DP Environmental systems            and societiesTopic 3 Human population carrying capacity and                           ...
3.2 RESOURCES—NATURAL CAPITAL
Natural capital Natural capital = natural resources eg. plants, soil,  water, ores, organisms Natural income = the harvest...
1. Renewable natural capital• Living – biotic renewal• Self-producing, self-  maintaining• Uses solar energy and  photosyn...
2. Non-renewable naturalcapital• Use reduces stock (except on a geologic  timescale)• Includes minerals and fossil fuels
3. Replenishable natural capital• Non-living –abiotic renewal• Often dependent on solar  energy for renewal• Includes the ...
What is a resource andwhen?
What intrinsic value do youplace on natural capital??                                 Versus Option – Topic 7 EVS activity
Sustainability Sustainability = using natural capital at a  rate that allows natural regeneration and  minimizes damage to...
Sustainabledevelopment Sustainable development = development  that meets current needs without  compromising the ability o...
Copythisone
Sustainable yields Sustainable yield = rate of increase in natural  capital which can be exploited without  depleting the ...
Energy resources3.3 ENERGY RESOURCES
Energy resources
Energy comparisons           Coal (animation)           • Abundant supply (up to 250 years left)           • Currently ine...
Energy comparisons           Gas           •   Widely available           •   Cleanest-burning fossil fuel           •   R...
Energy comparisons           Hydroelectric (animation)           • No emissions           • Safe and reliable generation o...
Energy comparisons           Solar (animation) (passive solar)           •   Non-polluting           •   Most abundant ene...
Energy comparisons           Geothermal           •   Minimal environmental impact           •   Efficient           •   P...
Energy choice    MEDCs have    technology to use    nuclear energy                        MEDCs                        pro...
Energychoice:Highnaturalreserves
Energy choice Biomass – LEDCs have less access to modern energy sources
Resources 3.2 3.3
Resources 3.2 3.3
Resources 3.2 3.3
Resources 3.2 3.3
Resources 3.2 3.3
Resources 3.2 3.3
Resources 3.2 3.3
Resources 3.2 3.3
Resources 3.2 3.3
Resources 3.2 3.3
Resources 3.2 3.3
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Resources 3.2 3.3

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Resources 3.2 3.3

  1. 1. DP Environmental systems and societiesTopic 3 Human population carrying capacity and resource use
  2. 2. 3.2 RESOURCES—NATURAL CAPITAL
  3. 3. Natural capital Natural capital = natural resources eg. plants, soil, water, ores, organisms Natural income = the harvest or yields of the natural capital. May be renewable, non- renewable, or replenishable. Income may be goods and services - Goods such as timber and grain - Services such as flood and erosion protection, climate stabilization and soil fertility
  4. 4. 1. Renewable natural capital• Living – biotic renewal• Self-producing, self- maintaining• Uses solar energy and photosynthesis• Includes timber, climate regulation
  5. 5. 2. Non-renewable naturalcapital• Use reduces stock (except on a geologic timescale)• Includes minerals and fossil fuels
  6. 6. 3. Replenishable natural capital• Non-living –abiotic renewal• Often dependent on solar energy for renewal• Includes the groundwater and the ozone layer
  7. 7. What is a resource andwhen?
  8. 8. What intrinsic value do youplace on natural capital?? Versus Option – Topic 7 EVS activity
  9. 9. Sustainability Sustainability = using natural capital at a rate that allows natural regeneration and minimizes damage to the environment.
  10. 10. Sustainabledevelopment Sustainable development = development that meets current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs - 1987 Brundtland Report, United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development (WECD)
  11. 11. Copythisone
  12. 12. Sustainable yields Sustainable yield = rate of increase in natural capital which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment Time of original plus Time of original yield
  13. 13. Energy resources3.3 ENERGY RESOURCES
  14. 14. Energy resources
  15. 15. Energy comparisons Coal (animation) • Abundant supply (up to 250 years left) • Currently inexpensive to extract • Reliable and capable of generating large amounts of power • Emits major greenhouse gases/acid rain (contains up to 10% sulfur) • High environmental impact from mining and burning, although cleaner coal-burning technology is being developed • Mining can be dangerous for miners Oil (animation) • Efficient transportation fuel for the world • Basis of many products, from prescription drugs to plastics • Economical to produce • Easy to transport • High CO2 emissions • Found in limited areas • Supply may be exhausted before natural gas/coal resources (20-50 years left)
  16. 16. Energy comparisons Gas • Widely available • Cleanest-burning fossil fuel • Relatively cheap • Limited supply (about 70 years left) • Burns cleanly, but still has emissions (half of coal) • Pipelines impact ecosystems Nuclear fission (animation) • No greenhouse gases or CO2 emissions • Efficient at transforming energy into electricity • Higher capital costs due to safety, emergency, containment, radioactive waste, and storage systems • Problem of long-term storage of radioactive waste • Potential nuclear proliferation issue • Limited supply (about 80 years left)
  17. 17. Energy comparisons Hydroelectric (animation) • No emissions • Safe and reliable generation of large amounts of power • Reservoirs create water reserves and recreation • Environmental impacts by changing the environment in the dam area • Hydroelectric dams are expensive to build • Dams may be affected by drought Biofuels • Abundant supply with fewer emissions than fossil fuel sources • Can be long-term and sustainable • Source must be near usage to cut transportation costs • Emits some pollution as gas/liquid waste • Increases emissions of nitrogen oxides, an air pollutant • Competes with crops grown for food
  18. 18. Energy comparisons Solar (animation) (passive solar) • Non-polluting • Most abundant energy source available • Systems last 15-30 years • High initial investment • Supplemental energy may be needed in low sunlight areas Wind • No emissions • Affordable, relatively high output • Little disruption of ecosystems • Output is proportional to wind speed • Not feasible for all geographic locations • High initial investment/ongoing maintenance costs • Extensive land use
  19. 19. Energy comparisons Geothermal • Minimal environmental impact • Efficient • Power plants have low emissions • Low cost after the initial investment • Geothermal fields found in few areas around the world • Expensive start-up costs • Wells could eventually be depleted Tidal • Ideal for island countries • High output, no emissions • Initial cost high • May damage environment by reducing tidal flows
  20. 20. Energy choice MEDCs have technology to use nuclear energy MEDCs producing MEDCs most of the consuming pollution the most through coal energy
  21. 21. Energychoice:Highnaturalreserves
  22. 22. Energy choice Biomass – LEDCs have less access to modern energy sources

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