involuntary) muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac muscle </li></ul></ul>6-
  36. 37. 6- <ul><li>Skeletal muscles and bones work together as levers. </li></ul>
  37. 38. Smooth Muscle <ul><li>Involuntary </li></ul><ul><li>Strong, slow contractions </li></ul><ul><li>Found in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Walls of GI tract and urinary system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bronchi </li></ul></ul>6-
  38. 39. Cardiac Muscle <ul><li>Found only in the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Produces heart’s contraction and pumps blood </li></ul><ul><li>Has its own blood supply through the coronary arteries </li></ul><ul><li>Normal contractions are strong and rhythmic. </li></ul><ul><li>Involuntary </li></ul>6-
  39. 40. Attachment of Muscles <ul><li>Tendons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attach muscle to bone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ligaments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attach bone to bone </li></ul></ul>
  40. 41. Comparison of Muscle Types 6- Skeletal Smooth Cardiac Location Attached to bone by tendons Walls of the esophagus, stomach, intestines, bronchi, uterus, blood vessels, glands Walls of the heart Function Moves the skeleton Produces heat that helps maintain a constant body temperature Maintains posture Moves food through the digestive tract Adjusts the size of blood vessels to control blood flow Contracts and relaxes the heart Moves blood through the body Type of Control Voluntary Involuntary Involuntary
  41. 42. Location of Muscles
  42. 43. Summary <ul><li>Identify 2 major subdivisions of the skeleton, and list its bones </li></ul><ul><li>How many bones are in the body </li></ul><ul><li>How are bones classified and give an example </li></ul><ul><li>What are the bones of the skull and face </li></ul><ul><li>What are the sections of the vertebral column and thoracic cage </li></ul><ul><li>What is the purpose of muscles and how many different types are there </li></ul><ul><li>Difference between tendons and ligaments </li></ul>
  43. 44. Respiratory System 6-
  44. 45. Respiratory System 6-
  45. 46. Respiratory System 6-
  46. 47. Swallowing 6-
  47. 48. Respiratory System 6-
  48. 49. Respiratory System 6-
  49. 50. Respiratory System 6-
  50. 51. Ventilation <ul><li>Breathing (pulmonary ventilation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of moving air into and out of the lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inspiration (inhalation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of breathing in and moving air into the lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expiration (exhalation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of breathing out and moving air out of the lungs </li></ul></ul>6-
  51. 52. <ul><li>Inspiration (inhalation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of breathing in and moving air into the lungs </li></ul></ul>Ventilation <ul><li>Diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract, increasing the size of the thoracic cavity. </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure in the lungs decreases. </li></ul><ul><li>Air travels to the lungs. </li></ul>
  52. 53. Inhalation–Air Flows into Lungs Diaphragm
  53. 55. <ul><li>Diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax. </li></ul><ul><li>As the muscles relax, all dimensions of the thorax decrease. </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure in the lungs increases. </li></ul><ul><li>Air flows out of the lungs. </li></ul>Ventilation <ul><li>Expiration (exhalation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of breathing out and moving air out of the lungs </li></ul></ul>
  54. 56. Exhalation–Air Flows out of Lungs Diaphragm
  55. 57. Respiratory System <ul><li>Respiration- exchange of gases </li></ul><ul><li>Tidal volume- amount of air moved into and out of the lungs. 500ml in a health adult, of this only 350ml reaches the alveoli </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomic dead space- amount of air in the trachea and mainstem bronchi. 150ml </li></ul><ul><li>Minute volume- multiplying the tidal volume by the respiratory rate </li></ul>6-
  56. 58. Mechanics of Breathing <ul><li>Chemoreceptors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medulla oblongata in the brain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor carbon dioxide level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peripheral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carotid arteries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arch of the aorta </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor oxygen and carbon dioxide levels </li></ul></ul></ul>6-
  57. 59. Mechanics of Breathing 6-
  58. 60. Structures that Support Ventilation <ul><li>Chest wall </li></ul><ul><li>Pleurae </li></ul><ul><li>Diaphragm </li></ul><ul><li>Intercostal muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Phrenic nerves </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary capillaries </li></ul>6-
  59. 61. Respiration <ul><li>Respiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange of gases between a living organism and its environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internal respiration </li></ul><ul><li>External respiration </li></ul>6-
  60. 62. Respiration <ul><li>Alveolar/capillary gas exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Cell/capillary gas exchange </li></ul>6-
  61. 63. Control of Breathing <ul><li>Brain stem controls breathing. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases breathing rate if the carbon dioxide level in blood becomes too high </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypoxic drive is a “backup system.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activates when oxygen levels fall to stimulate breathing </li></ul></ul>
