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With your teachers: Natasha andDelaneyORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Prefixes and suffixes of Alkanes• Refer back to this when you hit the naming slides• Prefixes for the amount of carbon in ...
Prefix and suffixes of Halo groups• Prefix for the amount of carbon in the strand• 1=mono, 2=di, 3=tri, 4=tetra, 5=penta, ...
Prefixes and suffixes of Alkenes and Alkynes• Prefixes to the amount of carbon in the chain• 1=mono, 2=di, 3=tri, 4=tetra,...
Prefixes and Suffixes for others• Aldehydes: suffix=al• Ethers: suffix= oxy• Ketone: suffix=one• Amines: prefix= amino• Am...
Alkanes• A straight chained, single bonded carbons• Ex: C-C-C-C• The general formula is CnH2n+2• The general formula is us...
Naming Alkanes• When naming an alkane there is a different suffix used at the end ofa prefix which is ‘ane’• Looking at th...
Branched Alkanes #1• 1) the longest carbon chain is highlighted which is 4 carbons=butane• 2) The position of the branch i...
Branched Alkanes #2• 1) The longest carbon chain contains 8 carbonsw = octane•• 2) The position of the branch is on the 3r...
Branched Alkanes #3• 1) the longest chain has 8=octane• 2)the branch is on the 4th carbon• 3) there are 2 carbons in the b...
Branched Alkanes #41) the longest branch has 7 carbons=heptane2) Number the position of the branches goingf from lowest po...
Con’t branched alkanes #4• Since there are 2 different types of branches (ethyl and methyl) youwant to start in alphabetic...
1 carbon (methane)• When you have 1 carbon…..• The structural formula=• The molecular formula= CH4• Why Because around the...
2 carbons (Ethane)• When you have 2 carbons…..• The structural formula=• The molecular formula=C2H6• Why? Because the mole...
3 carbons(Propane)• When you have 3 carbon…..• The structural formula=• Molecular formula=C3H8• Why? Because there are 3 i...
4 carbons(Butane)• When you have 4 carbons…..• The structural formula=• The molecular formula=C4H10• Why? Because there ar...
Questions• Name the following hydrocarbons:• 1) Answer: 3-methylhexane• 2) Answer: 3-methlyheptane• 3) Answer: 2-methylhex...
Questions• Draw the following:• 1) 4-proplynonane 3) 3-ethylheptane• 2) 4-ethyl-2-methyloctane 4) 3,4-diethylhexane
Alkanes in everyday life• 1) commercial fuels (propane)• 2) Components of gasoline (pentane)• 3) Natural gas (methane)• 4)...
Isomers• Compounds which have the same molecular formula but a differentarrangement of atoms• Each structural isomer has a...
Isomer questions• 1) Write the condensed structure and name for the three structuralisomers having the molecular formula C...
Cyclo Alkane• They are hydrocarbon chains that are connected in a ‘head to tail’format• The general formula=CnH2n• So if y...
Naming• Ex)• Cyclopropane• Why? Since there is no branches, the cyclo is first in the name. In the picture there are 3carb...
Cyclopropane• When you have cyclopropane…..• The structural formula=• The molecular formula=C3H6• The condensed formula=CH...
Cyclobutane• When you have cyclobutane…..• The structural formula:• The molecular formula=C4H8• The condensed formula=CH2-...
Questions• Name the following• 1) Answer: methylcyclopropane• 2) Answer: ethylcyclohexane• Draw the following• 1) propylcy...
Everyday use• 1) pharmaceutical drugs• 2) important components of food
Alkyl halides(halo groups)• Cholorpropyl• The structural formula:• The molecular formula: C3H7Cl• The condensed formula: C...
Halo groups• Fluoroethyl• The structural formula:• Molecular formula:C2H4F• Condensed formula: CH3CH2F• Line formula:
Drawing Halo• Chloroethane= CH3-CH2-Cl• Why there are 2 carbons=ethane and there is only 1 chloro• Fluorocyclopentane=• Wh...
Naming Halo groups• CH3-Cl=Chloromethane• Why? Because one carbon=methane and one Halo alkyl (Cl)=Choloro• 2-fluoropropane...
