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Staircases gnk(1)

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Types of Staircases

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Staircases gnk(1)

  1. 1. STAIRCASES<br />G.NAGESH KUMAR <br />Sr. Asst. Prof.<br />
  2. 2. Stairs are the medium through which a person can travel from one horizontal level to another horizontal level although it connects two different horizontal levels.<br />STAIRS<br />
  3. 3. STAIRCASE: A stair is a set of steps leading from one floor to the other. It is provided to afford the means of ascent and descent between various floors of the building. The room or enclosure of the building, in which the stair is located, is known as staircase.The opening or space occupied by the stair is known as a stairway. In a domestic building the stairs should be centrally located to provide easy access to all rooms. In public buildings, stairs should be located near the entrance. Stairs may be constructed by timber, bricks, stone, steel or reinforced cement concrete. <br />
  4. 4. Staircases provide access and communication between floors in multi-storey buildings, and are a path by which fire can spread from one floor to another. <br />Staircase, therefore, must be enclosed by fire resisting walls, floors, ceiling and doors. It is desirable that the linings to the walls and the ceilings are non- combustible and of low flame spread. <br />Another important aspect in the design of stairs is the strength aspect. It must be designed to carry certain loads, which are similar to those used for the design of floor.<br />
  5. 5. STAIRS AND ITS TYPES<br /><ul><li>Single flight straight stairs
  6. 6. Double flight straight stairs
  7. 7. Quarter turn newel
  8. 8. Half turn newel
  9. 9. Open well stairs
  10. 10. Dog legged stairs
  11. 11. Bifurcated stairs
  12. 12. Circular stairs
  13. 13. Spiral stairs
  14. 14. Geometrical stairs</li></li></ul><li>DOUBLE FLIGHT STRAIGHT STAIRS<br />Here the stairs posses two landings while running straight in the complete flight. <br />QUARTER TURN NEWEL<br />In quarter turn newel the stairs run straight in a flight and after reaching the landing the stairs it turns to either left or right at ninety degree and its runs again till it reaches the consecutive horizontal level.<br />
  15. 15. Types of Stairs<br />Quarter Turn<br />
  16. 16. HALF TURN NEWEL<br />In half turn newel stairs the stairs runs straight and after reaching the landing it turns to left or right and then climbs up to next two to three steps and reaches a landing and these steps again turns in the direction from where the user was approaching reaching finally to the consecutive horizontal level.<br />OPEN WELL STAIRS <br />These are like normal doglegged stairs but the only difference is that after reaching the landing the stairs ends up with a railing instead of the wall.<br />.<br />
  17. 17. Stair Types<br />
  18. 18. DOG LEGGED STAIRS<br />Dog legged stairs are the stairs in which the user climbs up to a flight turns at one eighty degree and then climb stairs in opposite direction<br />BIFURCATED STAIRS<br />In bifurcated stairs the stairs runs at a flight an as it reaches the landing the stairs runs from left and right side reaching the same horizontal level these stairs are provided generally in atrium of a building.<br />
  19. 19.
  20. 20.
  21. 21. CIRCULAR STAIRS<br />The stairs made in in a circular form are known as the circular staircase.<br />
  22. 22. SPIRAL STAIRSThose stairs which are in spiral form is known as spiral staircase.<br />Spiral<br />
  23. 23. GEOMETRIC STAIRS<br />Geometric<br />
  24. 24.
