BIOME is the collection of ecosystems sharing similar climatic conditions.
Uneven Solar Heating and LatitudeEarth as a whole is in thermal equilibrium, but different latitudes are not.Moving masses of air and ocean currents transport energy fromlocations with a surplus to those with a deficit.
Cold, Cell 3 North dry air falls Moist air rises — rain Polar cap Arctic tundra Cell 2 NorthModel of global air Evergreen coniferous forestcirculation and 60 Cool, dry Temperate deciduous air fallsbiomes. forest and grassland Cell 1 NorthThe direction of air 30 Desertflow and the ascent Tropical deciduous forest Moist air rises,and descent of air Tropical cools, and 0 Equator rain forest releasesmasses in moistureconvection cells Tropical deciduous forest as rain 30determine the Desert Cell 1 Southearth’s climatic Temperate deciduous forest and grassland Cool, dryzones. 60 air falls Cell 2 South Polar cap Cold, Moist air rises — rain dry air falls Cell 3 South
Generalized effects of altitude and latitude on climate and biomes. Parallel changes in vegetation occur when moving from the Equator to the poles or from the lowlands to mountaintops. Altitude Mountain Ice and snow Tundra (herbs, lichens, mosses) Coniferous Forest Deciduous Latitude Forest Tropical Forest Tropical Deciduous Coniferous Tundra (herbs, Polar ice Forest Forest Forest lichens, mosses) and snow
High tide Depth in Sun meters Low tide Coastal Zone Open Sea Sea level 0 Photosynthesis 50 Euphotic ZoneEstuarine 100Zone Continental 200 shelf Twilight Bathyal Zone 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 Abyssal Zone 3,000 Darkness 4,000 5,000 10,000
Biomes of the World 1. The Tundra 1. Extremely cold climate 2. Low biotic diversity 3. Simple vegetation structure 4. Permafrost limited drainage 5. Short growing season 6. Energy and nutrients in the form of dead organic material 7. Large population oscillations alpine vs arctic tundra
Biomes of the World 2. The Taiga aka: boreal forest 1. Band of coniferous trees located just south of tundra 2. Milder climate and more diverse biota than tundra 3. Forests subject to heavy logging pressure.
Biomes of the World 3. Temperate Rain Forest 1. Moderate climate and high annual rainfall 2. Relatively nutrient-poor soils 3. Forests subject to heavy logging pressure.
Biomes of the World4. Temperate Deciduous Forest 1. Located in the mid-latitude areas 2. Four distinct seasons 3. Short, cold winters & long, hot, wet summers 4. Trees adapted to the winter with a period of dormancy and thick bark to protect them from the cold
Biomes of the World 5. Grasslands 1. Composed of a rich mix of grasses and forbs and some of the worlds most fertile 2. Semiarid, continental climate soils 3. Summers tend to be dry 4. Most precipitation falls at start of growing season
Biomes of the World6. Chaparral (aka: scrub forest) 1. Composed of drought tolerant trees, shrubs, and grasses 2. Occur in California, coastal Mediterranean, and south coast of Australia 3. Plants go dormant during very dry summer 4. Most precipitation falls in winter
Biomes of the World 7. Deserts 1. Arid, with annual rainfall less than 10 in. 2. Plants adapted to conserve water over long periods (e.g. cacti, sagebrush, and mesquite) or germinate, develop to maturity, flower, and produce a new crop of seeds within a few weeks following a rain event 3. Animals burrow to escape the heat of the desert sun
Biomes of the World 8. Savanna 1. Tropical grasslands 2. Tropical climate with alternate wet and dry seasons 3. Characterized by a continuous cover of perennial grasses
Biomes of the World9. Tropical Rain Forests 1. Earths most complex biome in terms of structure and species 2. Climate characterized by diversity abundant precipitation and year round warmth 3. Trees vertically stratification into three distinct layers
Aquatic Ecosystems Human Impacts Waterways across the United States are contaminated by a medicine chest of antibiotics, hormones, caffeine, painkillers and other drugs Agricultural runoff can carry fertilizers, including traces of antibiotics and hormones, into waterways