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# Evolution of computer

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### Evolution of computer

1. 1. The Early Years  Chinese Abacus  The first counting device was the abacus, originally from Asia. It worked on a place-value notion meaning that the place of a bead or rock on the apparatus determined how much it was worth. Roman Abacus Russian Abacus
2. 2. Napier's bones (1600s)   Napier's bones is a manually-operated calculating device created by John Napier of Merchiston for calculation of products and quotients of numbers.
3. 3. Pascaline (1642)   Blaise Pascal invented the mechanical calculator called Pascaline. This calculating machine could add and subtract two numbers directly and multiply and divide by repetition. Pascaline signed by Pascal
4. 4. Difference Engine (1812)   Charles P. Babbage, the "father of the computer", designed a machine, the difference engine which would be steampowered, fully automatic and commanded by a fixed instruction program.
5. 5. Ada Lovelace(1840s)   Ada Lovelace, world's first computer programmer, provided the first algorithm intended to be processed by Charles Babbage's early mechanical general-purpose computer, the Analytical Engine.  She suggested that a binary system should be used for storage rather than a decimal system. Analytical Engine
6. 6. Boolean logic(1850s)   George Boole developed Boolean logic which would later be used in the design of computer circuitry. Venn diagrams for conjunction, disjunction, and complement.
7. 7. Hollerith’s Tabulator(1890s)   Dr. Herman Hollerith introduced the first electromechanical, punchedcard data-processing machine which was used to compile information for the 1890 U.S. census. Hollerith's tabulator became so successful that he started his own business to market it. His company would eventually become International Business Machines (IBM). Hollerith card puncher used by the United States Census Bureau
8. 8. Vacuum Tube(1906)   The vacuum tube is invented by American physicist Lee De Forest. Triode vacuum tube
9. 9. Turing Machine(1943)   British mathematician Alan Turing developed a hypothetical device, the Turing machine which would be designed to perform logical operation and could read and write. Model of Turing Machine
10. 10. Harvard Mark I   Howard Aiken, in collaboration with engineers from IBM, constructed a large automatic digital sequence-controlled computer called the Harvard Mark I. This computer could handle all four arithmetic operations, and had special built-in programs for logarithms and trigonometric functions.
11. 11. ENIAC   The giant ENIAC (Electrical Numerical Integrator and Calculator) machine was developed by John W. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert, Jr. at the University of Pennsylvania. It used 18, 000 vacuums, punch-card input, weighed thirty tons and occupied a thirty-by-fifty-foot space.
12. 12. First Generation(1951-1959) • • • 1951: Mauchly and Eckert built the UNIVAC I, the first computer designed and sold commercially, specifically for business data-processing applications. 1950s : Dr. Grace Murray Hopper developed the UNIVAC I compiler. 1957 : The programming language FORTRAN (Formula Translator) was designed by John Backus, an IBM engineer. Powerpoint Templates Page 13
13. 13. Integrated Circuit • Jack St. Clair Kilby and Robert Noyce of Texas Instruments manufactured the first integrated circuit, or chip, which is a collection of tiny little transistors. First IC First transistor Powerpoint Templates Page 14
14. 14. Second Generation (1959-1965) • • 1960s : Gene Amdahl designed the IBM System/360 series of mainframe (G) computers, the first general-purpose digital computers to use integrated circuits. 1961: Dr. Hopper was instrumental in developing the COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) programming language. Powerpoint Templates Page 15
15. 15. Cont… • • 1963 : Ken Olsen, founder of DEC, produced the PDP-I, the first minicomputer (G). 1965 : BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) programming language developed by Dr. Thomas Kurtz and Dr. John Kemeny. Powerpoint Templates Page 16
16. 16. • • • 1969 : The Internet is started. 1970 : Dr. Ted Hoff developed the famous Intel 4004 microprocessor (G) chip. 1971 : Intel released the first microprocessor, a specialized integrated circuit which was able to process four bits of data at a time. It also included its own arithmetic logic unit. PASCAL, a structured programming language, was developed by Niklaus Wirth. Powerpoint Templates Page 17
17. 17. Fourth Generation (1971-Present) • 1975 : Ed Roberts, the "father of the microcomputer" designed the first microcomputer, the Altair 8800, which was produced by Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS). The same year, two young hackers, William Gates and Paul Allen approached MITS and promised to deliver a BASIC compiler. So they did and from the sale, Microsoft was born. Click here to download this powerpoint template : Human Computers Network Free Powerpoint Template For more : Powerpoint Backgrounds Page 18
18. 18. Cont… • • 1976 : Cray developed the Cray-I supercomputer (G). Apple Computer, Inc was founded by Steven Jobs and Stephen Wozniak. 1977 : Jobs and Wozniak designed and built the first Apple II microcomputer. Click here to download this powerpoint template : Human Computers Network Free Powerpoint Template For more : Powerpoint Backgrounds Page 19
19. 19. Cont… • • 1970 : 1980: IBM offers Bill Gates the opportunity to develop the operating system for its new IBM personal computer. Microsoft has achieved tremendous growth and success today due to the development of MS-DOS. Apple III was also released. 1981 : The IBM PC was introduced with a 16-bit microprocessor. Click here to download this powerpoint template : Human Computers Network Free Powerpoint Template For more : Powerpoint Backgrounds Page 20
20. 20. Cont… • • 1984 : Apple introduced the Macintosh computer, which incorporated a unique graphical interface, making it easy to use. The same year, IBM released the 286-AT. 1986 : Compaq released the DeskPro 386 computer, the first to use the 80036 microprocessor. Click here to download this powerpoint template : Human Computers Network Free Powerpoint Template For more : Powerpoint Backgrounds Page 21
21. 21. Cont… • • • 1987 : IBM announced the OS/2 operating-system technology. 1988 : A nondestructive worm was introduced into the Internet network bringing thousands of computers to a halt. 1989 : The Intel 486 became the world's first 1,000,000 transistor microprocessor. Intel 486 Click here to download this powerpoint template : Human Computers Network Free Powerpoint Template For more : Powerpoint Backgrounds Page 22
22. 22. Cont… • 1993s: The Energy Star program, endorsed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), encouraged manufacturers to build computer equipment that met power consumption guidelines. When guidelines are met, equipment displays the Energy Star logo. The same year, Several companies introduced computer systems using the Pentium microprocessor from Intel that contains 3.1 million transistors and is able to perform 112 million instructions per second (MIPS). Click here to download this powerpoint template : Human Computers Network Free Powerpoint Template For more : Powerpoint Backgrounds Page 23
23. 23. Fifth Generation(PresentBeyond) • • • • Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today. The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality. Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology will radically change the face of computers in years to come. The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization. Powerpoint Templates Page 24
24. 24. * Cloud computing, or something being in the cloud, is an expression used to describe a variety of different types of computing concepts that involve a large number of computers connected through a real-time communication network such as the Internet. * Cloud providers claim that computing costs reduce. * Device and location independence enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they use. * Virtualization technology allows sharing of servers and storage devices and increased utilization. *
25. 25.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v1uyQZ Ng2vE&feature=c4-overviewvl&list=PLyR4fvjGTgA65BkrjbVHAWT9IuPIE xw5_