  25. 25. The technical terms associated with the design and constructions of stairs are:TREAD: it is the upper horizontal portion of a step upon which the foot is placed while ascending or descending.RISER: it is the vertical portion of a step providing a support to the tread. FLIGHT: this is defined as an unbroken series of steps between landings.LANDING: it is the level platform at the top or bottom of a flight between the floors. A landing facilitates change of direction and provides an opportunity for taking rest during the use of the stair. <br />
  26. 26. 2 Flights<br />1 Flight<br />Definition – Flights Between Landings<br />Dogleg Closed Riser<br />Straight Open Riser<br />
  27. 27. Half Space Landing<br /><ul><li>Change stair direction 180⁰
  28. 28. Landing width = width of stair (min 750mm)
  29. 29. Used in Dogleg Stairs</li></li></ul><li>Quarter Space Landing<br /><ul><li>Change Stair Direction 90⁰
  30. 30. Landing Width & Length = Stair Width
  31. 31. Forms Quarter Turn Stair (min 750mm)</li></li></ul><li>Intermediate Landing<br /><ul><li>Allows the Stair to continue in same direction
  32. 32. Required where more than 18 Risers
  33. 33. May be used to give a rest
  34. 34. Width = Stair Width
  35. 35. Length = Stair Width or greater</li></li></ul><li>Quarter Space Landing<br />
  36. 36. RISE: it is the vertical distance between two successive tread faces.GOING: it is the horizontal distance between two successive riser faces. STRINGS AND STRINGERS: these are the slopping members which support the steps in a stair. They run along the slope of the stair.NEWEL POST: newel post is a vertical member which is placed at the ends of flights to connect the ends of strings and hand rail.<br />
  37. 37. BALUSTER: it is vertical member of wood or metal, supporting the hand rail.HAND RAIL: it is the surrounded or moulded member of wood or metal following generally the contour of the nosing line, and fixed on the top of balusters.<br />
  38. 38. STAIRS OF DIFFERENT MATERIALS<br />TIMBER STAIRS: these stairs are light in weight and easy to construct, but they have very poor fire resistance. They are used only for small rise residential buildings. Sometimes, fire resisting hard wood of proper thickness may be used.<br />STONE STAIRS: these are widely used at places where ashlar stone is readily available. Stone stairs are quite strong and rigid, though they are very heavy. Stone used for construction of stairs should be hard, strong and resistant to wear. The simplest form of stone stairs is those supported on both the ends, though an open well stair case can also be built.<br />BRICK STAIRS: these are not very common, except at the entrance. However, brick stairs of single straight flight are often made in village houses. The stairs consist of either solid wall, or also, arched openings may be left for obtaining storage space.<br />
  39. 39. METAL STAIRS: stairs of mild steel or cast iron are used only as emergency stairs. They are not common in residential and public buildings, though they are strong and fire resistant. These are commonly used in factories, godowns, workshops, etc.<br />R.C.C: these are the stairs widely used for residential, public and industrial buildings. They are strong, hard wearing and fire resisting. These are usually cast- in – situ and a wide variety of finishes can be used on these.<br />
  40. 40. Timber Stairs<br />
  41. 41. Metal Stairs<br />
  42. 42. Concrete Stairs<br />
  43. 43. Stone Stairs<br />
  44. 44. Glass Stair<br />
  45. 45. Combination of Materials<br />
  46. 46. Parts of Stairs<br />
  47. 47. Parts of Stairs<br />
  48. 48. Parts of Stairs<br />
  49. 49. Parts of Stairs<br />
  50. 50. Parts of Stairs<br />
  51. 51. Parts of Stairs<br />
  52. 52. Parts of Stairs<br />
  53. 53. Parts of Stairs<br />
  54. 54. Parts of Stairs<br />
  55. 55. Parts of Stairs<br />
  56. 56. Parts of Stairs<br />
  57. 57. Winders<br />Treads that are tapered<br />Must have same rise as the flights<br />Maximum of 3 treads per quarter turn<br />Must be same width at centre on widths < 1m<br />If stair > 1m same width 400mm from inside handrail<br />
  58. 58. Winders<br />
  59. 59. MODELS OF STAIRS<br />
  60. 60.
  61. 61. Stair Types<br />
  62. 62. Stair Types<br />Double Closed Stair<br />
  63. 63. Stair Types<br />
  64. 64. Stair Types<br />
  65. 65. Double Open Sided Stairs <br />
  66. 66. In this case one side is closed while the other is open<br />
  67. 67. The Bracketed Stairs refers to decoration & Cut String<br />Also Known as Cut String<br />
  68. 68. Quarter Turn StairOpen Newel Stair<br />
  69. 69. Spine String Stair<br />
  70. 70.
  71. 71.
  72. 72. GEOMETRICAL STAIRS<br />
  73. 73.
  74. 74.
  75. 75.
  76. 76.
  77. 77. Definitions<br />
  78. 78. Rise & Going must stay the same within flight<br />
  79. 79.
  80. 80. THANK YOU <br />
  81. 81. Quarter Turn Stair<br />
  82. 82.
