DP Environmental systems     and societies                Topic 2             The ecosystem
2.4 BIOMES
BIOME is the collection of ecosystems sharing similar climatic conditions.
Uneven Solar Heating and LatitudeEarth as a whole is in thermal equilibrium, but different latitudes are not.Moving masses...
Cold,       Cell 3 North                        dry air                        falls                       Moist air rises...
Generalized effects of altitude and latitude on climate and biomes.  Parallel changes in vegetation occur when moving from...
DESERT BIOMES   Polar desert(northwest China)                             Tropical desert                             (Sau...
GRASSLAND BIOMESPolar grassland (arctic tundra)   Tropical grassland (savanna)     (Fort Yukon, Alaska)             (Harar...
FOREST BIOMESTropical rain forest (Manaus, Brazil)               Temperate deciduous forest                               ...
AQUATIC BIOMESOcean   Coral reefs                      RiversLakes   Mangroves
High tide                                                                       Depth in                                  ...
Biomes of the World    1. The Tundra              1. Extremely cold climate              2. Low biotic diversity          ...
Biomes of the World             2. The Taiga             aka: boreal forest         1. Band of coniferous trees           ...
Biomes of the World         3. Temperate Rain              Forest       1. Moderate climate and high annual           rain...
Biomes of the World4. Temperate Deciduous Forest          1. Located in the mid-latitude areas          2. Four distinct s...
Biomes of the World   5. Grasslands         1. Composed of a rich mix of             grasses and forbs and some           ...
Biomes of the World6. Chaparral (aka: scrub forest)        1. Composed of drought tolerant trees,            shrubs, and g...
Biomes of the World                  7. Deserts      1. Arid, with annual rainfall less than 10          in.      2. Plant...
Biomes of the World               8. Savanna          1. Tropical grasslands          2. Tropical climate with            ...
Biomes of the World9. Tropical Rain Forests         1. Earths most complex biome in             terms of structure and spe...
Aquatic Ecosystems   Trophic Levels
Aquatic EcosystemsEnvironmental Factors              Temperature
Aquatic Ecosystems    Environmental FactorsLight
Aquatic Ecosystems             Environmental Factors                              Salinity                                ...
Aquatic Ecosystems  Environmental FactorsCurrents
Aquatic EcosystemsEnvironmental Factors      Dissolved Oxygen              Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L)                 Dissolv...
Aquatic Ecosystems     Zonation
Aquatic Ecosystems  Human Impacts    Waterways across the United States are    contaminated by a medicine chest of    anti...
The ecosystem 2.4
The ecosystem 2.4
The ecosystem 2.4
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The ecosystem 2.4

