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NITLE Shared Academics: Fostering a Collaborative Culture: Smart Change and Shared Leadership

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Institutional readiness to respond and even thrive amid rapid change is dependent on the ability to cultivate a culture of collaboration and embrace transformative change. Indeed, institutional speed of response ultimately depends on shared vision, shared agreement, and shared leadership. Ann Hill Duin urges those involved with planning throughout all levels of an organization to actively foster a culture of collaboration. Doing so will ready your institution to tackle complex challenges and transform them into opportunities for reinvention and re-invigoration. As a professor of writing studies, Ann Hill Duin studies the language of the transactions that occur through networks of individuals engaged in collaborative, strategic work. During her 15 years in higher education administration, she has worked to build shared leadership across colleges, institutions, and academic and administrative realms. In her study of multiple inter-institutional partnerships, she found that a key component of fostering a collaborative culture is increased access to and shared understanding of “smart” change and “shared” leadership. During this Shared Academics seminar, you will gain increased understanding of these concepts and examine an action plan for strategic partnering.

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NITLE Shared Academics: Fostering a Collaborative Culture: Smart Change and Shared Leadership

  1. 1. Fostering a Collaborative Culture: Smart Change and Shared Leadership Ann Hill Duin Professor of Writing Studies University of Minnesota ahduin@umn.edu
  2. 2. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Framing Questions • Why cultivate collaboration? • How might we foster smart change? • How might we foster shared leadership? • How might we measure its effectiveness?
  3. 3. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Why cultivate collaboration?
  4. 4. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Rationale Why cultivate collaboration? • To pursue opportunities that are significant, urgent, and/or risky. • To do together what cannot be done alone. • To expand reach. • To improve outcomes. • To achieve synergy and open doors to innovation. • To address a clear learner need. • To leverage resources, share infrastructure. • To respond to new markets, improve competitiveness. • To enhance access and pedagogy of learning. • Other…
  5. 5. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Study of the implementation of shared leadership in 27 non- profit organizations over two years “Organizations found that they could do more with less (funds) by doing more with more (leadership).” Allison, Misra, & Perry (2011, 32) Rationale Why cultivate collaboration?
  6. 6. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Study of the process of shared leadership in 45 teams found that “Teams with shared leadership experienced less conflict, greater consensus, and higher intra-group trust and cohesion than teams without shared leadership.” Bergman et al. (2012, 17) Rationale Why cultivate collaboration?
  7. 7. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Real collaboration takes more than meetings and powerpoints.
  8. 8. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Focus on transforming relationships.
  9. 9. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Create spaces for reflection and deeper conversation.
  10. 10. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Be anchored by a “backbone organization.”
  11. 11. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Be open to changes in how they think and operate.
  12. 12. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Indicators of Success Cultivate: – adaptability within the leadership spectrum – an orientation toward shared leadership – a culture of trust Be prepared to: – commit to change – stress across-the-board engagement – invest time Allison, Misra, & Perry (2011, 30)
  13. 13. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE How might we foster smart change?
  14. 14. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Approaches to change Routine change Strategic change Transformative change 1. Sustains status quo 2. Leadership is solo 3. Scope is siloed 4. Applies routine expertise 5. Focuses on policy compliance 6. Requires buy-in from local management 1. Sustains status quo 2. Leadership is a team 3. Scope is bridged 4. Applies strategic expertise for redesign 5. Focuses on planned change 6. Requires buy-in from upper admin 1. Disrupts status quo 2. Leadership is shared 3. Scope is shared 4. Applies adaptive expertise to major challenges 5. Focuses on innovation 6. Requires buy-in from many levels Baer, Duin, & Ramaley. (2008). Smart Change. Planning in Higher Education.
  15. 15. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE
  16. 16. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Transformative change… is imperative for finding solutions when there are no clear answers, and results in significantly expanding core capacities because it demands that people work together differently.
  17. 17. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Name a collaborative initiative. What type(s) of change does it represent?
  18. 18. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Smart Change Focuses on the future through – Leading over lagging indicators – Principles over practices – Scenarios over environmental scans – Evidence over anecdote – Leadership over management – Continuous over episodic improvement – Communication over sound bites – System over silos – Shared leadership over competition
  19. 19. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE How might we foster shared leadership?
