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Urban Dynamics Monitoring:
          Innovative Density and Centrality Indicators
          of Economic Activities




   ...
Plan

 •     Urban transformations, indicators and monitoring

 •     Integrated monitoring and assessment system

 •     ...
Urban Transformations and Indicators
  1.      Urban planning




  2.      Urban monitoring




NLB / 06.05.10 / p.3
    ...
Monitoring what?

 •     Land use changes
 •     Emitted number of development/construction permits
 •     Apartment's tur...
NLB / 06.05.10 / p.5
                       Urban Dynamics Monitoring: Network Based Density Indicator
NLB / 06.05.10 / p.6
                       Urban Dynamics Monitoring: Network Based Density Indicator
Project : Centrality and density indicator

 •     Goals

        – To create a density indicator that will respect networ...
Theory

 •     Kernel Density Estimator (KDE)
        – Operates in euclidean space
        – Weights events by their radi...
Indicators : KDE vs. NetKDE




                       KDE                               NetKDE
NLB / 06.05.10 / p.9
     ...
Indicators : KDE vs. NetKDE




                        KDE                               NetKDE



NLB / 06.05.10 / p.10
...
Project's Process and Data




NLB / 06.05.10 / p.11
                                    Urban Dynamics Monitoring: Networ...
Proof-of-concept: Barcelona
       Raw data 2002                                 Treatments
  (Agencia de Ecologia Urbana)...
Results for ponctual data (activities)




 KDE of activities (bandwith: 400m)             NetKDE of activities (spt: 400m...
Results for linear data (segments)




 Global Betweeness KDE of segments   Global Betweeness NetKDE of segments
 (bandwit...
Betweeness KDE/NetKDE of segments




NLB / 06.05.10 / p.15
                              Urban Dynamics Monitoring: Netwo...
Current Projects

 •    NetKDE vs. KDE: Barcelona
        – Grid 10m, 20m, 50m, 100m, 200m
        – Bandwith 100m, 200m, ...
References

 •    Produit, T., Lachance-Bernard, N., Strano, E., Porta, S., Joost, S., A
      network based kernel densit...
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Urban Dynamics Monitoring: Innovative Density and Centrality Indicators of Economic Activities

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Urban Dynamics Monitoring: Innovative Density and Centrality Indicators of Economic Activities

  1. 1. Urban Dynamics Monitoring: Innovative Density and Centrality Indicators of Economic Activities Nicolas Lachance-Bernard Geographic Information Systems Laboratory Ecole polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) COST Action TU0602 - Land Management and Urban Dynamics Under Shift of Contexts, 6th May 2010, Kaunas, Lithuania NLB / 06.05.10 / p.1 Urban Dynamics Monitoring: Network Based Density Indicator
  2. 2. Plan • Urban transformations, indicators and monitoring • Integrated monitoring and assessment system • Network based kernel density evaluation (NetKDE) • Proof-of-concept: Barcelona • Current projects NLB / 06.05.10 / p.2 Urban Dynamics Monitoring: Network Based Density Indicator
  3. 3. Urban Transformations and Indicators 1. Urban planning 2. Urban monitoring NLB / 06.05.10 / p.3 Urban Dynamics Monitoring: Network Based Density Indicator
  4. 4. Monitoring what? • Land use changes • Emitted number of development/construction permits • Apartment's turn-over rates (owner, leaser) • Completed construction projects • Economic activities • Empty lots and apartments • Socioeconomics (job, household) • Accessibilities and mobilities • … NLB / 06.05.10 / p.4 Urban Dynamics Monitoring: Network Based Density Indicator
  5. 5. NLB / 06.05.10 / p.5 Urban Dynamics Monitoring: Network Based Density Indicator
  6. 6. NLB / 06.05.10 / p.6 Urban Dynamics Monitoring: Network Based Density Indicator
  7. 7. Project : Centrality and density indicator • Goals – To create a density indicator that will respect network constraints – To complete a proof-of-concept on Barcelona NLB / 06.05.10 / p.7 Urban Dynamics Monitoring: Network Based Density Indicator
  8. 8. Theory • Kernel Density Estimator (KDE) – Operates in euclidean space – Weights events by their radial distances from grid centroid • Network based Kernel Density Estimator (NetKDE) – Operates in a network constrained space – Weights events by the distance from grid centroid measured along this network NLB / 06.05.10 / p.8 Urban Dynamics Monitoring: Network Based Density Indicator
  9. 9. Indicators : KDE vs. NetKDE KDE NetKDE NLB / 06.05.10 / p.9 Urban Dynamics Monitoring: Network Based Density Indicator
  10. 10. Indicators : KDE vs. NetKDE KDE NetKDE NLB / 06.05.10 / p.10 Urban Dynamics Monitoring: Network Based Density Indicator
  11. 11. Project's Process and Data NLB / 06.05.10 / p.11 Urban Dynamics Monitoring: Network Based Density Indicator
  12. 12. Proof-of-concept: Barcelona Raw data 2002 Treatments (Agencia de Ecologia Urbana) • Economic activities • 926,000 grid points 166,311 entities • 400m bandwith • Grid (network and euclidean distance) 10m, 92.65km2 • Duration: 33 hours Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Quad CPU 1,890,000 cellules Q950 @ 3.00GHz 8GB of RAM • Graphe routier 11,222 segments NLB / 06.05.10 / p.12 Urban Dynamics Monitoring: Network Based Density Indicator
  13. 13. Results for ponctual data (activities) KDE of activities (bandwith: 400m) NetKDE of activities (spt: 400m) *dot could represents supperposed activities NLB / 06.05.10 / p.13 Urban Dynamics Monitoring: Network Based Density Indicator
  14. 14. Results for linear data (segments) Global Betweeness KDE of segments Global Betweeness NetKDE of segments (bandwith:400m) (spt:400m) *input: segment’s centroid NLB / 06.05.10 / p.14 Urban Dynamics Monitoring: Network Based Density Indicator
  15. 15. Betweeness KDE/NetKDE of segments NLB / 06.05.10 / p.15 Urban Dynamics Monitoring: Network Based Density Indicator
  16. 16. Current Projects • NetKDE vs. KDE: Barcelona – Grid 10m, 20m, 50m, 100m, 200m – Bandwith 100m, 200m, 400m, 500m • Segment centralities vs. Activity densities (NetKDE): Barcelona, Roma, Bologna, Glasgow, Geneva – Grid 10m – Bandwith 100m, 200m, 500m • Over time series (real monitoring)… Bologna? • Outside Europe… Montréal Metropolitan Area and Delhi? NLB / 06.05.10 / p.16 Urban Dynamics Monitoring: Network Based Density Indicator
  17. 17. References • Produit, T., Lachance-Bernard, N., Strano, E., Porta, S., Joost, S., A network based kernel density estimator applied to Barcelona economic activities. The International Conference on Computational Science and its Applications - Japan (ICCSA), Part I, LNCS 6016, Springer- Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 32-45 (2010) • Porta, S., Latora, V., Wang, F., Strano, E., Cardillo, A., Scellato, S., Iacoviello, V., Messora, R., Street centrality and densities of retail and services in Bologna, Italy. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 36, 450–465 (2009) • Porta, S., Crucitti, P., Latora, V., The network analysis of urban streets: a primal approach. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 33, 705–725 (2006) NLB / 06.05.10 / p.17 Urban Dynamics Monitoring: Network Based Density Indicator

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