  62. 64. Control of Breathing C-3,4,5 Keep the Diaphragm Alive
  63. 65. Normal Breathing Characteristics <ul><li>Normal rate and depth </li></ul><ul><li>Regular rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>Good breath sounds in both lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Regular rise and fall movements in the chest </li></ul><ul><li>Easy, not labored </li></ul>
  64. 66. Recognizing Inadequate Breathing <ul><li>Irregular rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>Labored breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle retractions </li></ul><ul><li>Pale or blue skin </li></ul><ul><li>Cool, clammy skin </li></ul><ul><li>Faster respiratory rate </li></ul>
  65. 67. Signs and Symptoms of Inadequate Breathing Nasal flaring Excessive use of accessory muscles Chest tightness Cyanosis Numbness, tingling in hands & feet Pursed lips on exhalation Coughing, crowing, high-pitched bark <ul><li>Respiratory noise </li></ul><ul><li>wheezing </li></ul><ul><li>rattling </li></ul><ul><li>Impaired mentation </li></ul><ul><li>Unconsciousness </li></ul><ul><li>dizziness </li></ul><ul><li>restlessness </li></ul><ul><li>anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>confusion </li></ul><ul><li>combativeness </li></ul>
  66. 68. Retractions Nasal Flaring Seesaw Breathing Diaphragmatic Breathing Inadequate Breathing: Infants and Children
  67. 69. Infant and Child Anatomy <ul><li>Structures less rigid </li></ul><ul><li>Airway smaller </li></ul><ul><li>Tongue proportionally larger </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent on </li></ul><ul><li>diaphragm for breathing </li></ul>
  68. 70. Summary <ul><li>Function of the respiratory system </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomy and function of the upper and lower airway, what are the components of each </li></ul><ul><li>Tidal volume, minute volume and dead space </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in air pressure with in the chest cavity during ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>Difference between internal and external respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Where does gas exchange </li></ul>
  69. 71. Circulatory System 6-
  70. 72. Circulatory System <ul><li>Cardiovascular system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pump (heart) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid (blood) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Container (blood vessels) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymph nodes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymph vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tonsils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spleen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thymus gland </li></ul></ul>6-
  71. 73. Circulatory System <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivers oxygen-rich blood and nutrients to body tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps maintain body temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects the body against infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls bleeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removes waste and by-products of metabolism from body tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transports hormones and other chemical messengers to targeted tissues of the body </li></ul></ul>6-
  72. 74. The Heart 6-
  73. 75. Heart
  74. 76. Blood Flow through the Heart 6-
  75. 77. Right Atrium Right Ventricle Left Atrium Left Ventricle Receives blood from veins; pumps to right ventricle Receives blood from lungs; pumps to left ventricle Pumps blood to the lungs Pumps blood through the aorta to the body Heart Chambers
  76. 78. Electrical Conduction System <ul><li>SA node </li></ul><ul><li>AV node </li></ul><ul><li>Purkinje fibers </li></ul>
  77. 79. Blood Flow through the Heart 6-
  78. 80. Blood <ul><li>Transport system </li></ul><ul><li>Works with lymphatic system to protect the body against infection </li></ul>6-
  79. 81. Blood Components 6-
  80. 82. Blood Vessels 6- Arteries -> arterioles -> capillaries -> venules -> veins
  81. 83. Cardiovascular Pressures
  82. 84. Veins Contain One-Way Valves 6-
  83. 85. Major Arteries 6-
  84. 86. Major Veins 6-
  85. 87. Physiology of Circulation 6- <ul><li>Pulse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The wave of blood through the arteries formed when the left ventricle contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be felt where an artery passes near the skin surface and over a bone </li></ul></ul>
  86. 88. Physiology of the Circulatory System <ul><li>Blood pressure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of force exerted against walls of arteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systole: Left ventricle contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diastole: Left ventricle relaxes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perfusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Circulation of blood within an organ or tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If inadequate, the patient goes into shock. </li></ul></ul>
  87. 89. Inadequate circulation of blood through an organ or structure Results in inadequate oxygen supply to cells and causes buildup of waste products Hypoperfusion
  88. 90. <ul><li>Skin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cool, pale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clammy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyanotic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pulse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid, weak </li></ul></ul>Signs and Symptoms of Hypoperfusion (cont.)
