Residential schools yi ling


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Residential schools yi ling

  1. 1. Museum of Indiian Residential Schools How to Start
  2. 2. Welcome To The MIRS Residential School Auction Cash Register Exit Integration Self Determination Segregation Assimilation Meet The Curator
  3. 3. Museum Entrance To Entrance 1840–1910:Assimilation
  4. 4. Room 3 1911–1951:Segregation To Entrance
  5. 5. Room 4 1952 – 1970: Integration To Entrance
  6. 6. Room 2 1971–Present:SelfDetermination To Entrance
  7. 7. Room 2 CashRegister To Entrance
  8. 8. STATEMENT ON THE PROGRAM OF STUDIES FOR RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS Return to Room [SOLD AT $613,040,782] The goal of the Canadian residential school system aimed to assimilate aboriginal peoples and eventually abolish native traditions and beliefs. In an effort to diminish indigenous culture, various curriculums were instituted to facilitate cultural and lifestyle integration. The Statement on the Program of Studies for Indian Schools, published in 1897 in the Department of Indian Affairs annual report, details aspects of the residential education system including those of religious instruction, Canadian history, and “the evils of Indian isolation”. However, it should be acknowledged that subjects such as the history of “Indians of Canada and their civilization”, in addition to ethics and literacy, were included amongst the curriculum. Nevertheless, great emphasis was placed on the English language, and Canadian and Christian customs. Consequently, these children often felt ashamed of their native heritage and, upon returning to reserves, lacked the skills necessary to help their families, thus compromising family systems as a result of loss of culture and language. Where are the Children?. (n.d.). Exhibit- A Time Capsule. Retrieved March 6, 2014, from
  9. 9. WOODEN DOLL Return to Room Carved Wooden Artifact. (n.d.). The History Blog. Retrieved March 9, 2014, from content/uploads/2012/09/carved-wooden-artifact.jpg [ON SALE - HIGHEST BID: $903,000] The curriculum that was taught during the residential schooling mainly consisted of different types of manual labor. The goal of this was to assimilate the First Nations children into the mainstream society and have them increase the Canadian labor force. Around the mid 1800s, one of the most important things Canada needed was a cheap, yet convenient labor force to support the westward expansion. The idea was to either convert the Aboriginal children and mass population into easily accessed labor forces or have them break down so that they would not be able to contribute to the settlement in the west. This wooden doll was crafted by Carole Dawson in her second year at her residential school, when she was fifteen years old. The doll shows the development of her vocational skills during her year at the residential school. During this year, she was educated in many areas such as wood-working and needlework. The Canadian government had the children develop these skills so that they could be incorporated into the Canadian labor force in the future.
  10. 10. HIERARCHY SYSTEM Return to Room Brandon Staff Diagram. (n.d.). The Children Remebered. Retrieved March 8, 2014, from content/uploads/2010/06/brandon-staff-diagram- e1362412197206.png [ON SALE – HIGHEST BID: $503,000] The Canadian government originally created the Residential Schools so that they Native American children could be used as a cheap labor force for the country’s westward expansion. As a result, the residential schools were set up in a very strict hierarchy of power and control. This picture depicts the general ‘social hierarchy’ system set up within the Residential Schools. The hierarchy was divided up between the different types of labors and skill sets that the children were learning at the school. This was done to assimilate the First Nations children into the white labor force. By forcing them to strictly follow rules and staying with people who learn the same types of skill sets as them, the Canadian government hoped that the Aboriginal children would be able to adapt to their environment, and learn the skills they need to be able to work quicker.
  11. 11. WESTERN NURSING PHOTOGRAPH Return to Room Photos. (n.d.). - The Children Remembered. Retrieved March 9, 2014, from [SOLD AT $173,840,950] The lovely image displayed above is of a teacher instructing an older student on how to treat illnesses. While aboriginals had prodigious medical knowledge long before the first Europeans set foot the new world, they eventually succumbed to the plethora of alien illnesses that the explorers brought with them. European medical technology is needed to combat these diseases. Despite the fact that residential schools instill upon their students the ability to use these technologies and offer them a chance to save many lives, traditional techniques must be eradicated due the nature of the residential schools’ ultimate goal: to assimilate aboriginals. The patient in the picture above is clearly in need of medical assistance. Due to the fact that many people living in and around residential schools at the time suffered from diseases due to the putrefied food and poor living conditions, doctors are in high demand. Training aboriginals in European medicine may be beneficial to aboriginal society but the price to pay is the loss of traditional culture.
