Biotic and AbioticABIOTIC FACTOR = BIOTIC FACTORS = non-living factors in an living factors in environment. an environment.
Abiotic factor 無生命的Non-living part of the habitat Includes: • Water • Sunlight • Oxygen • Temperature • Soil (edaphic factors) Important for photosynthesis to occur
Photosynthesis 光合作用 Biochemical process of converting carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight, into oxygen and sugarAbiotic factors in low supply prevent thematerials needed for photosynthesis
Photosynthesis 光合作用 Biochemical process of converting carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight, into oxygen and sugarVisual animation:http://www.classzone.com/books/ml_science_share/vis_sim/dltm05_pg39_photosyn/dltm05_pg39_photosyn.html
WaterHabitats vary in the availability of waterWhich has very little available water? Sea and desert
SunlightHabitats vary in the availability of sunlightHow does life survive in low sunlight? Predation, special adaptations
Oxygen Habitats vary in the availability of oxygen MountainsWhy do oxygenlevels matter for Deep sealife if a plant onlyneed carbondioxide? dioxide and all gasses means low carbon Low oxygen usually
TemperatureHabitats vary temperatureWhat does temperature have to do withphotosynthesis? Rate of reaction
SoilHabitats vary in the availability of soil or inthe quality of their soilsSoils produce essential nutrients
Biotic factor 生物的 Living part of the habitatOrganism → Population → Community → Ecosystem
Organism A living thingOrganisms of the same kind are calledspecies. Species 種類 Physically similar organism that can produce offspring, and those offspring can produce offspring
Organism A living thing Population 族群All the members of a particular species in an area Community 群落 All the various populations in an area Ecosystem 生態系統 The community and the habitat
NICHE = all of the HABITAT = ways that the organism place where an interacts with everything organism orelse in the ecosystem-therole or job of a species in population of an ecosystem. organisms live.
Pyramids• Are graphical models of the quantitative differences that exist between the trophic levels of a single ecosystem.• In accordance to the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics, there is a tendency for numbers and quantities to biomass and energy to decrease along food chains, therefore the pyramids become narrower toward the top.
PYRAMID OF NUMBERS represents storages found at each trophic level. Units vary
Grassland Temperate Forest (summer) (summer) Tertiary consumers Secondary consumers Primary consumers ProducersA few large producers (the trees) support a much larger number ofSmall primary consumers (insects) that feed on the trees.
PYRAMID OF BIOMASS represent the standing stock at each trophic level.Units:J m-2 org m-2
Abandoned Field Ocean Tertiary consumers Secondary consumers Primary consumers ProducersIn open waters of aquatic ecosystems, the biomass primary consumers(zooplankton) can exceed that of producers. The zooplankton eat theProducers (phytoplankton) as fast as they reproduce, so their populationis never very large.
PYRAMID OF PRODUCTIVITY representsthe flow of energy through each trophic level. Units: J m-2 yr-1 or g m-2 yr-1
• As you move up each trophic level, only 10% of the energy is transferred.• The other 90% is used for everyday life functions, metabolism.