Pollution management 5.5 to 5.8


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Pollution management 5.5 to 5.8

  1. 1. DP Environmental systemsand societies Topic 5 Pollution management
  3. 3. Types of solid domestic wasteBreakdown for a typical city:
  4. 4. Waste management
  5. 5. Waste management• Recycling• Incineration• Composting• LandfillDiscuss the advantages and disadvantages.
  6. 6. Landfill• Relatively cheap• Can collect methane for energyBut…• Leachate can leak into ground water• Uses up a lot of space
  7. 7. Incinerators• Heat produced can be used for energy• Produces far less waste for landfillsBut…• Causes air pollution (including heavy metals)• Does not encourage less waste production• Initial high cost of plant
  9. 9. Structure of Earth’s atmosphere – click on Stratosphere
  10. 10. Ozone Layer (click on hyperlinks)• Ozone is the shield in the upper atmosphere that protects us from ultraviolet radiation• Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are a class of chemicals involved in ozone destruction• CFCs disrupt the ozone equilibrium (formation and destruction of O3 absorbing UV)
  11. 11. Hole in the ozone
  12. 12. Effects of UV• Humans: skin cancer, catar acts, sunburn .• Plants: damage to zooplankton and phytoplankton decreasing ecosystem productivity
  13. 13. Ways to reduce CFCs1. Recycle refrigerants2. Using alternatives to gas-blown plastics3. Alternative propellants – hydrocarbons or pump sprays4. Alternatives to methyl bromide (bromomethane) – other fungicides
  14. 14. Role of international organisationsUNEP organized the 1987 Montreal Protocol that has reduced ozone depleting substances (ODS) by over 90%.Problems:• Developing countries need CFCs to develop• Developed countries are helping to fund alternative technologies
  15. 15. Research Qs• What is Shanghai city doing to reduce solid domestic waste? How effective has it been?• What is Shanghai city doing to reduce CFCs?
  16. 16. Introductory animationVideo air pollution5.7 URBAN AIRPOLLUTION
  17. 17. Formation of tropospheric ozone Burning of Fossil Fuels Hydrocarbons (VOCs) Nitrogen monoxide (NO) SmogNO (and VOCs) react with Ozone (O3) sunlight  Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)
  18. 18. Particulate matter (PM)Burning offossil fuelsalsoproducesparticulatematter ofvarioussizes:
  19. 19. Health effects of PM10 and smog Ozone gets into plant leaves and degrades chlorophyll decreasing crop yields and dieback of forests PM10 gets past the cilia in respiratory tract and lodges in our lungs causing asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, premature aging of lungs
  20. 20. Air Pollution Reduces VisibilityAcadia National ParkA Clear Day vs A HazyDay
  21. 21. Reducing air pollution… Reducing demand for electricity • Energy saving light bulbs Switching to renewable energy • Solar panels Clean up measures • Catalytic converters Reducing demand for private cars • Public transport
  22. 22. 5.8 ACID DEPOSITION
  23. 23. Acid Rain formation These particles fall Combining withBurning of fossil as dry deposition H2O createsfuels produces or combine with sulfuric acid SO2 and NOx rain for wet (H2SO4) and Nitric deposition acid (HNO3)
  24. 24. Harmful effects of acid rain Plants Soil Water Destroys lipid Increases levels Leaches mineralsmembranes, interf of metal from the ers with ions, decreases soil, decreases pH photosynthesis pH eg. Death of fish eg. Poor tree due to highEg. Conifers lose growth due to lack aluminiumtheir leaves, open of calcium, roots concentrations, p to insect attack destroyed by pH H decreases biodiversity
  25. 25. Areas affected by acid rain• High industry burning a lot of fossil fuels• Local winds determining where acid will be deposited• Lack of limestone or chalk geology (basic) that buffer the effects of acid
  26. 26. Areas of industry
  27. 27. Areas of acid rain
  28. 28. pH readings
  29. 29. Acid rain management • Renewable energy • Low sulfur fuels • Public transport1. Replace • Energy saving appliances • Chimney scrubbers to remove sulfur dioxide • Catalytic converters to remove nitrogen dioxide 2. • International agreements to cut emissionsRegulate • Adding lime to acidified lakes and soil3. Restore
  30. 30. Scrubbers • The SO2 that is captured in a scrubber combines with the lime or limestone to form a number of byproducts. A primary byproduct is calcium sulfate.