Conservation 4.3


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Conservation 4.3

  1. 1. DP Environmental systems and societies <ul><li>Topic 4 Conservation and Biodiversity </li></ul>
  2. 2. 4.3 Conservation of biodiversity
  3. 4. Why do we want biodiversity? <ul><li>Aesthetic argument…. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Which do you like better? A B
  5. 6. Which do you like better? A B
  6. 7. Which do you like better? A B
  7. 8. Which do you like better? A B
  8. 9. A B Which do you like better?
  9. 10. Which do you like better? A B
  10. 11. Which do you like better? A B
  11. 12. What do we get from biodiversity? <ul><li>Aesthetic and recreational value </li></ul><ul><li>To enjoy! </li></ul>
  12. 13. What do we get from biodiversity? <ul><li>Food source and Gene source </li></ul><ul><li>All our food sources come from nature </li></ul><ul><li>If disease wipes out one of these sources (eg. Irish potato famine), nature is the only place where we can find resistant strains </li></ul><ul><li>Nature is also a source of biological control </li></ul>
  13. 14. What do we get from biodiversity? <ul><li>Timber, clean air and water </li></ul><ul><li>Rubber, silk , cotton, etc…. </li></ul>Natural products
  14. 15. What do we get from biodiversity? <ul><li>Provides the insects needed for agricultural fertilization and pollination </li></ul><ul><li>Protects the water, and soil erosion supporting agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Trees increase/cause rainfall supporting agriculture </li></ul>Ecosystem productivity
  15. 16. What do we get from biodiversity? <ul><li>The intrinsic right of species to exist? </li></ul><ul><li>Human rights of native groups who live in natural ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>The source and future source of many medicines </li></ul><ul><li>Studying nature also provides ideas that are used in manufacturing or engineering </li></ul>Ethics, Health, Education
  16. 17. Who is protecting diversity? Conservation biology seeks to sustainably use and conserve natural resources. Preservation biology seeks to exclude all human activity. Intergovernmental organizations Non - governmental organizations <ul><li>UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) </li></ul><ul><li>WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature) </li></ul><ul><li>Greenpeace </li></ul>
  17. 18. Who is protecting diversity? Type GO NGO Example <ul><li>UNEP </li></ul><ul><li>WWF </li></ul><ul><li>Greenpeace </li></ul>Use of media Professional liason officers produce statements Protest activities and advertisements Speed of response Slow Rapid Politics Must consider international agreements, local laws, party politics No constraints – sometimes even illegal Enforceability Full – fines and prosecution None - social pressure only
  18. 19. Short History of the Ecological Movement 1968 Minamata Bay Disaster - Bioaccumulation 1962 Rachel Carson publishes Silent Spring – the pesticide DDT is banned 1970s Growth in NGOs (WWF, Greenpeace) 1975 CITES formed by IUCN - protecting endangered species from international trade 1984 Bhopal Disaster 1986 Chernobyl Disaster 1992 Rio Earth Summit - agreement to reduce CO 2 emissions 2000 Millennium Development Goals 2010 BP Disaster
  19. 20. How to design a protected area 1. Large – allows more habitats and more species
  20. 21. How to design a protected area 2. Unfragmented – allows dispersal
  21. 22. How to design a protected area 2a. Close – if fragmentation unavoidable
  22. 23. How to design a protected area 2b. Grouped – if fragmentation unavoidable
  23. 24. How to design a protected area 2c. Corridors – if fragmentation unavoidable
  24. 25. How to design a protected area 3. Round – less edge effect such as interference like poaching
  25. 26. What makes a protected area successful? <ul><li>Buffer zones around them that: </li></ul><ul><li>Partially or completely funded by the government (stability) </li></ul><ul><li>Have educational programs (public awareness) </li></ul><ul><li>Attract visitors (funding, public support, recreation) </li></ul><ul><li>Are managed not just left to develop (maintained) </li></ul><ul><li>Have a high profile animal (Panda, Bear, Marsupial etc) </li></ul>
  26. 27. Why protect a single species? <ul><li>CITES – The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora </li></ul><ul><li>BENEFITS OF FOCUSSING ON ONE SPECIES </li></ul><ul><li>Education of public – focusing on one allows better media coverage. One popular animal attracts people to zoos etc increasing funds </li></ul><ul><li>An endangered species may need a captive breeding program </li></ul><ul><li>Protecting the habitat of the one, will protect the habitat of all the organisms in that habitat </li></ul><ul><li>COSTS OF FOCUSSING ON ONE SPECIES </li></ul><ul><li>Captive breeding decreases gene pool and may be difficult to reintroduce into the wild </li></ul><ul><li>Animals kept for profit </li></ul>