Questions• Draw the following• 1) 1,2-dichloroehtane Answer: Cl-CH2-CH2-Cl• 2) 1-iodo-4-methylpentane Answer:• Name the fo...
Everyday uses• Chloroform: an anesthetic• Chlorofluorocarbons: used in refrigerators
Alkenes• An alkene is an organic compound containing a carbon-carbondouble bond• Their general formula=CnH2n• Alkenes are ...
Naming• CH3-CH=CH-CH2-CH2-CH3=2-hexene• Why? There are 6 carbons=hexa, drop the a and add ene. The 2 representwhich carbon...
Drawing• 2-butene= CH3-CH=CH-CH3• Why? There are 4 carbons= butene, and the 2 represents where the doublebond begins• 3-me...
Questions• Draw the following:• 1) 3-hexene: CH3-CH2-CH=CH-CH2CH3• 2) 3,6-dimethyl-1-cyclohexene:• 3) 3,3-dimethyl-1-pentene
Questions• Name the following:• 1) CH3-CH=CH-CH3 Answer: 2-butene• 2) Answer: 1,3,4-trimethyl-1-cyclobutene• 3) Answer: 3-...
Everyday uses• Used to artificially ripen fruit• Extremely important in the manufacturing of plastics
Alkynes• Are organic compounds that contain a triple bond• Their general formula=CnH2n-2• Alkynes are known as unsaturated...
Naming• When naming the ending of the prefix becomes “yne”• Ex) 2-butyne• Why? There are 4 carbons=butyne and thetriple bo...
Naming•• 1,3,4-tribromo-2-chloro-3-fluoro-2-iodo-4-propyl-3-hexene• Why? On the 1st, 3rd and 4th carbon there are bromo (3...
Drawing• 1-heptyne• Why? The 1 represents where the triple bond starts and since there are 7carbons=heptyne• Cyclopropyne•...
Questions• Name the following:• 1) Answer: 3-methyl-4-octyne• 2) Answer: 3-hexyne• 3) Answer:1,1-dibromo-2,2-difluoro-1-pr...
Questions(draw the following)1)2-methyl-1-pentyne• 2)2,2-diethyl-3-pentyne• 3)Cyclooctyne
Everyday uses• Used for metal cutting and wielding• Can be used as an illuminant
alcohols• Organic compounds that contain –OH• When naming:• Make sure the branch number of the alcohol is before the paren...
Functional groups• A specific group of atoms which exists in molecules and gives amolecule an ability to react in a specif...
Naming alcohols• CH3-OH= methanol• Why? 1 carbon=methane but drop the e and add ol• 2-butanol• Why? 4 carbons=butane but d...
Drawing alcohols• 4,4,4-trifluoro-2-butanol• Why? It’s on the 4th carbon because you cannot make the carbon 1 whenit’s has...
Questions• Name the following:• 3-methyl-1-butane• 2-methyl-2-propanol
Questions• Draw the following:
Everyday uses of alcohols• Ethanol: it is the least toxic of the alcohols and is used in perfumesto stop the plant and ani...
Other functional groups• Aldehydes: an organic compound containing C=O• Group at the end of a hydrocarbon chain• Ex) =meth...
Other functional groups• Ketones: an organic compound containing C=O• Grouped at any position other than at the end of a h...
Other Functional Groups• Ethers: a compound in which an oxygen joins 2 hydrocarbons• Ex) ethoxyethane• Why? Before the oxy...
Other Functional Groups• Amines: organic compound that contains an NH2 group• Ex) CH3-CH2-NH2=aminoethane• Why? 2 carbons=...
Other Functional Groups• Amides: organic comppounds that contain CONH2(pic)• Ex) CH3-CONH2= ethanamide• Why 2 carbons-ehta...
Other Functional groups• Carboxylic acid: organic acids are organic compounds that containCOOH• Ex) CH3-COOH ethanoic acid...
