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Proposal Presentation BSRS2015 - Nuru

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Proposal Presentation BSRS2015 - Nuru

  1. 1. The Effect of Reforming Human Resource Management on Tanzanian Public Sector Governance By : Nuru Kalufya University of DSM Business School Tanzania
  2. 2. Introduction  Poor functioning public sector institutions and weak governance in many developing countries (WB, 2000)  Public sector management reforms to improve the state of the public sector governance (Ashour, 2004; Chalu, 2014; Haque and Aziz, 1998; Sulle, 2011; Therkildsen, 2001).  Public sector governance focuses attention more discretely upon governance within the public sector generally, or a designated level of government in particular so as to make public policy more accountable and transparent to society (ANAO, 2014; Costantinos, 2011).  The recent reform measures move African public service into the concern for reformed HRM (Mutahaba, 2015).  HRM reforms are the key changes that affect the management of HR and modernize the practice of HRM in public sector in order to promote public sector governance (Common, 2010; Kim, 2000).
  3. 3.  The reforms in public sector has been influenced by the NPM which embraces HRM reforms as a key element (Common, 2010; Kim, 2000).  NPM based reforms is not ‘one size fits all aspect’ as it varies between the implementing countries (Hood, 1991; Polidano, 1999; WB, 2009).  Under contingent perspective, the reasons for differences may arise due to ethical congruence, political support, culture and technology level from one country to another and from one organisation to another (Chalu, 2014).  However, some of the studies in HRM reforms (Kim, 2000; Lufunyo, 2013; Mutahaba, 2015) did not consider the effect of these contingent factors on the outcome of the reforms. Intro cont….
  4. 4.  Despite the fact that the basic resource and most vital asset of any organisation is its people and HRM is the core of the reforms in public sector (Ashour, 2004; Common, 2010; Kim, 2000),…  … there is increasing focus on the issue of ethical conduct among public employees (Antonakasa, Konstantopoulosb and Seimenisa, 2014; Ashour, 2004; Lufunyo, 2013) which indicates the lack of HRM.  Nevertheless, the HRM aspect is often forgotten and even downgraded when reforms are designed and implemented (Kim, 2000; Poor and Afghan, 2013; Therkildsen, 2006). Intro cont….
  5. 5.  In Tanzania, HRM reforms were initiated to build more competent government by curbing the challenges associated with traditional system of HRM practices and promote public governance in the sector.(Rugumyamheto, 1998; URT, 2008; WB, 2008).  The changes in HR practices include performance measurement, decentralization of HRM and establishment of open recruitment system.  However, it is argued that traditional systems in managing employees still exists in the Tanzanian public institutions (Sulle , 2011). HRM has been further centralized and placed in the hands of PO-PSM, leaving other institutions with very little freedom (Bana and McCourt, 2006 cited in Sulle, 2011).  Furthermore, basic elements of HRM reforms are scantily studied and documented (Carmeli, 2004; Tidemand and Msami, 2010). Also there is a little analysis on HRM in Tanzania public sector (Mutahaba, 2015; Tidemand and Msami, 2010; Therkildsen et al, Intro cont….
  6. 6. Identified Gaps  Many studies on HRM reforms were done outside Tanzania,…  …did not study decentralization of HRM amongst the reforms variables  …did not analyse applicability of NPM theoretical perspectives as basis for NPM based reforms  …did not consider contingent factors under which public organisations adopt policy innovations such as HRM reforms.  Studies done in Tanzania were on PSR as a whole and mainly on LGAs part and many of them focusing on financial reforms.
  7. 7. Statement of the Problem  According to NPM model, in order for public sector reforms to be successful, they need to incorporate reforms in HRM practices. However, integration of HRM practices in reforms in public sector is still debatable (Kim, 2000; Mutahaba, 2015; Poor and Afghan, 2013; Therkildsen, 2006). Despite the fact that Tanzania has embarked in ongoing HRM reform initiatives, recent reports signify lack of governance in majority of public institutions and inadequacy in management of HR practices (National Audit Office, 2014). Moreover, there is paucity of empirical studies on NPM based HRM reforms particularly with analysis of NPM theoretical perspectives and moderating effect of contingent factors.
  8. 8. Objectives of the study  The Main objective of this study is to examine the effect of HRM Reforms on Public Sector Governance.  Specific objectives are:  To examine the influence of Performance Measurement on Public Sector Governance  To examine the extent HRM Decentralization is implemented in relation to Public Sector Governance  To examine the influence of Open Recruitment System on Public Sector Governance  To assess the moderating effect of contingent factors on HRM reforms and Public Sector Governance
  9. 9. Significance of the study  There is little information on the effect of HRM reform on public sector governance.  Previous studied conducted on HRM reforms did not consider applicability of the public administration theories and the moderating effect of contingent factors on both reforms and governance in public sector.  Prior studies conducted in Tanzania focused on reforms in LGAs part. By employing the quantitative approach covering both MDAs and LGAs, this study will be able to bridge the observed gap emanating from prior studies.  This study will contribute to theoretical knowledge by testing the applicability of the model that our study intends to test.  Practically the finding of this study will contribute to policy formulation in matters concerned with HRM reforms in Tanzania. Also in its other programs and plans so as to foster the quality of public services and achievement of its strategic programs.
