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Dynamic source routing
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Zone Routing Protocol

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Presentation on Zone Routing protocol (Hybrid Protocol ) in Mobile Ad Hoc Network course,2013

Zone Routing Protocol

  1. 1. SLKGHIJABCDEEach node S in the network has a routing zone. This isthe proactive zone for S as S collects informationabout its routing zone in the manner of the DSDVprotocol.
  2. 2.  The routing in ZRP is divided into twoparts› Intrazone routing : First, the packet is sentwithin the routing zone of the source node toreach the peripheral nodes.› Interzone routing : Then the packet is sentfrom the peripheral nodes towards thedestination node.SDintrazoneinterzone
  3. 3. 5#Intrazone Routing• Each node collects information about allthe nodes in its routing zone proactively.This strategy is similar to a proactiveprotocol like DSDV.• Each node maintains a routing table forits routing zone, so that it can find a routeto any node in the routing zone from thistable.• Each node periodically broadcasts amessage similar to a hello messageknown as a zone notification message.
  4. 4. 6#• A hello message dies after one hop, i.e.,after reaching a node´s neighbours.• A zone notification mesage dies after khops, i.e., after reaching the node´sneighbours at a distance of k hops.• Each node receiving this messagedecreases the hop count of the messageby 1 and forwards the message to itsneighbours.
  5. 5. 7#SCAEFBDS performs routediscovery for DDenotes route request
  6. 6. 8#SCAEFBDS performs routediscovery for DDenotes route replyE knows route from E to D,so route request need not beforwarded to D from E
  7. 7. 9#SCAEFBDS performs routediscovery for DDenotes route taken by Data
  8. 8. 10#• The interzone routing discovers routesto the destination reactively.• Consider a source (S) and adestination (D). If D is within the routingzone of S, the routing is completed inthe intrazone routing phase.• Otherwise, S sends the packet to theperipheral nodes of its zone throughbordercasting.
  9. 9. 11#• S sends a route request (RREQ) messageto the peripheral nodes of its zonethrough bordercasting.• Each peripheral node P executes thesame algorithm.– First, P checks whether the destination D iswithin its routing zone and if so, sends thepacket to D.– Otherwise, P sends the packet to theperipheral nodes of its routing zone throughbordercasting.
  10. 10. 12#• The bordercasting to peripheral nodescan be done mainly in two ways :– By maintaining a multicast tree for theperipheral nodes. S is the root of this tree.– Otherwise, S maintains complete routingtable for its zone and routes the packet tothe peripheral nodes by consulting thisrouting table.
  11. 11. 13#SDBHAC
  12. 12.  If a node P finds that the destination D iswithin its routing zone, P can initiate a routereply. Each node appends its address to the RREQmessage during the route request phase.This is similar to route request phase in DSR. This accumulated address can be used tosend the route reply (RREP) back to thesource node S.14#
  13. 13.  An alternative strategy is to keep forwardand backward links at every node´s routingtable similar to the AODV protocol. Thishelps in keeping the packet size constant. A RREQ usually results in more than oneRREP and ZRP keeps track of more than onepath between S and D. An alternative pathis chosen in case one path is broken.15#
  14. 14.  When there is a broken link along anactive path between S and D, a localpath repair procedure is initiated. A broken link is always within the routingzone of some node.16#SD
  15. 15.  Hence, repairing a broken link requiresestablishing a new path between twonodes within a routing zone. The repair is done by the starting node ofthe link (node A in the previous diagram)by sending a route repair message tonode B within its routing zone. This is like a RREQ message from A with Bas the destination.17#
  16. 16.  Interzone routing may generate manycopies of the same RREQ message if notdirected correctly. The RREQ should be steered towards thedestination or towards previouslyunexplored regions of the network. Otherwise, the same RREQ message mayreach the same nodes manytimes, causing the flooding of thenetwork. 18#
  17. 17.  Since each node has its own routingzone, the routing zones of neighbouringnodes overlap heavily. Since each peripheral node of a zoneforwards the RREQ message, themessage can reach the same nodemultiple times without proper control. Each node may forward the same RREQmultiple times.19#
  18. 18. 20#The search explores new regions of the network.
  19. 19.  When a node P receives a RREQmessage, P records the message in its listof RREQ messages that it has received. If P receives the same RREQ more thanonce, it does not forward the RREQ thesecond time onwards. Also P can keep track of passing RREQmessages in several different ways.21#
  20. 20.  In the promiscuous mode of operationaccording to IEEE 802.11 standards, a nodecan overhear passing traffic. Also, a node may act as a routing nodeduring bordercasting in the intrazonerouting phase. Whenever P receives a RREQ messagethrough any of these means, it rememberswhich routing zone the message is meantfor.22#
  21. 21. 23#P receives a RREQ from Q since P is a peripheral node for the routingzone of Q.PQABCNXP does not bordercast the RREQ to A,B,...,N but only to X which is not inits list.
  22. 22.  Suppose P has a list of nodes A, B,C,...,Nsuch that the RREQ message has alreadyarrived in the routing zones of the nodesA, B, C, ...,N. Now P receives a request to forward aRREQ message from another node Q. This may happen when P is a peripheralnode for the routing zone of Q.24#
  23. 23.  The optimal zone radius depends on nodemobility and route query rates. When the radius of the routing zone is 1, thebehaviour of ZRP is like a pure reactiveprotocol, for example, like DSR. When the radius of the routing zone isinfinity (or the diameter of the network), ZRPbehaves like a pure proactive protocol, forexample, like DSDV.25#
  24. 24.  In the intrazone routing, each node needsto construct the bordercast tree for its zone. With a zone radius of r, this requirescomplete exchange of information over adistance of 2r-1 hops. For unbounded networks with a uniformdistribution of nodes, this results in O( )intrazone control traffic.26#2r
  25. 25.  However, for a bounded network, thedependence is lower than . There is no intrazone control traffic whenr=1. The intrazone control traffic grows fast inpractice with increase in zone radius. So,it is important to keep the zone radiussmall.27#2r
  26. 26.  When the zone radius is 1, the control trafficis maximum since ZRP degenerates intoflood search. In other words, every RREQ messagepotentially floods the entire network. This isdue to the fact that all the neighbours of anode n are its peripheral nodes. However, control traffic drops considerablyeven if the zone radius is just 2.28#
  27. 27.  The control traffic can be reduceddrastically with early query termination,when a RREQ message is prevented fromgoing to the same region of the networkmultiple times. However, the amount of control trafficdepends both on node mobility and queryrate. The performance of ZRP is measured bycompairing control traffic with call-to-mobility (CMR) ratio.29#
  28. 28.  The call-to-mobility ratio (CMR) is the ratioof route query rate to node speed. As CMR increases, the number of controlmessages is reduced by increasing theradius of the routing zones. This is because, it is easier to maintain largerrouting zones if mobility is low. Hence, routediscovery traffic also reduces.30#
  29. 29.  On the other hand, CMR is low if mobility ishigh. In such a case, the routing zonemaintenance becomes very costly andsmaller routing zones are better forreducing control traffic. An optimally configured ZRP for a CMR of500 [query/km] produces 70% less trafficthan flood searching.31#
  30. 30.  For a fixed CMR, the route queryresponse time decreases initially withincreased zone radius. However, after a certain radius, theresponse time increases with zone radius. This is due to the fact that the networktakes longer time to settle even withsmall changes in large routing zones.32#
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Presentation on Zone Routing protocol (Hybrid Protocol ) in Mobile Ad Hoc Network course,2013


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