  89. 91. <ul><li>Breathing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid, shallow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restless, anxious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nausea, vomiting </li></ul></ul>Signs and Symptoms of Hypoperfusion
  90. 92. Summary <ul><li>Components and function of the circulatory system </li></ul><ul><li>Name the chambers of the hart </li></ul><ul><li>Trace a drop of blood through the body </li></ul><ul><li>Primary function of blood </li></ul><ul><li>What are the formed elements of blood, and their function </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the structure and function of the blood vessels, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules and veins </li></ul><ul><li>What are the major arteries of the body </li></ul><ul><li>What are the major veins of the body </li></ul>
  91. 93. Nervous System 6-
  92. 94. Nervous System 6-
  93. 95. 6- <ul><li>The brain is housed in the cranium. </li></ul>
  94. 96. Meninges <ul><li>Picture of pia, dura and arachnoid </li></ul>
  95. 97. Areas of the Brain 6-
  96. 98. Spinal Cord <ul><li>Relays electrical signals to and from the brain and peripheral nerves </li></ul>6-
  97. 99. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) 6-
  98. 100. Autonomic Nervous System <ul><li>Sympathetic division </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobilizes energy, particularly in stressful situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Fight-or- flight” response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects are widespread throughout the body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic division </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conserves and restores energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects are localized in the body </li></ul></ul>6-
  99. 101. Effects of stimulation on the ANS <ul><li>Sympathetic Fight or Flight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart rates increases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearts force of contractions increases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pupils widen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digestion decreases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mouth and nose secretions decrease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bronchial muscles relax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urine secretion decreases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic Rest and Digest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart rate decreases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearts force of contraction decreases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pupils narrow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digestion increases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mouth and nose secretions increases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bronchial muscles constrict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urine secretion increases </li></ul></ul>
  100. 102. Summary <ul><li>What is a pulse </li></ul><ul><li>What is blood pressure and what part of the heart is represented in each part </li></ul><ul><li>Name the divisions of the nervous system and the general function </li></ul><ul><li>Compare the function of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system </li></ul>
  101. 103. Integumentary System 6-
  102. 104. Integumentary System 6-
  103. 105. The Skin <ul><li>Protects the body from the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Transmits information from environment to the brain </li></ul>
  104. 106. Digestive System 6-
  105. 107. Digestive System <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ingestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defecation </li></ul></ul>6-
  106. 108. Digestive System Components 6-
  107. 109. Digestive System <ul><li>Peristalsis </li></ul><ul><li>Process of digestion </li></ul>6-
  108. 110. Endocrine System 6-
  109. 111. Endocrine System <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretes chemicals (hormones) directly into the circulatory system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influences body activities and functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works closely with nervous system to maintain homeostasis </li></ul></ul>6-
  110. 112. Endocrine System Components 6-
  111. 113. Reproductive System 6-
  112. 114. Reproductive System <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes cells (sperm, eggs) that allow continuation of the human species </li></ul></ul>6-
  113. 115. Male Reproductive System 6-
  114. 116. Female Reproductive System 6-
  115. 117. Urinary System 6-
  116. 118. Urinary System <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removes body wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assists in regulating blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps control the amount and composition of water and other substances in the body </li></ul></ul>6-
  117. 119. Urinary System <ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kidneys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ureters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bladder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urethra </li></ul></ul>6-
  118. 120. Questions? 6-

×