  10. 10. Scope of the Study Tanzanian Public Institutions as they are the actors within which HRM reforms were focused on (URT, 2011). Covering MDAs and LGAs in Dar es Salaam, Dodoma and Kigoma.
  11. 11. Theoretical Review  New Public Management (NPM) Theoretical Perspectives  Principal – Agent Theory played an important part in the NPM paradigm (O'Flynn, 2007) and makes clear accountability relationship management (Agent – public employees) to shareholders (Principal – citizens).  Contingency Theory  The theoretical origins of NPM did not cater for contingent factors in HRM reform. NPM based reforms is not ‘one size fit for all aspects’ as it varies between the implementing countries, so in order to generalize it, contingent factors are to be emphasized as on when and how NPM can be successfully adopted (Hood, 1991; Polidano, 1999; WB, 2009).
  12. 12. Empirical Literature Review  Knill and Balint (2008) distinguished HRM reforms between two models; Weber’s bureaucracy model (BM) and NPM model. NPM model was defined as universal and internationally approved principle representing ideal model for HRM reforms.  Kim (2000) indicated that previous reforms in Korean government failed because they did not alter bureaucrats’ old behavior and was designed for a centralized mode of operation which prevented it from coping with increased pace of world changes.  Common (2010) indicated that deep politisation of administrative system provided considerable reform implementation problems.  Mutahaba (2015) attested that most African countries failed to give adequate attention to HRM issues in reform agenda of their public services, which led unsuccessful results of the reform implementation. The author argues that, although NPM has been adopted, there are concerns of eroding the traditional means of ensuring accountability in the sector.
  13. 13. Hypothesis Development  H1: Performance Measurement has a significant positive relationship with Public Sector Governance  H2: Decentralization of HRM has a significant positive relationship with Public Sector Governance  H3: Open Recruitment System has a significant positive relationship with Public Sector Governance.  H4: There is significant moderating effect of Contingent Factors on HRM reforms and Public Sector Governance  H4a: Contingent Factors has a significant moderating effect on the way performance measurement promote public sector governance  H4b: Contingent Factors has a significant moderating effect on the way decentralization of HRM promote public sector governance  H4c: Contingent Factors has a significant moderating effect on the way open recruitment system promote public sector governance
  14. 14. Conceptual Framework
  15. 15. Operationalization of variables OP Variables.xlsx Variable Type Tool Definition Measure performance measurement Categorical /ordinal Questionnaire – Likert Scale Process to make sure that desired productivity is being achieved through ratings from OPRAS KSA clearly defined, understood, shared, agreed upon and evaluated. Decentralization of HRM Categorical /ordinal Questionnaire – Likert Scale Tendency of delegating HR practices from CG to LG's administrators and managers in order to allow more autonomy and flexibility in daily HRM while following CG strategies and regulations (PwC, 2005) HR practices dececntralised to LG, managers with sufficient skills and competencies, communication strategies btn CG and LG, and information accessibility and sharing btn CG and LG. Open Recruitment System Categorical /ordinal Questionnaire – Likert Scale When job vacancies are published on relevant platforms, in a required language, selection panels are established systematically, selection criteria are published together with job advert, time period btn vacancy publication and deadline for applying regulated, offer applicants right to receive adequate feedback and right to appeal, and the burden of openness is placed on employer (Deloitte, 2014) Posts filled by open method, time taken to hire/fill positions, posts advertised openly Accountability Categorical /ordinal Questionnaire – Likert Scale When employees are accepting responsibities for their own actions and doing right things accurately and on time. performance, complaints/excuses/blames, turnovers, absenteesm, conflicts,tardiness, stealing time (texting/chatting), attendance, leadership abilities, and morale. Transparency Categorical /ordinal Questionnaire – Likert Scale implying consistently candid and open management communication (Heskett, 2015) that employees and key stakeholders see the same information that senior leadership sees (Clarke, 2010) in order to generate trust that fosters cooperation and quick decision making and execution. communication channels and strategies in organisations.
  16. 16. Research Methodology  Research Philosophy – Positivism paradigm  Research Design - The cross-sectional survey design  Research Approach - The deductive approach  Location of the study - Public Institutions in Dar es Salaam, Dodoma and Kigoma regions  Population of the Study- public sector employees in Tanzania mainland public institutions grouped in MDAs and LGAs. The unity of inquiry will be the Executives and Human Resource officials .  Sampling Procedure – Multistage Sampling which will base on Probability sampling that will include – Stratified and simple random sampling  Sample Size – 400 respondents
  17. 17. Research Methodology cont…  Data Collection Methods - Structured questionnaires will be used adopted from Coordination for Cohesion in the Public Sector of the Future (COCOPS) Survey by Hammerschmid et al, (2013).  Public documents showing trends of HRM reforms and Public Sector Governance will also be reviewed.  Reliability - Cronbach's Alpha will be applied in calculating internal reliability.  Validity - Exploratory factor analysis will be applied in calculating validity.  Data Analysis Techniques - SEM will be used because it enables the researcher to assess and interpret complex interrelated dependence relationships (Hair et al. 2010, MacKenzie 2001).
  18. 18. Link to SDG and Cultural Transformation
  19. 19. ..hopefully… 2 9 13 10 14 16 85 6 1 7 3 4 17 12 15 11
  20. 20. T H A N K Y O U.