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Slideshare reference lists and citations apa


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Slideshare reference lists and citations apa

  1. 1. Reference Lists and Citations A Student‟s Beginning Guide to APA Format Western Canada High School Ms. Prentice 2013
  2. 2. What is a “citation”?  To cite means to note or refer to something.  A citation is a reference, or a mention.  When we do research, it is important to refer to or mention where we found our information. Scholarship is a collaborative endeavour. We need to acknowledge the work we build our understandings upon.
  3. 3. Why do I need to worry about this? Plagiarism occurs when we take someone else‟s words or ideas and claim them as our own. Plagiarism is like stealing someone‟s words and ideas… AND STEALING IS WRONG! We want to develop habits of ethical scholarship by respecting the intellectual and creative property of others.
  4. 4. Plagiarism and Your Learning  In your academic work, it is important to be ethical in your use of intellectual property. Give credit where credit is due.  You can borrow someone‟s words and ideas, but make sure you GIVE THEM CREDIT by citing the source.  Remember: your teachers can recognize plagiarism quite easily. Plagiarizing can have serious consequences – so make sure to avoid it!
  5. 5. Why Create a Reference List  Give credit where credit is due.  Guide others to the research.  Give credibility to your work.  Demonstrate ethical scholarship
  6. 6. Step 1: Collect information for your reference list  Every time you do research, you should create a reference list for your project.  Your reference list identifies the information sources you used in creating your project.  For each source, you MUST identify: 1. 2. 3. WHO is the author WHAT is the title WHEN it was published (and if the source is digital, when you found it) 4.  WHERE it was published (and if the source is digital, where you found it) DON‟T wait until the end of your research to do this; record the information as you go along.
  7. 7. Basic Reference/Citation Format (APA): Who (When). What. Where. NOTE: There are many different citation styles; APA is one of the most common. MLA and Chicago are also popular styles. Make sure you know what style your teacher wants you to use, and use it consistently.
  8. 8. BOOK: Author last name and first initial. (year of publication). Book title. City of Publication: Publisher. Example: Young, N. (2012). The virtual self: How our digital lives are altering the world around us. Toronto, ON: McClelland & Stewart.
  9. 9. Chapter in a BOOK: Author last name and first initial. (year of publication). Chapter title. In Editor’s last name and initial (ED.). Book title (Chapter page numbers). City of Publication: Publisher. Example: Frauenheim, E. (2013). Bad apple: Could the era of exploitation outsourcing be near its end? In Cromie, J., Zott, L. (Eds.). Outsourcing (pp. 28-31). Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press.
  10. 10. Periodical or Journal Article: Author last name and first initial. (year of publication). Article title. Journal Title, volume (issue), article page numbers. Example: Valenza, J. (2006). They might be gurus. TeacherLibrarian, 34(1), 18-26.
  11. 11. WEB SITE: Author (web site publication). Web page title. Retrieved Month Day Year from: URL. Example: Lamb, A. (2003 October). Bridge Building. Retrieved February 27, 2007 from:
  12. 12. Video: Author (Date of publication). Video title [Video file]. Retrieved from: URL. Example: MacArthur Foundation (2010). Rethinking learning: The 21st century learner [Video File]. Retrieved from:
  13. 13. IMAGES: Creator's last name, first initial. (Role of creator). (Year of creation). Title of image or description of image. [Type of work]. Retrieved from URL/database Example: Salgado, J.F. (Photographer). (2010). Up close and personal with the very large telescope. [Digital image]. Retrieved from Information and example taken from Simon Fraser University Library (2012). Finding and Using Online Images. Retrieved from
  14. 14. Tools to Help with Creating Reference Citations Many academic resources – for example, resources in the Online Reference Centre or the Gale Virtual Reference Library – will have citation help tools. These resources will create a citation for you. All you need to do is copy and paste it into your reference list. * Make sure the citation help is consistent with your format: APA? MLA? Chicago?
  15. 15. Tools to Help with Creating Reference Citations Microsoft Word’s References tool can help you to more accurately generate citations. See this tutorial for help on using this handy tool: E
  16. 16. Online Tools to Help with Referencing Citation Machine NoodleTools BibMe Find handy „cheat sheets‟ in the WCHS Library, in Area 2 Computers. For examples, and a good general guide, visit the Purdue OWL:
  17. 17. Step 2: Citing in Your Essay or Project: In-text citations In addition to creating a reference list, you should credit your sources within your essay or project. We call this „in-text citation.‟ It‟s a bit trickier.
  18. 18. Do I have to cite everything? Facts that are widely known, or information & judgments considered “common knowledge” Do NOT have to be documented.
  19. 19. Examples of common knowledge: World War I began in 1914 is common knowledge. Smoking is linked to lung cancer is common knowledge. Ottawa is the capital of Canada is common knowledge. If you see a fact in three or more sources, and you are fairly certain your readers already know this information, it is likely to be “common knowledge.” • If you are discussing your own experiences, observations, ideas or reactions you don‟t need to make a citation.
  20. 20. What should I cite? • Facts that might be unfamiliar to your reader (such as statistics or specific historical information) should be cited. • Ideas or interpretations that are not your own should be cited (even if you agree with the idea or interpretation). • Cite direct quotes • Cite anything you paraphrase or summarize If you aren’t sure if you should cite something, err on the side of caution and cite. Generally speaking: if the thinking isn’t yours, cite it (even if the words are yours).
  21. 21. Paraphrasing & Summarizing Paraphrasing means putting someone else‟s thoughts in your own words. When you paraphrase, you must credit the original author. Summarizing means taking the main idea or ideas of one author or several authors and putting them briefly in your own words. When you summarize others, you must credit them.
  22. 22. Example of Paraphrasing To paraphrase, you have to use your own words and change the structure of the sentences. Original: Kenyans enjoy many sports and activities. Soccer is the most popular team sport in Kenya. Many people belong to soccer teams in their cities and towns. Track-and-field activities such as running and high jumping are very popular. Many Kenyan runners compete in races around the world. The best have won medals in the Olympics. Paraphrased: Sports such as soccer, running and high jumping are popular in Kenya. Kenyan runners compete internationally, and some have won Olympic medals. Soccer is a popular team sport, and many Kenyans play on soccer teams in their communities (Bartell, 2011, p. 20).
  23. 23. Example of Summarizing Summaries are much shorter than the original source, and only include the main ideas. The summary should be in your own words. Original: Every year, Nigerians and people from around the world look forward to the Argungu Fishing festival. The four-day events began as a way to bring neighbouring villages together in peace. During the first three days of the festival, people enjoy a motor rally, canoes races, and a fair. People dance to traditional music and watch many different sporting events. The fishing competition happens on the last day of the festival. Thousands line up along the banks of the Sokoto River with nets to catch fish. Summary: The Augungu Fishing Festival is an important Nigerian holiday. This festival is an opportunity for people to come together and enjoy many activities. The final event of the
  24. 24. Quoting Quotations are someone else’s words, copied exactly from the source material. Quotations need to be in quotation marks, and must be credited. Original: Goalkeepers have to make important decisions during a game. These decisions may affect whether the game is a win, loss or draw for their team. Quotation: Goalkeepers have to make important decisions during a game. These decisions may affect whether the game is a win, loss or draw for their team (Gifford, 2008, p. 20). “ ”
  25. 25. Remember…take accurate notes: Include any direct quotes or unique phrases in quotation marks or mark with a big Q and make sure the speaker‟s /writer‟s name is identified. Make sure you note a paraphrase with the writer‟s name and mark it with a big P Include page numbers and source references so you can go back and check for accuracy as you write.