Japan : Christianity between Shinto and Buddhism


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Japan : Christianity between Shinto and Buddhism

  1. 1. "Born Shinto, die Buddhist"
  2. 2. <ul><li>There are hundreds of web sites educating businessmen on how to do business in Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Example: the emphasis of wa (harmony) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequences: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>subordination of the individual to the group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>necessity to check with colleagues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the promotion of cohorts, not individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>senior systems to maintain the integrity of the group. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not one site on how to spread Christianity in Japan </li></ul>
  3. 3. The result: <ul><li>The population of Japan is ~125 million </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 1% Christian </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1. Closeness to Nature The earth is the Lords Is 6:3 Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts; The whole earth is full of his glory. Possible Points of Contact between Japanese Beliefs and Christianity
  5. 6. 2. Ethics <ul><li>right understanding (belief) </li></ul><ul><li>right thinking (purpose) </li></ul><ul><li>right speech </li></ul><ul><li>right conduct </li></ul><ul><li>right livelihood </li></ul><ul><li>right effort </li></ul><ul><li>right mindfulness (right mind control) </li></ul><ul><li>right concentration (meditation) </li></ul>The Buddhist Eightfold Way Exodus 20 12   Honour thy father and thy mother 13   Thou shalt not kill. 14   Thou shalt not commit adultery. 15   Thou shalt not steal. 16   Thou shalt not bear false witness 17   Thou shalt not covet Possible Points of Contact between Japanese Beliefs and Christianity cont.
  6. 7. 3. Meditation 8. right concentration (meditation) The Buddhist Eightfold Way Psalm 119:148 … that I might meditate in they word Psalm 143:5 I meditate on all they works; I muse on the work of they hands. 1 Timothy 4: 15 Meditate upon these things; give thyself wholly to them; Possible Points of Contact between Japanese Beliefs and Christianity cont.
  7. 8. Utility for Everyday <ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Wellbeing </li></ul>Jeremiah 30, 17 For I will restore health unto t hee , an d I will heal t hee of t hy woun ds , sait h t he LORD; Jeremiah 33, 6 I will bring it health an d cure, an d I will cure t hem , Acts 27: 34 I pray you to take some meat: for t his is for your health : for t here s hall not an hair fall from t he head of any of you. 3 John 1:2 Belove d , I wis h above all t hings t hat t hou mayest prosper an d be in health , Possible Points of Contact between Japanese Beliefs and Christianity cont.
  8. 9. The many Genealogies express respect for ancestors Exodus 20 12   Honour thy father and thy mother Honor Elders and Ancestors Possible Points of Contact between Japanese Beliefs and Christianity cont.
  9. 10. Rituals and Ceremonies Possible Points of Contact between Japanese Beliefs and Christianity cont.
  10. 11. According to a 1992 survey, 31% of weddings that take place in Japan are Christian. Weddings as a means to expose young people to the Christian faith. Rituals and Ceremonies
  11. 12. Japan’s Religions: Shintō Buddhism Confucianism Daoism
  12. 13. Shrines and Temples Everywhere
  13. 14. Tokyo: Shrines and Temples Everywhere
  14. 15. <ul><li>Islands created by the gods. </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese people chosen by the gods. </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor descended from Amaterasu the Sun Goddess. </li></ul>Amaterasu Japan’s Legendary Origins
  15. 16. Prayers tablets, Meiji-jingu Shrine. Tokyo, Japan Practices
  16. 17. Worshippers can post their prayers ( prayer tablets) on a board and leave them at the shrine .
  17. 18. A visitor to the shrine can purchase a fortune paper. If it foretells a bad fortune, the paper is tied to this bush and left at the shrine.