  20. 20. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE One should not merely look to the designated leader for guidance, but rather that one should let logic dictate to whom one should look for guidance on the basis of individuals’ knowledge of the situation at hand. Mary Parker Follett (1924)
  21. 21. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Shared leadership occurs when group members actively and intentionally shift the role of leader to one another as necessitated by the environment or circumstances in which the group operates. Pearce, Hoch, Jeppesen, & Wegge (2010, 151)
  22. 22. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Conceptualize leadership as a more relational process, a shared or distributed phenomenon occurring at different levels and dependent on social interactions and networks of influence. Fletcher & Kaufer (2003)
  23. 23. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Shared leadership involves a process where all members of a team are fully engaged in the leadership of the team: Shared leadership entails a simultaneous, ongoing, mutual influence process involving the serial emergence of official as well as unofficial leaders. Pearce, Manz, & Sims (2008, 353)
  24. 24. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Shared leadership entails broadly sharing power and influence among a set of individuals rather than centralizing it in the hands of a single individual who acts in the clear role of a dominant superior. Pearce, Manz, & Sims (2009)
  25. 25. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Shared leadership is not a replacement for ‘leadership from above;’ rather, it works in conjunction with more traditional hierarchical leadership, thus giving an organization a more flexible, dynamic, robust and responsive leadership platform. Manz et al. (2009, 237)
  26. 26. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE The gist… Look beyond the designated leader Shift the role of leader as needed See leadership as relational and emerging Lead together to achieve goals Foster simultaneous, mutual influence
  27. 27. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Approaches to Leadership Vertical  Identified by position in a hierarchy  Evaluated by whether the leader solves problems  Leaders provide solutions and answers  Distinct differences between leaders and followers  Communication is formal Shared  Identified by the quality of a person’s interactions  Evaluated by how well people are working together  Leaders provide multiple means to enhance the process  Members are interdependent  Communication is critical
  28. 28. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Power of a collaborative Transactions occur through networks of individuals engaged in reciprocal, preferential, mutually supportive actions… The parties agree to forego the right to pursue their own interests at the expense of others. Weibler & Rohn-Endres (2010, 182)
  29. 29. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE
  30. 30. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE 1. Introduce yourselves to each other. Listen for language.
  31. 31. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Stage one: Talking nice Polite Repeat roles and rules Reproduce existing knowledge Little responsibility for joint tasks
  32. 32. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE 2. Name a “tough” issue. Identify disagreements…
  33. 33. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Stage two: Talking tough More open and authentic Reveal rules and disagreements Act in conflict Still little joint responsibility for outcomes
  34. 34. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE 3. Inquire about the issue(s). Ask questions. Listen to learn.
  35. 35. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Stage three: Reflective dialogue Reflective, curious Inquire Listen Begin to create conditions for shared leadership
  36. 36. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE 4. Find (name) one point of agreement. Can you identify more?
  37. 37. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Stage four: Generative dialogue Aware of common ground Generate rules together Transcend self interest Group as a whole explores new ideas, shares responsibility
  38. 38. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE How will we measure its effectiveness?
  39. 39. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Partnership Blueprint A metric for determining readiness – Vision – Description – Beliefs – Assumptions – Operations – Commitment – Collaboration – Risk – Control – Adaptation – Return (Value) on investment
  40. 40. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE – Vision • What is the greater social good? – Description • What is it? How will it affect my institution? – Beliefs • What are the guiding, foundational principles? – Assumptions • What will we achieve together from this change? – Operations • How will it work? Is it feasible? – Commitment • Are multiple levels committed to it?
  41. 41. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE – Collaboration • Is collaboration more important than competition? – Control • Who is sharing leadership? – Adaptation • How will the constituencies adapt to this new environment? – Risk • What are the financial, legal, academic, and experimentation risks? – Return (value) on investment • What is your potential return on this change investment? Expanded from Blueprint Model as discussed in Partnering in the Learning Marketspace, 2001.
  42. 42. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Indicators of Success • Launch • Maintain • Sustain
  43. 43. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Launch • Consortium or alliance existing prior to the project (pre-existing trust) • Clarity of purpose/vision (meeting a clear need) and compatible missions • Commitment (a clear lead unit; support) • Clear contribution from each partner • Champion • Communication • Capacity (e.g., technological)
  44. 44. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE “What made this work was having someone they [partners] could trust that they knew would not drop the ball.” “Collaboration is the absolute key. Competition does not enter anywhere.” “There was a sense from the beginning that everyone was a partner in the real sense; i.e., everyone would contribute to it, and it would contribute back… There was a common purpose: the target was the same.”