  12. 12. NEEDLE Return to Room Needle. (n.d.). Blogspot. Retrieved March 8, 2014, from bKlrc/UtiWLIyg9uI/AAAAAAAAImc/tQXBflzInD4/ s1600/needle.JPG [ON SALE - HIGHEST BID: $903,757,000] Aboriginal students were forbidden from speaking their home language while attending the residential schools. This was done with the intention of eventually eliminating First Nations cultural aspects from children. Instead, the students were required to speak in either French or English. In order to ensure that Aboriginal languages were not spoken, one of the techniques that was utilized was to insert needles into the tongues of children who disobeyed the rules and spoke in their native Aboriginal language. This punishment towards the children brought both physical abuse as well as a sense of fear and distress. In many of these cases, this punishment as well as other sources of abuse have impacted the students psychologically, such as post traumatic stress syndrome and have made it difficult for survivors to engage in family, social, and professional circumstances in the future.
  13. 13. VIDEO TAPE: INTERVIEW ON ABUSE AT FIRST NATIONS RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS Return to Room Stories Introduction. (n.d.). Where Are The Children. Retrieved March 9, 2014, from [ON SALE - HIGHEST BID: $1,903,757,000] During the school year, many students, both males and females, were vulnerable to harassment. The most destructive type of abuse prevalent within the residential schools was sexual and emotional abuse. Often times, educators or supervisors in power would abuse their authority to use young children to their sexual advantage. Rape, genital search, and public strip search were only a few examples of the sexual harassment that was executed by the authorities within the school. Children were also whipped with leather straps, beaten naked publicly until unconscious, locked in closets and cages, starved, and electrically shocked. All these forms of abuse towards the Aboriginal children have psychologically damaged their sense of confidence and security. Due to this, it has lead to the long-term effect of many First Nations children and communities healing from high rates of substance abuse, violence, crime, child apprehension, disease, and suicide. Domestic abuse and loss of familial connection have also occurred due to the trauma and impacts that have resulted from the children’s experience in the residential schools.
  14. 14. Student’s Letter Dear Mom and Dad, Just thought I’d drop you a few lines to let you know that I’m all right and hoping you are the same. I just want to thank all of you for sending those wonderful presents… Well, mom and dad, the main reason for my writing is that I want to go home. I’m not homesick or anything, just…this morning at 2 a.m. [he] woke us up and started to preach to us on how stupid the Indians were…Then this morning at 5 a.m. [he] got us up to go and scrub the basement. It was there I decided I’d like to go home because [he] slapped me around for not getting a haircut that morning…so don’t be surprised if you see me home pretty soon. I was planning to try to stick out the whole term, but [he] threw a monkey-wrench into my plans. P.S. the Christmas I spent here was the worst one in my whole life. Bidding Info Edmonton Indian Residential School. (n.d.). The Children Remembered Edmonton Indian Residential School Comments. Retrieved March 9, 2014, from
  15. 15. STUDENT’S LETTER Return to Room [ON SALE - HIGHEST BID: $427,892,050] What is most surprising about this artifact is the fact that the student, on his own free will, wanted to “stick out the whole term” (unidentified student, 1962) at the residential school. It suggests the student may have tolerated or even enjoyed this experience if it were not for the abuse that he, and undoubtedly others, received at the hands of their instructors. The student describes the physical and mental abuse, such as labor and racial discrimination, that he suffered at the hands of someone who the student only described as “he.” Such flagrant violations of basic human rights were not uncommon at the time this letter was written. Typical punishments for paltry crimes include severe beatings, sexual abuse and forcing students to be outdoors in winter. This letter presents a first hand account of the abuse that children experienced at residential schools.
  16. 16. UNIFORM PHOTOGRAPH Return to Room Exhibition | Where Are The Children. (n.d.). Where Are The Children. Retrieved March 9, 2014, from [SOLD AT $173,840,950] Upon entering a residential school, Aboriginal children were often forced to have their hair cut short and to dress in uniforms of a European style, as opposed to traditional clothing, thus eliminating many aspects of their culture. During this particular time period, traditional Aboriginal dress was considered “uncivilized”. This dramatic change in appearance, in addition to the beliefs and values often forced upon native children, subsequently led to weakened familial ties. This particular uniform was worn by an eight-year old Thomas Moore, an Aboriginal child from the Regina Indian Residential School. Educators sought to abolish the children’s native culture through the enforcement of strict rules. In addition to the dress code, students were forbidden to speak native languages and to associate with siblings and those of the opposite gender. Misbehavior was often met with strict punishments, such as public beatings, forced labor, starvation, and sexual abuse. In consequence, such an environment and the resulting discrimination and trauma has led to long-term effects including low self-esteem, poverty, and heightened rates of domestic abuse amongst Aboriginal families.
