A SEMINAR ONDownstream processing of vaccine (e.g. Influenza & Tetanus) Presented By- NIYAMAT M. PANJESHA SNEHA SAWLE YUGENDRA PATIL Modern College Of Arts , Science & Commerce. Shivajinagar, Pune-05.
What are Vaccines?• A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease.• Name derived from the word vacca which means cow.• Can be- 1) Prophylactic. 2) Therapeutic. Edward Jenner observed that the farmers and milkmaids working with cows developed a mild form of small pox called cowpox or vaccinia. The cowpox infection could protect these people from infection of smallpox. It was in 1796 Jenner experimentally tested this observation. He inoculated an 8 yr old boy with exudates from a cowpox lesion and he repeated it twice with a gap of some weaks. Jenner noticed that smallpox did not develop in this boy. This was 1st discovery of principle of vaccination.
Live attenuated Organism Killed Traditional Toxoid Sub-unitTypes Recombinant Conjugate Vector DNA Experimental vaccine Edible vaccine
Examples of VaccinesSr. Vaccine Organism DiseaseNo.1 Live Attenuated Bacterial •Bacillus anthracis •Aanthrax Vaccine •Salmonella typhii •Typhoid2 Inactivated Bacterial Vaccines Capsular Ag •Neissseria meningitides •Meningitis Cell wall Ag •Vibrio Cholera •Cholera Toxoid Ag •Clostridium tetani •Tetanus3 Recombinant Vaccines Bacterial •Clostridium tetani •Tetanus Protozoal •Plasmodium vivax •Malaria Viral -H1N1 •Influenza4 DNA vaccines •Malaria
processing SELECTING THE STRAIN FOR Upstream VACCINE PRODUCTION GROWING THE MICRO-ORGANISM ISOLATION & PURIFICATION OF MICROORGANISMDownstream processing INACTIVATION OF ORGANISM FORMULATION OF VACCINE QUALITY CONTROL AND LOT RELEASE
Influenza VaccineTwo modes: Seasonal Epidemic andPandemic InfluenzaTypes of VaccineProduction:1.Egg based(Traditional)2.Cell line basedThree forms of vaccine:A.WholeB.SplitC.Subunit/Surface Antigen
Live Virus Vaccine Production using MDCK cell line onCytodex3 micro carrier Upstream Process:0.5X106 cells/ml(at 100r.p.m. for 48hrs.) At 2-2.5X106 cells/ml infectwith Viral inoculum and carry out for 24hr.
DOWNSTREAM PROCESSING1.Clarification:ULTA Prime GF capsuleFiltration(0.6µm)2.Diafiltration(0.4µm) inbuffer[20mM Tris+0.5M NaCl,pH7.5]3.DNA binding Anion ExchangeChromatography: To remove gDNA4.Sterile Filtration(0.2µm):Stainless steel filter precoated withbuffer.
Tetanus is an acute and highly fatal disease caused byexotoxins produced by the bacterium Clostridium.tetani.Cl. tetani produces two exotoxins- tetanolysin andtetanospasmin.Tetanus toxoid is one of the most immunogenicantigens available for the protection against an infectiousdisease in the world.Tetanus Vaccine produced by anaerobic fermentation.
Tetanus Vaccine Production Revival of the Preparation of seed Production strain production strain culture Production of tetanus toxin by Determination of Harvesting of Toxin Static Culture antigenic content MethodDetoxification of the Partial purification Purification of Toxin of tetanus toxin crude tetanus toxoid
REFERENCESNielsen, P. A.1967. Large-Scale Production of Vaccine. Applied Microbiology.Ozutsumi K, Sugimoto N, and Matsuda M. 1985. Rapid, Simplified Method forProduction and Purification of tetanus toxin. Applied and environmentalmicrobiology. Chandani Payal and Tejpal Kashyap, 2011. Production, Optimization ofDetoxification and Ammonium Sulphate Precipitation of Ultrafiltered TetanusToxin. Recent Research in Science and Technology, 3(11): 49-54. Nduka Okafor, Modern industrial microbiology and biotechnology.U.Satyanarayan, A Text book of Biotechnology.Michael J.Waites, Industrial Microbiology: An Introduction.GE Healthcare Life Sciences, Application note 28-9843-41 AA VaccinesPropagation and purification of influenza virus.
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