Scansion and Meter AP Latin
What is Scansion? <ul><li>Measurement of long and short syllables in poetry. </li></ul><ul><li>Shakespeare used “iambic pe...
How to Find Syllables <ul><li># of vowels = # of syllables </li></ul><ul><li>Diphthongs - two vowels pronounced  as one </...
The letter  i <ul><li>Both a vowel and a consonant </li></ul><ul><li>Some Latin texts change the consonant  i  to a  j . <...
The letter  u <ul><li>May be combined with the previous  s  or  g , depending on pronunciation </li></ul><ul><li>Not [sang...
Length of Syllables <ul><li>Latin verse is based on long ( ¯ ) and short ( ˘ ) syllables </li></ul><ul><li>Syllables that ...
A syllable is long by nature if… <ul><li>It contains a short (no macron) vowel + </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 consonants (c a̅e...
Elision  <ul><li>Slurring or combination of the final syllable of one word with the first syllable of the next word </li><...
Elision in Latin <ul><li>An elision occurs when the final syllable… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ends in a vowel or diphthong bef...
Dactylic Hexameter The  only  rhythmic pattern in the  Aeneid Dactylic foot=  ˉ˘˘ Spondaic foot = ˉˉ Trochaic foot = ˉ˘ ˉ˘...
Aeneid 1. 1 <ul><li>Arma virumque can ō , Troiae qu ī  pr ī mus ab  ō ris </li></ul>ˉ˘ ˉˉ ˉ˘˘ (ˉ ˉ) ˉ˘˘ ˉ ˉ ˉ˘˘ ˉ ˉ ˉ˘˘ ˉ ...
Aeneid 4. 305 (Flipped to a random page) <ul><li>Dissimul ā re etiam sp ē r ā st ī , perfide, tantum </li></ul>ˉ˘ ˉˉ ˉ˘˘ (...
Try flipping to a random passage in the  Aeneid , and try out Vergil’s  dactylic hexameter .  It works.
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Scansion and meter

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Scansion and Meter for AP Vergil

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Scansion and meter

  1. 1. Scansion and Meter AP Latin
  2. 2. What is Scansion? <ul><li>Measurement of long and short syllables in poetry. </li></ul><ul><li>Shakespeare used “iambic pentameter” </li></ul>on. play love, of food the be sic mu If / x / x / x / x / x
  3. 3. How to Find Syllables <ul><li># of vowels = # of syllables </li></ul><ul><li>Diphthongs - two vowels pronounced as one </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In English, the word “h ou se” has a diphthong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Latin, diphthongs are au , ae , and oe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul>3 vowels 3 syllables 1 diphthong + 3 vowels 4 syllables <ul><li>Treat qu as a k , the u is disregarded </li></ul><ul><li>The compound in a word ( con -su-mit) is pronounced as a separate syllable </li></ul>vit ga ro mus a di au
  4. 4. The letter i <ul><li>Both a vowel and a consonant </li></ul><ul><li>Some Latin texts change the consonant i to a j . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>= Tro j an </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>= e j ect (from eicio, eicere, eieci, eiectum) </li></ul></ul>a i Tro tum ec i e
  5. 5. The letter u <ul><li>May be combined with the previous s or g , depending on pronunciation </li></ul><ul><li>Not [sang-uis] or [arg-uo] </li></ul>gu is san us su o gu ar
  6. 6. Length of Syllables <ul><li>Latin verse is based on long ( ¯ ) and short ( ˘ ) syllables </li></ul><ul><li>Syllables that are long by nature are marked with a macron ( ā ) </li></ul><ul><li>Diphthongs are always long ( a̅e ) </li></ul>
  7. 7. A syllable is long by nature if… <ul><li>It contains a short (no macron) vowel + </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 consonants (c a̅e-rŭ-lĕ- ū s p ō nt ŭs ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>x ( ī nf ē l ī x) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>X = k + s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>z </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Z = t + s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>It has a vowel + consonant + l or r (n ē c l ă- cr ĭ- m ī s) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Elision <ul><li>Slurring or combination of the final syllable of one word with the first syllable of the next word </li></ul><ul><li>English example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What time is it? sounds like Wa t ī m ĭ z ĭ t? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The 2 T ’s sound like one T </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The M sound is carried over to is </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The S sound is carried over to it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Elisions are written in parentheses () </li></ul>
  9. 9. Elision in Latin <ul><li>An elision occurs when the final syllable… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ends in a vowel or diphthong before a word beginning with a vowel or h (which is mute in Romance languages) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>D ī x-it e-um-qu (e) ī -mis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ends in a vowel + m before a word begging with a vowel or h </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ax- (em) u -mer- ō tor-quet </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Dactylic Hexameter The only rhythmic pattern in the Aeneid Dactylic foot= ˉ˘˘ Spondaic foot = ˉˉ Trochaic foot = ˉ˘ ˉ˘ ˉˉ ˉ˘˘ (ˉ ˉ) ˉ˘˘ ˉ ˉ ˉ˘˘ ˉ ˉ ˉ˘˘ ˉ ˉ ˉ˘˘ ˉ ˉ 6 5 4 3 2 1
  11. 11. Aeneid 1. 1 <ul><li>Arma virumque can ō , Troiae qu ī pr ī mus ab ō ris </li></ul>ˉ˘ ˉˉ ˉ˘˘ (ˉ ˉ) ˉ˘˘ ˉ ˉ ˉ˘˘ ˉ ˉ ˉ˘˘ ˉ ˉ ˉ˘˘ ˉ ˉ 6 5 4 3 2 1 6 5 4 3 2 1 ris ō ab mus prī quī ae i Tro nō, ca q ue ru m vi a A rm ˘ ˉ ˘ ˘ ˉ ˉ ˉ ˘ ˘ ˉ ˘ ˘ ˉ ˘ ˘ ˉ
  12. 12. Aeneid 4. 305 (Flipped to a random page) <ul><li>Dissimul ā re etiam sp ē r ā st ī , perfide, tantum </li></ul>ˉ˘ ˉˉ ˉ˘˘ (ˉ ˉ) ˉ˘˘ ˉ ˉ ˉ˘˘ ˉ ˉ ˉ˘˘ ˉ ˉ ˉ˘˘ ˉ ˉ 6 5 4 3 2 1 ˉ 6 5 4 3 2 1 t um ta n de f i pe r stī rā s pē a m ti e r(e) la mu s i Di s ˘ ˉ ˘ ˘ ˉ ˉ ˉ ˉ ˘ ˘ ˉ ˘ ˘ ˉ
  13. 13. Try flipping to a random passage in the Aeneid , and try out Vergil’s dactylic hexameter . It works.

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