A seminar on IN VITRO FERTILIZATION-EMBRYO TRANSFER (IVF-ET)Presented byNIYAMAT M. PANJESHA Modern College Of Arts , Science & Commerce. Shivajinagar, Pune-05.
WHAT IS IVF? In vitro fertilization broadly deals with “the removal of egg’s from a women, fertilizing them in the laboratory, and transferring the fertilized eggs (zygotes) into the uterus a few days later.
WHY IVF? Infertility: Extremely Prevalent Definition: inability to achieve pregnancy 17-26% of couples worldwide (90 million women) 27-47% of infertile couples have impaired male fertility; decline in semen quality worldwide over last 50 years
WHY THE INCREASE IN INFERTILITY? Delayed marriage and child-bearing Sexually transmitted diseases Hormonal contraception Abortion Obesity Environmental Pollution
IVF: HISTORY In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a fertility procedure which first succeeded as recently as 1978 by Dr. Edwards ( an embryologist) and Dr. Steptoe ( a gynecologist) in England. Since then the technology has been further refined and developed by physicians and embryologists, with over 20,000 babies born worldwide.
METHODOLOGY OF IVF The ivf broadly involves the fowllowig stages:-1. Ovarian stimulation and monitoring2. Egg (oocyte) retrieval3. Fertilization4. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection5. Embryo transfer
STAGE 1: OVARIAN STIMULATION ANDMONITORING Ovarian stimulation is used to produce multiple mature follicles, rather than the single egg normally developed each month.
STAGE 2: EGG RETRIEVAL Egg recovery is accomplished by a transvaginal procedure, which can be performed under light sedation or local anesthesia.
STAGE 3: FERTILIZATION Once mature eggs have been retrieved, the sperm and eggs are placed together in the laboratory and incubated in a meticulously prepared culture medium at a temperature identical to that of the woman’s body.
STAGE 4: INTRACYTOPLASMIC SPERMINJECTION During the process of ICSI, an embryologist isolates a sperm cell, draws it up into a microscopic needle and injects it inside an egg using a high power microscope.
STAGE 5: EMBRYO TRANSFER Embryo transfer is not a painful procedure and can be performed without sedation. Usually up to three embryos are placed together in a catheter ( a tubular instrument) and transferred, via the
SUCCESS RATE OF IVF Varies from programme to programme. It is dependent upon correct diagnosis of patient, and age. Pregnancy rate is in the range of 25-30% per oocyte retrieval. The take home is about 15-20% per procedure.
LIMITATION OF IVF Genetic defect in oocytes. Genetic defect in fertilizing sperm. Environmental mutagenesis. Inadequate supply of nutrients and hormones. Exposure to toxic agents and free radicals.