  45. 45. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Maintain • Mutual respect and trust • Understanding of intellectual property rights • Responsiveness (to partners and learners) • Patience, especially with the evolution of partners • Frequent / regular communication; sharing and networking • Commitment to embed the effort within existing structures/policies • Perseverance to come to agreements
  46. 46. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE “All know that everyone else is doing something important.” “We decided not to say, ‘Here’s one shoe; make it fit.’ Rather, we provided a shoe in a number of sizes.” “It has fundamentally changed the way we do things… It required changing quite a few policies without changing standards. It took the engagement of many people to get this to happen.”
  47. 47. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Sustain • Embedding of the project into institutional structures, policies, procedures • Income stream and the commitment of partners (includes contracts) • Letters of agreement OR clear established networks
  48. 48. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE How will you foster a collaborative culture?
  49. 49. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Attributes of Shared Leadership Competencies Authenticity Balancing Polarity Intelligence Demonstrates and values multiple literacies Exhibits emotional intelligence Works simultaneously on both poles of an issue Communication Communicates and consults regularly to increase accessibility Demonstrates values of collaboration and trust Balances environment of openess/publicness with validity of information Transparency Functions in multi- linear mode; networks and shares resources Develops multidimensional leaders Seeks multi-sector partners among competitors Change Distinguishes between routine, strategic, and transformative change Exhibits transformational leadership through a focus on shared vision Seizes innovation as a balance between improving existing processes and creating new ones
  50. 50. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE http://iaa.ksu.edu/ http://www.gpidea.org/policy-procedure/Alliance-Policy-Procedure-Manual.pdf http://www.gpidea.org/policy-procedure/appendices/appendix_e1.pdf
  51. 51. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE References • Allison, M, Misra, S., & Perry, E. (2011). Doing more with more: Putting shared leadership into practice. The Nonprofit Quarterly, Summer 2011, 30-37. • Bergman, J. Z., Rentsch, J. R., Small, E. E., Davenport, S.W., & Bergman, S. M. (2012). The shared leadership process in decision-making teams. The Journal of Social Psychology, 152(1): 17-42. • Fletcher, J. K., & Kaufer, K. (2003). Shared leadership: Paradox and possibility. In Shared Leadership: Reframing the Hows and Whys of Leadership. C. L. Pearce and J. A. Conger (eds). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 21-47. • Follet, M.P. (1924). Creative experience. London: Longmans, Green. • Great Plains IDEA Policy and Procedure Manual. http://www.gpidea.org/policy- procedure/Alliance-Policy-Procedure-Manual.pdf • Manz, C.C. Manz, K.P. Adams, S.B. and Shipper, F. (2011). A model of values-based shared leadership and sustainable performance. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 21, 687-702. • Pearce, C.L., Hoch, J. E., Jeppesen, H., & Wegge, J. (2010). New forms of management: Shared and distributed leadership in organizations. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 9(3): 151-153. • Pearce, C.L., Manz, C.C. & Sims, H.P., Jr. (2009). Where do we go from here?: Is shared leadership the key to team success? Organizational Dynamics, 38: 234-238. • Sample agreements. http://www.autm.net/AM/Template.cfm?Section=TechTransferResources&Template=/CM/Co ntentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=7337 • Senge, P. (2013). Real collaboration takes more than meetings and power points. Network for Business Sustainability. http://nbs.net/real-collaboration-takes-more-than-meetings-and- powerpoints/ • Weibler, J., & Rohn-Endres, S. (2010). Learning conversation and shared network leadership.
  52. 52. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Collabronauts They journey from their home organization to forge new alliances and to explore creative opportunities, like leaving their home planet to bring back knowledge of strange new worlds and new civilizations… Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Evolve! (2001, 137)
  53. 53. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE They work out complicated dealings between and among partners, manage rumors, mount peace-keeping missions, and solve problems. They use personal friendships and powers of persuasion to sell people on the importance of helping a partner. Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Evolve! (2001, 137)

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