  17. 17. PICTURE OF PENMANSHIP Return to Room Photos. (n.d.). - The Children Remembered. Retrieved March 6, 2014, from [ON SALE - HIGHEST BID: $432,983,700] One of the most notable concerns about the curriculum that was taught at the residential schools was the lack of proper education. The residential schools mainly focused on developing the vocational skills of the Aboriginal children. Therefore, the literacy skills of the Aboriginal children are severely lacking. This picture was taken in 1914 at the Red Deer Institute. It depicts some of the elder children practicing their penmanship on a black board. The words they are shown practicing are quite simple. This lack of proper education led to the horrible discrimination and inability to fit in with the rest of the Canadian society. Their skills were undeveloped and an eighteen-year-old Native American child would have difficulty reading something a eight year old Canadian child would be able to read. This was a problem because around the time period of 1952 to 1970, Native American children were relieved from the Residential Schooling system and integrated into the regular Canada schooling. There, they faced horrible discrimination and were ultimately unable to fit in with the rest of the children because of their illiteracy.
  18. 18. CREE SYLLABICS Return to Room Norway House Cree Syllabics . (n.d.).The Children Remembered. Retrieved March 9, 2014, from content/uploads/2010/06/norway-house-cree- syllabics.jpg [SOLD FOR $1,432,703,810] During his time as a missionary priest for a residential school, linguist James Evans developed Cree syllabics, a system of writing Algonquin languages. Due to the fact that most of the aboriginals who he interacted with knew little English, Evans composed a writing system to optimize the efficiency of interactions between these two cultures. On top of being easy for speakers fluent in Algonquin languages to learn, it also satisfies Evans’ personal crusade; to impose European values on native peoples. The first books published in this writing system were scriptures or related to scripture while traditional stories came later in the picture. What started as a means to assimilate aboriginals into the European super- culture quickly evolved into a vast language, adopted by many indigenous peoples across Canada. This is an example of how residential schools have the potential to spawn magnificent specimens of hybridized culture that may preserve indigenous cultures in the end. Note the similarities and differences between Cree Syllabics and the English alphabet.
  19. 19. VIDEO TAPE: TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION Return to Room Truth and Reconciliation. (n.d.). Mission and Justice Relationships. Retrieved March 1, 2014, from [ON SALE - HIGHEST BID: $5,918,326,240] The impact of residential schools and its legacy of trauma passed down through generations has had a profound impact on the relationship between Canada’s Aboriginal peoples and its other citizens. In order to mend this relationship, collective efforts from both parties - Aboriginal peoples and Canadian society-are necessary to ensure a goal of healing and reconciliation. Efforts must be made in collaboration with the government, churches, Indigenous groups, and residential school survivors. Reverent Fred Hiltz, the speaker in the above video, reiterates the importance of harmony and peace amongst Canadians. Moreover, the act of recognizing the damage inflicted through the residential school system and of apologizing is emphasized.
