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# Digital Basics

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Logic Gates-Simplifed

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### Digital Basics

1. 1. Electronics Series <ul><li>Basic Logic Gates Simplified </li></ul>Nitin Patel Digital Basics
2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Identify logic symbols. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the operation of each of the logic operations. </li></ul><ul><li>Define the truth table. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw up the truth table for each logic function. </li></ul><ul><li>State the Boolean logic function for each operation. </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate the output function of simple multi-gate circuits. </li></ul>Original Electronics 1
3. 3. IC packages <ul><li>Integrated circuit packages are pre-designed logic circuits that are integrated to provide functions. </li></ul><ul><li>They are static sensitive and must be used in static free areas to function reliably. </li></ul><ul><li>ICs normally operate between 0 and 5 volts. </li></ul><ul><li>Inputs and outputs are available within the same package. </li></ul>Original Electronics 1
4. 4. Logic Terms <ul><li>1 and 0 only for input and output </li></ul><ul><li>1 high, On or true condition </li></ul><ul><li>0 is low, Off or False condition </li></ul><ul><li>2 inputs can be configured as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>01 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11 </li></ul></ul>Original Electronics 1
5. 5. Boolean Algebra <ul><li>0.0 = 0 </li></ul><ul><li>1.0 = 0 </li></ul><ul><li>0.1 = 0 </li></ul><ul><li>1.1 = 1 </li></ul><ul><li>1+1 = 1 </li></ul><ul><li>1+0 =1 </li></ul><ul><li>__ </li></ul><ul><li>A .A = 0 </li></ul><ul><li>__ </li></ul><ul><li>A+ A = A </li></ul>Original Electronics 1
6. 6. Inverter - Symbol and Truth Table Original Electronics 1 Input (A) Output (F) 0 1 1 0
7. 7. Boolean Function <ul><li>_ </li></ul><ul><li>F = A </li></ul><ul><li>Output is opposite to Input </li></ul>Original Electronics 1
8. 8. AND Gate - Symbol and Truth Table Original Digital Basics A B F 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1
9. 9. Boolean Expression <ul><li>F = A.B </li></ul><ul><li>Output is a product of two inputs </li></ul>Original Digital Basics
10. 10. OR Gate - Symbol and Truth Table Original Digital Basics A B F 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1
11. 11. Boolean Expression <ul><li>F = A+B </li></ul><ul><li>Output is the Sum of inputs </li></ul>Original Digital Basics
12. 12. NAND Gate - Symbol and Truth Table Original Digital Basics A B F 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0
13. 13. Boolean Expression <ul><li>Output is Opposite of the Product of the INPUTS. </li></ul><ul><li>Output is NOT of A.B </li></ul><ul><li>___ </li></ul><ul><li>F = A.B </li></ul>Original Digital Basics
14. 14. NOR Gate - Symbol and Truth Table Original Digital Basics A B F 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0
15. 15. Boolean Expression <ul><li>Output is Opposite of the Product of inputs. </li></ul><ul><li>Output is NOT A + B </li></ul><ul><li>____ </li></ul><ul><li>F = A + B </li></ul>Original Digital Basics
16. 16. XOR Gate - Symbol and Truth Table Original Digital Basics A B F 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0
17. 17. Boolean Expression <ul><li>When the inputs are same, output is 0 </li></ul><ul><li>When the inputs are different, out is 1 </li></ul><ul><li>F = A xor B </li></ul><ul><li>xor symbol </li></ul>Original Digital Basics
18. 18. XNOR Gate - Symbol and Truth Table Original Digital Basics A B F 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1
19. 19. Boolean Expression <ul><li>When the inputs are same, output is 1 </li></ul><ul><li>When the inputs are different, out is 0 </li></ul><ul><li>_____ </li></ul><ul><li>F = A xor B </li></ul><ul><li>Not with xor symbol </li></ul>Original Digital Basics
20. 20. Multi-Gate Circuit - 1 Original Digital Basics
21. 21. Multi-Gate Circuit - 2 Original Digital Basics
22. 22. Summary <ul><li>Logic gates are the basic elements that make up a digital system. </li></ul><ul><li>An INVERTER changes states from High to Low or Low to High. </li></ul><ul><li>An AND gate only produces an output if all of its inputs are HIGH. </li></ul><ul><li>An OR gate produces an output when any of its inputs are HIGH. </li></ul>Original Digital Basics
23. 23. Summary Cont. <ul><li>A NAND gate is an AND gate followed by an INVERTER. It is the opposite of AND. </li></ul><ul><li>A NOR gate is an OR gate followed by an INVERTER. It is the opposite of OR. </li></ul><ul><li>An XOR gate produces an output if its inputs are different. </li></ul><ul><li>An XNOR is gate produces an output if the inputs are same. </li></ul>Original Digital Basics
24. 24. Summary Cont. <ul><li>Multi-gate circuits can be used for a single output function, F, of either 1 or 0. </li></ul>Original Digital Basics