  18. 19. Charm against evils
  19. 21. Money
  20. 22. Shinto
  21. 23. Shinto indigenous religion of Japan, closely tied to nature and the unseen world <ul><li>Shinto has </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>no founder, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>no canon of scriptures, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>no code of ethical requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>C entral aspects of Shinto: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>affinity with natural beauty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>harmony with the spirits/gods/forces (kami) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kami means both: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>non- anthropomorphic “god” or “spirit” or “force” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the invisible sacred quality which evokes wonder and awe in us </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>purification rituals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matsuri : festivals </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. Shinto Shrine consists of... Torii The torii gate marks the approach and entrance to a shrine. Purification through Near the entrance, for purification. Clean your hands and mouth before approaching the main hall. Main and Offering Hall The Main contains the shrine's sacred object, and visitors make their prayers and offerings. Ema Shrine visitors write their wishes on these wooden plates and then leave them at the shrine in the hope that their wishes come true. Most people wish for good health, success in business, passing entrance exams, love or wealth Omikuji Fortune telling papers at shrines and temples. Randomly drawn, they contain predictions ranging from &quot;great good luck“ to &quot;great bad luck&quot;. By tying the paper around a tree's branch, good fortune will come true or bad fortune can be averted.
  23. 25. Itsukushima Shinto Shrine
  24. 28. Kasuga Shrine: Nara
  25. 30. Heian Shrine : Kyoto
  26. 31. Buddhism <ul><li>Siddhartha Gautama (the Buddha) lived about 563 BC in the foothills of the Himalayas </li></ul><ul><li>Raised as royalty </li></ul><ul><li>Exposed to hardship & suffering in his 20s </li></ul><ul><li>Lived as ascetic for 6 years </li></ul><ul><li>Achieved enlightenment and adopted the “middle way”; taught for 45 years throughout India </li></ul>
  27. 32. Buddhism <ul><li>Basic elements of a Buddhist: </li></ul><ul><li>Life is suffering </li></ul><ul><li>Suffering is due to desire </li></ul><ul><li>Desire must be extinguished </li></ul><ul><li>In seeking salvation, one must walk the “Noble eight fold path” </li></ul>
  28. 33. The Eightfold Way <ul><li>right understanding (belief) </li></ul><ul><li>right thinking (purpose) </li></ul><ul><li>right speech </li></ul><ul><li>right conduct </li></ul><ul><li>right livelihood </li></ul><ul><li>right effort </li></ul><ul><li>right mindfulness (right mind control) </li></ul><ul><li>right concentration (meditation) </li></ul><ul><li>The path leads to Nirvana (perfect contentment, the release of attachments, and release from cycle of death & rebirth </li></ul>
  29. 34. <ul><li>Main Schools of Japanese Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Tendai (T'ien Tai, Chinese): </li></ul><ul><li>Founded in Japan by Saicho (d. 822 C.E. All Buddhas are bodhisattva; </li></ul><ul><li>none are yet in nirvana; all work compassionately to lead all to nirvana </li></ul><ul><li>Shingon : </li></ul><ul><li>Founded by Kukai (d. 835 C.E); enlightenment through rituals and </li></ul><ul><li>meditation. </li></ul><ul><li>Jodo or Pure Land: </li></ul><ul><li>Began at the time of the publication of the treatise of Honen (d. 1212 C.E) ; </li></ul><ul><li>entrance into the happy land through devotion to kannons through </li></ul><ul><li>chants and prayers </li></ul><ul><li>Joho Shinshu or True Pure Land: </li></ul><ul><li>Founded by Shinran (d. 1262 C.E; salvation not through merit and </li></ul><ul><li>chants but only through the power and mercy of amida. </li></ul><ul><li>Nichiren: </li></ul><ul><li>Named after its founder Nichiren (d. 1282 C.E; Enlightenment and this-worldly </li></ul><ul><li>benefits (health, wealth) through chants </li></ul><ul><li>Zen (Soto and Rinzai Sects): </li></ul><ul><li>The monk Eisai (d. 1215 C.E). Meditation, concentration and self-forgetfulness </li></ul>
  30. 35. Schools of Zen Buddhism and their temporal and doctrinal relationships
  31. 36. Buddhist Temples consit of... Main hall The sacred objects of worship, such as statues, are displayed in the main hall. Lecture hall Lecture halls are for meetings and lectures and often also display objects of worship. Structure with up to five stories. Pagodas store remains of the Buddha Most cemeteries in Japan are Buddhist and are located at a temple. Gates Gates mark the entrance to the temple grounds
  32. 38. Todaji Temple Daibatsu (Great Buddha) of the Todaji Temple World's Largest Gilded Bronze Buddha
  33. 39. Kiyomizu Temple: Kyoto
  34. 40. Kiyomizu Temple: Kyoto
  35. 41. Many devout worshippers stand beneath the waterfall to perform the rite of cold water ablution while worshipping Fudo Myoo (the God King of Fire) who is enshrined at the waterfall's fount. Kiyomizu Temple: Kyoto
  36. 42. Kinkakuji-Temple (Golden Pavilion) <ul><ul><ul><li>Originally a villa of the Saionji family on the hills of Kitayama, but offered to the third shogun of the Ashikaga Shogunate, Yoshimitsu Ashikaga in 1397 </li></ul></ul></ul>Kinkakuji-Temple: Kyoto
  37. 43. Kinkakuji-Temple: Kyoto
  38. 44. Kinkakuji-Temple: Kyoto
  39. 45. Sanjusangendo Temple, Kyoto Main hall with 1,001 figures of Kannon carved in the 12th and 13th centuries. Tendai sect.