  83. 83. BCA Requirements<br />
  84. 84. Stair Requirements<br />
  85. 85. Calculate StairNo Restriction on Going <br />Best Going <br />2R + G Between 550 to 700<br />Midpoint = 625<br />Determine Total Rise <br />= 2700<br />Say 175mm<br /> Select suitable Rise <br />= 2700/175 = 15.429 <br /> Divide Total Rise by Rise<br />Either 15 or 16 Risers = 2700/15 = 180mm <br /> 2700/16 = 168.75mm<br /> Use 180mm is closer to 175mm<br />
  86. 86. Determine Best Going<br />BCA states that going must be within the range<br />2 x Rise (R) + Going(G) = 550 to 700 <br />We can assume that the best answer is the Midpoint (550 + 700)/2 = 625<br />Best Going 2R + G = 625<br />Best Going G = 625 – 2R<br />
  87. 87. Calculate StairNo Restriction on Going <br />Best Going <br />2R + G Between 550 to 700<br />Midpoint = 625<br />Determine Total Rise <br />= 2700<br />Say 175mm<br /> Select suitable Rise <br />= 2700/175 = 15.429 <br /> Divide Total Rise by Rise<br />Either 15 or 16 Risers = 2700/15 = 180mm (Use)<br /> 2700/16 = 168.75mm<br />Determine Best Going 2R + G = 625<br /> G = 625 – 2R<br />Best Going for180 Riser 265 = 625 – 2 x 180<br />Either<br />Rise 180<br />Going 265 <br />
  88. 88. Calculate StairNo Restriction on Going <br />Use<br />Rise 180<br />Going 265 <br />15 Risers<br />14 Goings <br />
  89. 89. Calculate StairRestriction on Going <br />Best Going <br />2R + G Between 550 to 700<br />Midpoint = 625<br />Preferred Rise 175mm<br />Divide Total Rise by Rise = 2700/175 = 15.429 <br />Either 15 or 16 Risers = 2700/15 = 180mm<br /> 2700/16 = 168.75<br />Use 180mm<br />Determine Best Going<br />3800/14 = 271.43 + 2 x 180 = 631. 43 (Closest)<br />3800/15 = 253.33 + 2 x 168.75 = 591<br />15 Risers<br />14 Goings <br />Use<br />Rise 180<br />Going 271.43 <br />
  90. 90. Calculate Stair Flight with Quarter Turn<br />Stair width 900mm<br />Once an Intermediate Landing is introduced the top flight becomes constrained <br />
  91. 91. Calculate Stair Flight with Quarter Turn<br />Best Going <br />2R + G Between 550 to 700<br />Midpoint = 625<br />G = 625 – 2R<br />Stair width 900mm<br />Preferred Rise = 165mm<br />2700/165 = 16 .364<br />16 2700/16= 168.75 (3.75 Diff)<br />2700/17= 158.824 (6.176 Diff)<br />Use Rise = 168.75<br />Best Going = 625 – 2R<br /> = 625 – 2 x 168.75<br /> = 287.5<br />1800/287.5 = 6.261<br />6 1800/6 = 300 (12.5 Diff)<br />1800/7 = 257.143 (30.357 Diff)<br />Rise = 168.364<br />Going = 300<br />
  92. 92. Calculate Stair Flight with Quarter Turn<br />Best Going <br />2R + G Between 550 to 700<br />Midpoint = 625<br />G = 625 – 2R<br />Stair width 900mm<br />Preferred Rise = 165mm<br />2700/165 = 16 .364<br />16 2700/16= 168.75 (3.75 Diff)<br />2700/17= 158.824 (6.176 Diff)<br />Use Rise = 168.75<br />Best Going = 625 – 2R<br /> = 625 – 2 x 168.75<br /> = 287.5<br />1800/287.5 = 6.261<br />6 1800/6 = 300 (12.5 Diff)<br />1800/7 = 257.143 (30.357 Diff)<br />Rise = 168.364<br />Going = 300<br />
  93. 93. Calculate StairConstrained Flight with Quarter Turn<br />Best Going <br />2R + G Between 550 to 700<br />Midpoint = 625<br />625- 2 x 180 = 265<br />Stair width 900mm<br />From Previous we know<br />15 Risers at 180<br />Length of 1st Flight = 2700 - 900<br />Divide by Best Going = 1800/265<br /> = 6.79<br />Going Either 1800 /6 = 300mm<br /> 1800/7 = 257mm<br />257.14 is Closest to 265 <br />
  94. 94. Calculate StairConstrained Flight with Half Space Landing<br />Preferred Riser 170mm<br />3600/170 = 21.176<br />21 3600/21 = 171.429<br />3600/22 = 163.636<br />Use 171.429mm<br />Best Going = 625 – 2R<br /> = 625 – 2 x 171.429<br /> = 282.142<br />Length of 1st Flight = 4050 – 900<br /> = 3150<br />Divide by Best Going = 3150/282.142<br /> = 11.16<br />11 3150/11 = 286.364<br />- 3150/12 = 262.500<br />Use 286.364<br />Stair width 900mm<br />