• WE HOPE YOU KIDS ACTUALLY LEARNT SOMETHING!!!! • THANK YOU
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Organic chemistry

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Organic chemistry

  1. 1. With your teachers: Natasha andDelaneyORGANIC CHEMISTRY
  2. 2. Prefixes and suffixes of Alkanes• Refer back to this when you hit the naming slides• Prefixes for the amount of carbon in a strand• 1=mono, 2=di, 3=tri, 4=tetra, 5=penta, 6=hexa, 7=hepta, 8=octa, 9=nona,10=deca• Alkanes• The suffix/ending=ane• Suffix/ ending for branches=‘yl’• Prefixes for the branches (also goes by the amount of carbon)• 1=meth, 2=eth, 3=prop, 4=but, 5=penta, 6=hexa, 7=hepta, 8=octa, 9=nona,10=deca
  3. 3. Prefix and suffixes of Halo groups• Prefix for the amount of carbon in the strand• 1=mono, 2=di, 3=tri, 4=tetra, 5=penta, 6=hexa, 7=hepta, 8=octa, 9=nona,10=deca• Branches (which consist of chluorine, bromine, iodine and fluorine• Cl=chloro, I=Iodo, Br=Bromo, F=Fluoro
  4. 4. Prefixes and suffixes of Alkenes and Alkynes• Prefixes to the amount of carbon in the chain• 1=mono, 2=di, 3=tri, 4=tetra, 5=penta, 6=hexa, 7=hepta, 8=octa, 9=nona,10=deca• Prefixes for the branches (also goes by amount of carbon)• 1=meth, 2=eth, 3=prop, 4=but, 5=penta, 6=hexa, 7=hepta, 8=octa, 9=nona,10=deca• Alkene:• Suffix/ending= ene• Suffix/ending for branches= yl• Alkyne• Suffix/ending=yne• Suffix/ending for branches=yl
  5. 5. Prefixes and Suffixes for others• Aldehydes: suffix=al• Ethers: suffix= oxy• Ketone: suffix=one• Amines: prefix= amino• Amides: suffix=amide• Carboxylic acid: suffix=anic acid
  6. 6. Alkanes• A straight chained, single bonded carbons• Ex: C-C-C-C• The general formula is CnH2n+2• The general formula is used to help find the amount of H’s• Example: You have C4 how many H’s are there?• Well, the 4 represents the n, so plug the 4 into the equation where ever there isan n and do the math kids!• Answer: there would be H10
  7. 7. Naming Alkanes• When naming an alkane there is a different suffix used at the end ofa prefix which is ‘ane’• Looking at the first slide there is a table of what prefix is used tohow much carbons are in a chain• Example: if there is are 5 carbons in a chain what would be the prefix?• Penta• Now lets look at how to name some types of branched alkanes• There are 3 steps when naming a branched alkane• 1) Find the longest continuous C chain and name it• 2)Note and number the position of the branch• 3) Name the branch (ending is ‘yl’)• 4) Then name the hydrocarbon
  8. 8. Branched Alkanes #1• 1) the longest carbon chain is highlighted which is 4 carbons=butane• 2) The position of the branch is on the second carbon, since youwant to go by the lowest number position• 3) Since the branched carbon has only 1 carbon, the name of thebranched carbon would be methyl• 4)Naming the hydrocarbon you want to take the answers from step2-3-1 which should look like this: 2-methylbutane
  9. 9. Branched Alkanes #2• 1) The longest carbon chain contains 8 carbonsw = octane•• 2) The position of the branch is on the 3rdcarbon carbon• 3) The name of the branch has 1 carbon=methyl• 4) The hydrocarbon name= 3-methyloctane•
  10. 10. Branched Alkanes #3• 1) the longest chain has 8=octane• 2)the branch is on the 4th carbon• 3) there are 2 carbons in the branch=ethyl
  11. 11. Branched Alkanes #41) the longest branch has 7 carbons=heptane2) Number the position of the branches goingf from lowest position =2,2,4,6 (there aret two 2’s two 2’s because 2 branches are ont the 2nd carbon3)1 carbon branch=methyl-1 carbon branch=methyl-2carbon branch=ethyl1-carbon branch=methyl