  20. 20. PRIME MINISTER STEPHEN HARPER’S FORMAL LETTER OF APOLOGY TO THE FIRST NATIONS PEOPLE Return to Room Statement of Apology. (n.d.). Government of Canada; Indian and Northern Affairs Canada; Communications Branch;. Retrieved March 1, 2014, from http://www.aadnc- Rolled Scroll. (n.d.). The Arrived. Retrieved March 6, 2014, from content/uploads/2012/11/rolled-scroll.jpg Glass Encased Artifact Case. (n.d.). DC Universe Online Life. Retrieved March 9, 2014, from http://dcuo.mmorpg- [ON SALE - HIGHEST BID: $11,238,376,721] On Wednesday June 11th in 2008, the Prime Minister of Canada, Stephen Harper, made a formal Statement of Apology to the former students of the Indian Residential Schools, on behalf of all Canadians. The Canadian government once sought to “kill the Indian in the child”. This was the purpose of the centuries of discrimination and assimilation that was brought about by the Indian Residential Schooling system. Canadians once believed that all Aboriginal cultures and traditions were inferior to their own. This formal apology that includes a recall of all the terrible experiences that the First Nations children had to go through and a statement of ‘we are sorry’ in the Canadian languages as well as three of the Aboriginal languages effectively concludes the period of Residential Schooling with a bittersweet ending. With this letter, Canadians and First Nations people alike move forward into a new era of healing, reconciliation, and new partnerships. The two distinct groups of people start to forge a renewed understanding of the two different cultures and take a step into the future of Canada together. For complete letter, visit: http://www.aadnc-
  21. 21. INSTRUCTIONS You are a successful businessman—a multimillionaire. After a successful negotiation with a wealthy museum owner, they invited you to attend their secret auction over the weekend. The auction’s theme is: First Nations Residential Schools. The invitation letter informed you that the auction was going to sell off paintings, video tapes, pictures, and rare artifacts. Having too much money on your hands, you decided to accept the offer. The envelope also included specific rules that you had to follow. They were listed as follows: 1. Dimmed paintings and artifacts are not being auctioned. Do not touch them. 2. Do not mess with the security cameras in the rooms. Bad things will proceed if this warning is ignored. 3. Be respectful with the artifacts. You will have to pay a fine if property is damaged. Enjoy! Meet the curator once you are inside the museum. Begin
  22. 22. “HEY!” You hear the alarm sound as your hand barely grazed the lens of the security camera. Panicked, you quickly fake a befuddled expression as you mingle in together with the other guests. You had ignored the warning on the letter and now you wondered what the consequence was going to be. As time passed, the people around you began to grow more restless. They were whispering amongst themselves. At that instance, five security guards came in, grabbed your arms, and then threw you outside the museum. “Expect a large fine at your doorstep tomorrow,” one said. “And don’t you dare come back again,” the other added before slamming the door in your face. You really should have followed the instructions… Return to Room
  23. 23. REFERENCES Residential School Basics. (n.d.). Indian Residential School Resources RSS. Retrieved February 27, 2014, from The Residential School System. (n.d.). The Residential School System. Retrieved February 28, 2014, from Where Are The Children. (n.d.). Where Are The Children. Retrieved March 2, 2014, from At least 4,000 aboriginal children died in residential schools, commission finds. (n.d.). National Post. Retrieved March 2, 2014, from Where are the Children?. (n.d.). Exhibit . Retrieved March 2, 2014, from Indian Residential Schools Educational Resources. (n.d.). Indian Residential Schools Educational Resources. Retrieved March 2, 2014, from The Children Remembered. (n.d.). - United Church Residential Schools Archives Project. Retrieved March 2, 2014, from Brief History of Residential Schools. (n.d.). 1000 Conversations RSS. Retrieved March 2, 2014, from At least 4,000 aboriginal children died in residential schools, commission finds. (n.d.). National Post. Retrieved March 6, 2014, from Brief History of Residential Schools. (n.d.). 1000 Conversations RSS. Retrieved March 5, 2014, from Indian Residential Schools Educational Resources. (n.d.). Indian Residential Schools Educational Resources. Retrieved March 5, 2014, from Return to Room
  24. 24. CURATOR INTRODUCTION While it is now widely accepted that the separation of children from their parents without taking into account the wellbeing of the children is a deleterious practice, one needs to dive into the strange world of epigenetics in order to appreciate the magnitude of the destructive power of these actions. Not only does the human genome contain DNA, it also possesses the Methyl group (CH3). This molecule attaches to the nitrogen base, cytosine, altering its ability to code proteins. If the genes in the brain were to become methylated, it could cause severe behavior such as extreme depression and bad parenting. The concentration of methyl groups in cells depend on a variety of external factors such as diet and past experiences (Meany and Szyf, 1997). Studies by Szyf (2011) show how methylation is most prominent in individuals who have suffered abuse or poverty while they were young. Since residential schools fill most of the criteria required to allow methylation to occur it can be theorized that not only did residential schools leave physical and emotional marks on their victims, they also altered the fundamental genetic material of the children they claimed that they were helping. While not proven as of now, the methylation of germ-line (reproductive) cells could result in children bearing methylated genes (Nestler, 2013). The children of people who attended residential schools may be inheriting part of their parents’ burden. The abusive actions of residential schools have carved a cross-generational scar across the genome of their victims. Return to Entrance Hurley, D. (2013, June 13). Grandma's Experiences Leave a Mark on Your Retrieved March 5, 2014, from mark-on-your-genes#.UxpRRihhMy4 Disclaimer: Virtual museums were first introduced by educators at Keith Valley Middle School in Horsham, Pennsylvania. This template was designed by Dr. Christy Keeler based on one of the sample virtual museums provided by the Keith Valley staff at ISTE’s NECC 2005. Contact Dr. Keeler for more information on using this template.