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The ecosystem 2.4

  1. 1. DP Environmental systems and societies Topic 2 The ecosystem
  2. 2. 2.4 BIOMES
  3. 3. BIOME is the collection of ecosystems sharing similar climatic conditions.
  4. 4. Uneven Solar Heating and LatitudeEarth as a whole is in thermal equilibrium, but different latitudes are not.Moving masses of air and ocean currents transport energy fromlocations with a surplus to those with a deficit.
  5. 5. Cold, Cell 3 North dry air falls Moist air rises — rain Polar cap Arctic tundra Cell 2 NorthModel of global air Evergreen coniferous forestcirculation and 60 Cool, dry Temperate deciduous air fallsbiomes. forest and grassland Cell 1 NorthThe direction of air 30 Desertflow and the ascent Tropical deciduous forest Moist air rises,and descent of air Tropical cools, and 0 Equator rain forest releasesmasses in moistureconvection cells Tropical deciduous forest as rain 30determine the Desert Cell 1 Southearth’s climatic Temperate deciduous forest and grassland Cool, dryzones. 60 air falls Cell 2 South Polar cap Cold, Moist air rises — rain dry air falls Cell 3 South
  6. 6. Generalized effects of altitude and latitude on climate and biomes. Parallel changes in vegetation occur when moving from the Equator to the poles or from the lowlands to mountaintops. Altitude Mountain Ice and snow Tundra (herbs, lichens, mosses) Coniferous Forest Deciduous Latitude Forest Tropical Forest Tropical Deciduous Coniferous Tundra (herbs, Polar ice Forest Forest Forest lichens, mosses) and snow
  7. 7. DESERT BIOMES Polar desert(northwest China) Tropical desert (Saudi Arabia)
  8. 8. GRASSLAND BIOMESPolar grassland (arctic tundra) Tropical grassland (savanna) (Fort Yukon, Alaska) (Harare, Zimbabwe)
  9. 9. FOREST BIOMESTropical rain forest (Manaus, Brazil) Temperate deciduous forest (Nashville, Tennessee)
  10. 10. AQUATIC BIOMESOcean Coral reefs RiversLakes Mangroves
  11. 11. High tide Depth in Sun meters Low tide Coastal Zone Open Sea Sea level 0 Photosynthesis 50 Euphotic ZoneEstuarine 100Zone Continental 200 shelf Twilight Bathyal Zone 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 Abyssal Zone 3,000 Darkness 4,000 5,000 10,000
  12. 12. Biomes of the World 1. The Tundra 1. Extremely cold climate 2. Low biotic diversity 3. Simple vegetation structure 4. Permafrost  limited drainage 5. Short growing season 6. Energy and nutrients in the form of dead organic material 7. Large population oscillations alpine vs arctic tundra
  13. 13. Biomes of the World 2. The Taiga aka: boreal forest 1. Band of coniferous trees located just south of tundra 2. Milder climate and more diverse biota than tundra 3. Forests subject to heavy logging pressure.
  14. 14. Biomes of the World 3. Temperate Rain Forest 1. Moderate climate and high annual rainfall 2. Relatively nutrient-poor soils 3. Forests subject to heavy logging pressure.
  15. 15. Biomes of the World4. Temperate Deciduous Forest 1. Located in the mid-latitude areas 2. Four distinct seasons 3. Short, cold winters & long, hot, wet summers 4. Trees adapted to the winter with a period of dormancy and thick bark to protect them from the cold
  16. 16. Biomes of the World 5. Grasslands 1. Composed of a rich mix of grasses and forbs and some of the worlds most fertile 2. Semiarid, continental climate soils 3. Summers tend to be dry 4. Most precipitation falls at start of growing season
  17. 17. Biomes of the World6. Chaparral (aka: scrub forest) 1. Composed of drought tolerant trees, shrubs, and grasses 2. Occur in California, coastal Mediterranean, and south coast of Australia 3. Plants go dormant during very dry summer 4. Most precipitation falls in winter
  18. 18. Biomes of the World 7. Deserts 1. Arid, with annual rainfall less than 10 in. 2. Plants adapted to conserve water over long periods (e.g. cacti, sagebrush, and mesquite) or germinate, develop to maturity, flower, and produce a new crop of seeds within a few weeks following a rain event 3. Animals burrow to escape the heat of the desert sun
  19. 19. Biomes of the World 8. Savanna 1. Tropical grasslands 2. Tropical climate with alternate wet and dry seasons 3. Characterized by a continuous cover of perennial grasses
  20. 20. Biomes of the World9. Tropical Rain Forests 1. Earths most complex biome in terms of structure and species 2. Climate characterized by diversity abundant precipitation and year round warmth 3. Trees vertically stratification into three distinct layers
  21. 21. Aquatic Ecosystems Trophic Levels
  22. 22. Aquatic EcosystemsEnvironmental Factors Temperature
  23. 23. Aquatic Ecosystems Environmental FactorsLight
  24. 24. Aquatic Ecosystems Environmental Factors Salinity The Black Sea 16 PPT Baltic Sea Pacific Ocean 5-15 PPT 36 PPTLake Michigan 0.5 PPT The Red Sea & The Persian Gulf 40 PPT The Dead Sea 332 PPT
  25. 25. Aquatic Ecosystems Environmental FactorsCurrents
  26. 26. Aquatic EcosystemsEnvironmental Factors Dissolved Oxygen Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L) Dissolved Oxygen Depth (m) Depth (m) Temperature Temperature (ºC)
  27. 27. Aquatic Ecosystems Zonation
  28. 28. Aquatic Ecosystems Human Impacts Waterways across the United States are contaminated by a medicine chest of antibiotics, hormones, caffeine, painkillers and other drugs Agricultural runoff can carry fertilizers, including traces of antibiotics and hormones, into waterways

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