  12. 12. Con’t branched alkanes #4• Since there are 2 different types of branches (ethyl and methyl) youwant to start in alphabetically• So first you would have the 4-ethyl: since the 4 is the position and ethyl isthe prefix for the 2 carbons in the branch• Next you want to list all the positions of the same # carbon branch (whichis the methyl).So: 2-2-6-trimethyl• The tri prefix represents that there are 3 methyls (1+1+1=3 which is tri)• Finally you want to put the heptane at the end• The final answer is 4-ethyl-2-2-6-trimethylheptane
  13. 13. 1 carbon (methane)• When you have 1 carbon…..• The structural formula=• The molecular formula= CH4• Why Because around the 1 carbon there are 4 H’s thus the CH4• The condensed formula= CH4• Why? Because the condensed formula looks at the groups of CH’s insteadof the amount of C and H by itself. Since there is only one hydrocarbongroup it will have the same answer as the molecular formula.• Line formula= Doesn’t have one
  14. 14. 2 carbons (Ethane)• When you have 2 carbons…..• The structural formula=• The molecular formula=C2H6• Why? Because the molecular focuses on the amount of the C and the H byitself. Do the math and you should have C2 and H6• The condensed formula: CH3CH3• Why? Because when looking at the structural formula you are looking forthe groups of CH’s. There are 2 groups and each C is surrounded by 3 H,thus CH3CH3• The line formula=• Why? Because there are 2 carbons which equals to 2 points
  15. 15. 3 carbons(Propane)• When you have 3 carbon…..• The structural formula=• Molecular formula=C3H8• Why? Because there are 3 individual C’s and 8 individual H’s• Condensed formula=CH3 CH2CH3• Why? Because when looking at the structural formula, you are looking forthe groups of CH’s. There are 3 groups of CH’s, the first and last C have 3H’s surrounding them (CH3) and the middle C, since it already has a bondbetween the other 2 carbons is only able to hold 2 H’s (CH2).• Line formula=• Why? Because there are three C’s which equals to 3 points
  16. 16. 4 carbons(Butane)• When you have 4 carbons…..• The structural formula=• The molecular formula=C4H10• Why? Because there are 4 individuals C’s and 10 individuals H’s• The condensed formula=CH3CH2CH2CH3• Why? The first and last group have 3 H’s surrounding the C’s hence the CH3and the 2 middle C’s are bonded to the C’s on either side only giving roomto bond with 2 H’s hence the CH2• Line formula=• Why? Because there are 4 carbons thus 4 points
  17. 17. Questions• Name the following hydrocarbons:• 1) Answer: 3-methylhexane• 2) Answer: 3-methlyheptane• 3) Answer: 2-methylhexane• 4) Answer: 3,4-dimethylheptane
  18. 18. Questions• Draw the following:• 1) 4-proplynonane 3) 3-ethylheptane• 2) 4-ethyl-2-methyloctane 4) 3,4-diethylhexane
  19. 19. Alkanes in everyday life• 1) commercial fuels (propane)• 2) Components of gasoline (pentane)• 3) Natural gas (methane)• 4) In plant hormones• 5) Paraffin wax
  20. 20. Isomers• Compounds which have the same molecular formula but a differentarrangement of atoms• Each structural isomer has a set of chemical and physical propertieswhich differ form those of other isomers with the same chemicalformula• Ex) CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 or• Ex) CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 or
  21. 21. Isomer questions• 1) Write the condensed structure and name for the three structuralisomers having the molecular formula C5H12.• Answers:• pentane: CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 methylbutane:• Dimethylpropane:• 2) Write the condensed structure and name for the two structural isomersthat involve a single methyl group attached to hexane.• Answers:• 2-methylhexane:• 3-methylhexane:
  22. 22. Cyclo Alkane• They are hydrocarbon chains that are connected in a ‘head to tail’format• The general formula=CnH2n• So if you have C5, how many H’s would you have• Plug in the 5 for the n, and times it by 2• Answer=H10
  23. 23. Naming• Ex)• Cyclopropane• Why? Since there is no branches, the cyclo is first in the name. In the picture there are 3carbons=prop as well since this group is part of the alkane group the ending is ‘ane’• Ex)• Methlycyclotetrane• Note: when there is an attachment on a cyclo single bond: you do not use numbers toindicate its position.• Why? Because since there is a branch (and it only has 1 carbon making it methyl) it isplaced at the beginning of the name. To follow is cyclo and lastly since there are 4carbons in the main chain it equals to tetra and the ending would be ‘ane’
  24. 24. Cyclopropane• When you have cyclopropane…..• The structural formula=• The molecular formula=C3H6• The condensed formula=CH2CH2CH2• The line formula=
  25. 25. Cyclobutane• When you have cyclobutane…..• The structural formula:• The molecular formula=C4H8• The condensed formula=CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2• The line formula=
  26. 26. Questions• Name the following• 1) Answer: methylcyclopropane• 2) Answer: ethylcyclohexane• Draw the following• 1) propylcyclopropane 2)methylcyclohexane
  27. 27. Everyday use• 1) pharmaceutical drugs• 2) important components of food
  28. 28. Alkyl halides(halo groups)• Cholorpropyl• The structural formula:• The molecular formula: C3H7Cl• The condensed formula: CH3-CH2-CH2-Cl• Line formula:
  29. 29. Halo groups• Fluoroethyl• The structural formula:• Molecular formula:C2H4F• Condensed formula: CH3CH2F• Line formula:
  30. 30. Drawing Halo• Chloroethane= CH3-CH2-Cl• Why there are 2 carbons=ethane and there is only 1 chloro• Fluorocyclopentane=• Why since the structure is closed it is a cyclo, the F=fluro and there are 5carbons=pentane
  31. 31. Naming Halo groups• CH3-Cl=Chloromethane• Why? Because one carbon=methane and one Halo alkyl (Cl)=Choloro• 2-fluoropropane• Why? 3 carbons=propane, 1 F=fluoro and the alkyl is on the 2nd carbon• 2-bromo-1,4-diiodobutane• Why? Carbons=butane, 2 groups of I=diiodo, 1 group of Br=bromo and theAlkyls are on the 1st, 2nd and 4th carbon. Remember when writing the nameyou want to go in alphabetical order
  32. 32. Questions• Draw the following• 1) 1,2-dichloroehtane Answer: Cl-CH2-CH2-Cl• 2) 1-iodo-4-methylpentane Answer:• Name the following• 1) Answer: 1,3,5-tribromocyclohexane• 2) Answer: 1,1-dichloro-2-fluoroethane
  33. 33. Everyday uses• Chloroform: an anesthetic• Chlorofluorocarbons: used in refrigerators
  34. 34. Alkenes• An alkene is an organic compound containing a carbon-carbondouble bond• Their general formula=CnH2n• Alkenes are known as unsaturated hydrocarbons because the haveless hydrogen atoms equivalent to alkanes. On contrast, alkanes aresaturated because they hold the max number of hydrogens
  35. 35. Naming• CH3-CH=CH-CH2-CH2-CH3=2-hexene• Why? There are 6 carbons=hexa, drop the a and add ene. The 2 representwhich carbon the double bond starts from• 2-methyl-1-butene• Why? There are 4 carbons=butene. The 1 represents where the doublebond starts from. The methyl is the branch and the 2 represents whichcarbon the branch is off of• 3,3-dimethyl-1-cyclopentene• Why? The 3,3 represents which carbon the branch is offo of, since there are 2 methyls (di methyl) off the samef carbon that’s why there is 3,3. The 1 represents wherethe double bond begins and the structure is closed so that’s why there isthe cyclo. Lastly since there are 5 carbons=pentene•