  95. 95. Calculate StairConstrained Flight with Half Space Landing<br />Preferred Riser 170mm<br />Rise 171.429mm<br />Going 286.364<br />Stair width 900mm<br />
  96. 96. Calculate StairConstrained Flight with Quarter Turn Winders<br />Preferred Riser 170mm<br />4100/170 = 24.118<br />24 4100/24 = 170.833<br />25 4100/24 = 164<br />Use Rise 170.833<br />Best Going<br />625 – 2R = BG<br />625 – 2 x 170.833 = 283.334<br />2650/ 283.334 = 9.353<br />2650/9 = 294.444 (USE)<br />2650/10 = 265<br />Rise 170.833<br />Going 268.75<br />Stair width 900mm<br />
  97. 97. Calculate StairConstrained Flight with Quarter Turn Winders<br />Preferred Riser 170mm<br />4100/170 = 24.118<br />24 4100/24 = 170.833<br />25 4100/24 = 164<br />Use Rise 170.833<br />Best Going<br />625 – 2R = BG<br />625 – 2 x 170.833 = 283.334<br />2650/ 283.334 = 9.353<br />2650/9 = 294.444 (USE)<br />2650/10 = 265<br />Rise 170.833<br />Going 294.444<br />Stair width 900mm<br />
  98. 98. Calculate StairConstrained Flight with Half Space Landing<br />Stair width 950mm<br />Preferred Riser 170mm<br />3400/170 = 20<br />3400/20 = 170 Rise<br />Best Going = 625 – 2R<br /> = 625 – 2 x 170<br /> = 285<br />2400/285 = 8.421<br />8 2400/8 = 300 (15 Diff)<br />2400/9 = 266.667 (18.3 Diff)<br />Rise 170<br />Going 300<br />
  99. 99. Calculate StairConstrained Flight with Half Space Landing<br />Stair width 950mm<br />Preferred Riser 170mm<br />3400/170 = 20<br />3400/20 = 170 Rise<br />Best Going = 625 – 2R<br /> = 625 – 2 x 170<br /> = 285<br />2400/285 = 8.421<br />8 2400/8 = 300 (15 Diff)<br />2400/9 = 266.667 (18.3 Diff)<br />Rise 170<br />Going 300<br />With all examples either answer will comply and you should consult with your client and/or Architect<br />
  100. 100. Determine Steel Square Mathematically<br />40mm Margin<br />
  101. 101. Determine Steel Square Mathematically<br />
  102. 102. Determine Steel Square Mathematically<br />Stair Pitch = 29.54⁰<br />Zoom In<br />
  103. 103. Determine Steel Square Mathematically<br />Stair Pitch = 29.54⁰<br />Margin Line<br />
  104. 104. Determine Steel Square Mathematically<br />This angle must be the same Stair Pitch = 29.54⁰<br />
  105. 105. Determine Steel Square Mathematically<br />This angle must be the same Stair Pitch = 29.54⁰<br />Sin Ѳ = Adjacent / Hypotenuse<br /> = 40 ÷ X<br />X = 40 ÷ Sin 29.54<br />X = 81.131<br />
  106. 106. Determine Steel Square Mathematically<br />This angle must be the same Stair Pitch = 29.54⁰<br />Sin Ѳ = Adjacent / Hypotenuse<br /> = 40 ÷ X<br />X = 40 ÷ Sin 29.54<br />X = 81.13<br />
  107. 107. Determine Steel Square Mathematically<br />Set Out For Steel Square Going<br />Going + Margin ÷ Sin Ѳ<br />= 300 + 40 ÷ Sin 29.54⁰<br />= 381.13mm<br />Ѳ<br />
  108. 108. Determine Steel Square Mathematically<br />Set Out For Steel Square Rise<br />Ѳ<br />
  109. 109. Determine Steel Square Mathematically<br />Set Out For Steel Square Rise<br />This Angle must = 90 - 29.54<br />Ѳ<br />
  110. 110. Determine Steel Square Mathematically<br />Set Out For Steel Square Rise<br />This Angle must = 90 - 29.54<br />This Angle must = 29.54⁰<br />Y = 40 ÷ Cos 29.54⁰<br />Y = 45.9763<br />Ѳ<br />
  111. 111. Determine Steel Square Mathematically<br />Set Out For Steel Square Rise<br />This Angle must = 90 - 29.54<br />This Angle must = 29.54⁰<br />Y = 40 ÷ Cos 29.54⁰<br />Y = 45.9763<br />Ѳ<br />
  112. 112. Determine Steel Square Mathematically<br />Set Out For Steel Square Rise<br />Rise + Margin ÷ Sin Ѳ<br />= 170 + 40 ÷ Sin 29.54⁰<br />= 170 + 45.98<br />= 215.98<br />Ѳ<br />

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