  40. 46. Main Hall is with 125 metres is the longest wooden structure in the world. 1164 AD
  41. 47. Sanjusangen-do Temple . Kyoto 1001 statues of the Kannon (buddhist goddess of mercy),
  42. 48. The central image is a seated figure of the Kannon with 11 faces and 1000 arms
  43. 49. Kannon Temple: Tokyo - Asakusa
  44. 51. Ignatius sends Francis Xavier to Japan Christianity arrives in Japan
  45. 52. 1549: The Portuguese Jesuit Francis Xavier establishes Christian mission in Western Japan with support of local rulers. The Japanese barons on Kyushu welcomed foreign trade especially because of the new weapons (and gunpowder) , and, therefore, tolerated the Jesuit and later Franciscan missionaries. Many Japanese convert to Christianity
  46. 54. CHRISTIANS Persecuted <ul><li>Toyotomi Hideyoshi , </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bans Christianity, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>expels missionaries, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>executes those who refuse to apostatize ( executed 26 Franciscans in Nagasaki ) </li></ul></ul>Monument for the 26 Franciscans in Nagasaki .
  47. 55. CHRISTIANS Persecuted <ul><li>Tokiugawa Ieasu and his successors continued the persecution of Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>1606: Christianity declared illegal </li></ul><ul><li>1614: edict issued against Christianity; </li></ul><ul><li>policy to destroy Christianity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>62 missionaries and 2000 Japanese converts perished by torture, buried alive or crucified on shore as tide came in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christian peasant rebellion in 1638 [4000 killed] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1639: no active missionaries left </li></ul><ul><li>At this point in time, there were about 300,000 Japanese Christians and many of them renounced Christianity as a result of persecution.  </li></ul>
  48. 56. Church in the Cave <ul><li>“ Hidden Christians” ( kakure Kirishitan ) practice their faith in secret until 1860s </li></ul>
  49. 57. <ul><li>Ambassador Townsend Harris Treaty, 1858 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange of ministers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More ports for trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Admission of foreign residents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Readmission of missionaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraterritoriality </li></ul></ul>American Matthew Perry Forces Japan Open
  50. 58. Meiji Restoration: 1867. Restoration of Emperor Meiji Reintroduction of Christianity In 1859, foreign missionaries returned to Japan after the government lifted it's ban, but they couldn't  hold meetings openly until 1873.  Groups of Christians who had worshipped in secret came out during this time, in all about 30,000 Christians came forward. Catholic and Protestant missionaries worked hard, but their labor resulted in just a few converts. In 1867  64 Christians were arrested in Urakami, and in nearby Omura 110 were jailed under such harsh conditions that 60 died of exposure.   The 1930's was a difficult time for Christians due to increasing nationalism and the patriotic duty of attending Shinto shrines regardless of religious affiliation .  
  51. 59. <ul><li>Kyodan, Japan (1941) </li></ul><ul><li>In 1941, to solidify control over religious groups, the government limited its official recognition to only two Christian bodies, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roman Catholics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A forced union of all Protestants (30 churches) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This newly formed entity was known as KYODAN or the United Church of Christ in Japan , which today has about 200,000 members. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1946, Allies stripped Shinto of its state-religion status and reduced it to the level of a sect. </li></ul><ul><li>On Jan. 1, 1946, Emperor Hirohito renounced all claim to divinity. </li></ul>
  52. 60. Present Situation: <ul><li>The population of Japan is ~125 million </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 1% Christian </li></ul>