  36. 36. Drawing• 2-butene= CH3-CH=CH-CH3• Why? There are 4 carbons= butene, and the 2 represents where the doublebond begins• 3-methly-3-hexeneWhy? The 3 represents where the branch is and since thebran branch only has 1 carbon=methyl. The 3 in front of thehexene represents where the double bond begins and since there are 6carbons=hexene2,2-dibromo-3-iodo-4-propyl-1-hexeneWhy? There are 2 bromo’s(dibromo) on the2nd carbon d second carbon which is why it is 2,2. thereis an iodo on the 3rd carbon, a propyl on the 4th carbon and 1 represents thedouble bond starting at the 1st carbon. Since there 6 carbons=hexene
  37. 37. Questions• Draw the following:• 1) 3-hexene: CH3-CH2-CH=CH-CH2CH3• 2) 3,6-dimethyl-1-cyclohexene:• 3) 3,3-dimethyl-1-pentene
  38. 38. Questions• Name the following:• 1) CH3-CH=CH-CH3 Answer: 2-butene• 2) Answer: 1,3,4-trimethyl-1-cyclobutene• 3) Answer: 3-methyl-3-hexene
  39. 39. Everyday uses• Used to artificially ripen fruit• Extremely important in the manufacturing of plastics
  40. 40. Alkynes• Are organic compounds that contain a triple bond• Their general formula=CnH2n-2• Alkynes are known as unsaturated hydrocarbons because the haveless hydrogen atoms equivalent to alkanes. On contrast, alkanes aresaturated because they hold the max number of hydrogens
  41. 41. Naming• When naming the ending of the prefix becomes “yne”• Ex) 2-butyne• Why? There are 4 carbons=butyne and thetriple bond begins on the 2nd carbonEx) 5,6-dimethyl-1-cyclooctyneWhy? The 5, 6 represent the carbon that the branches are on. Andsince there are 2 methyls=dimethyl. The 1 represents on what carbonthe triple bond starts from, the cyclo=it’s a closed structure andthere are 8 carbons=octyne
  42. 42. Naming•• 1,3,4-tribromo-2-chloro-3-fluoro-2-iodo-4-propyl-3-hexene• Why? On the 1st, 3rd and 4th carbon there are bromo (3=tribromo). On the2nd carbon there is a chloro and an iodo hence the 2 in front of chloro andiodo. On the 3rd carbon there is a fluoro branch. On the 4th branch there isalso a chain of 3 carbons=proply. The 3 represents the triple bond startingfrom the 3rd carbon. And since there is 6 carbons=hexene.
  43. 43. Drawing• 1-heptyne• Why? The 1 represents where the triple bond starts and since there are 7carbons=heptyne• Cyclopropyne• Why? Since it’s a closed structure it has the cyclo in the name and sincethere are 3 carbons=propyne• 3,6-diethyl-2-methyl-4-octyne• Why? Remember when naming you want to go in alphabetical order. The3, 6 represent the carbons where the branch ethyl in on. Since there are 2branches of ethyls=diethyls. Next the 2 represents the carbon where themethyl is on. The 4 represents where the triple bond starts from andsince there are 8 carbons=octyne
  44. 44. Questions• Name the following:• 1) Answer: 3-methyl-4-octyne• 2) Answer: 3-hexyne• 3) Answer:1,1-dibromo-2,2-difluoro-1-propyne
  45. 45. Questions(draw the following)1)2-methyl-1-pentyne• 2)2,2-diethyl-3-pentyne• 3)Cyclooctyne
  46. 46. Everyday uses• Used for metal cutting and wielding• Can be used as an illuminant
  47. 47. alcohols• Organic compounds that contain –OH• When naming:• Make sure the branch number of the alcohol is before the parent chain(the longest carbon chain) name• Number the branch carbons from the lowest carbon position• The ending of the branch name drops the ‘e’ and an ‘ol’ is added
  48. 48. Functional groups• A specific group of atoms which exists in molecules and gives amolecule an ability to react in a specific manner or giver it specialproperties• Why is alcohol is there own functional group? Because they consistof OH’s where as hydrocarbons consist of H’s and C’s.
  49. 49. Naming alcohols• CH3-OH= methanol• Why? 1 carbon=methane but drop the e and add ol• 2-butanol• Why? 4 carbons=butane but drop the e and add ol. And the 2 representswhat carbon the branch is on
  50. 50. Drawing alcohols• 4,4,4-trifluoro-2-butanol• Why? It’s on the 4th carbon because you cannot make the carbon 1 whenit’s has a fluoro surrounding it. The 3 F’s give the tri in front of the fluoro. 4carbons= butane drop the e and add ol and the 2 represents the OH on the2nd carbon.• 2-propanol• Why? 3 carbons=propane, drop the e and add ol and the 2 represents theOH on the second carbon
  51. 51. Questions• Name the following:• 3-methyl-1-butane• 2-methyl-2-propanol
  52. 52. Questions• Draw the following:
  53. 53. Everyday uses of alcohols• Ethanol: it is the least toxic of the alcohols and is used in perfumesto stop the plant and animal extracts from going off• Cleaners: gets rid of bacteria and oil, can also be used as mouthwash• Antiseptic: is safer on skin because it works at lower levels ofconcentration• Sedative: preparing patients for surgery
  54. 54. Other functional groups• Aldehydes: an organic compound containing C=O• Group at the end of a hydrocarbon chain• Ex) =methanal• Why? One carbon=methane, and c=o group at end gives ‘al’ ending so youhave to drop the e to add it• Ex) =2-methylpentanal• Why? Five carbons=pentane (drop the e), the CHO gives ‘al’ ending, and thebranch is on the 2nd carbon (1 branch carbon=methyl).• Real life uses• Manufacture of resins, dyes and organic acids• Formaldehyde can be used to preserve dead animals
  55. 55. Other functional groups• Ketones: an organic compound containing C=O• Grouped at any position other than at the end of a hydrocarbon chain• Ex) propanone• Why? 3carbons=propane(drop the e) and the C=O gives ‘one’ ending• Ex) cyclohexanone• Why? 6 carbons=hexane(drop the e), the C=O gives ‘one’ ending and sincethe structure is head to tail (closed) it’s a cyclo• Real life uses• Acetone: used to remove nail polish• Butanone: added to commercial bottles of cleaning alcohol so it makes itundrinkable and seller can avoid it being taxed as an alcoholic beverage
  56. 56. Other Functional Groups• Ethers: a compound in which an oxygen joins 2 hydrocarbons• Ex) ethoxyethane• Why? Before the oxygen there are 2 carbons=eth, oxygen is in themiddle=oxy and after the oxygen there are 2 carbons=ethane• Ex) 1-methoxy-3,3-dimethylbutane• Why? 4 carbons=butane, branches on 3rd carbon (since there is 2 on thesame it becomes 3,3) also because there are 2 methyl branches it becomesdimethyl. Oxygen-I carbon =meth(oxy) because its on the first carbon• Everday uses• Sedative: main ingerdient in morphines• Industrial purposes: ethoxyehtane is quite volatie and can be used as astarted fluid for diseasel engines and gasoline enginges in cold weather
  57. 57. Other Functional Groups• Amines: organic compound that contains an NH2 group• Ex) CH3-CH2-NH2=aminoethane• Why? 2 carbons=ethane and 1 NH2=amino• Ex) NH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-NH2=1,4-diaminobutane• Why? 4 carbons=butane, the branches of NH2 are on the 1st and 4th carbon,and since there are two NH2 it becomes diamino.• Everyday uses• For solubilizing herbicides• Fabric softeners
  58. 58. Other Functional Groups• Amides: organic comppounds that contain CONH2(pic)• Ex) CH3-CONH2= ethanamide• Why 2 carbons-ehtane drop the e and add –amide since there is only 1CONH2• Ex) 3,3-dimethylbutanamide• Why 4 carbons=butane drop the e and add –amid since there is only 1CONH2. Since there are 2 methyl on the 3rd carbon, it becomes dimethyland that’s why there 3,3 since there are 2 methyls on the 3rd carbon.• Everyday uses:• Polyacryamide: treatment of drinking and sewage water• Polyacryamide: used in paper industry since it is used as a binder andrententions aids for fibers. It also retains the coour pigmnet on the paper
  59. 59. Other Functional groups• Carboxylic acid: organic acids are organic compounds that containCOOH• Ex) CH3-COOH ethanoic acid• Why 2 carbons=ethane drop the e and add –oic acid since there is only 1COOH• Ex) 2-aminopropanoic acid• Why 3 carbons=propane drop the e and add –oic acid since there is only 1COOH. 1 NH2=amino and the amino is on the 2nd carbon.• Note: amino acids are carboxylic acid with an amino on 2nd carbon (NH2)• Everyday uses• Acetic acid: found in vinegar• Methanoic acid: found in many insect stings
  60. 60. • WE HOPE YOU KIDS ACTUALLY LEARNT SOMETHING!!!! • THANK YOU

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