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Tablets By,  Mr. Nitin M. Kadam
CONTENT….. ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Continued…. ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Introduction Definition: Tablet is defined as a compressed unit solid dosage form containing medicaments with or without excipients.  According to the Indian Pharmacopoeia, Pharmaceutical tablets are solid, flat or biconvex dishes, unit dosage form, prepared by compressing a drugs or a mixture of drugs, with or without diluents.  They vary in shape and differ greatly in size and weight, depending on amount of medicinal substances and the intended mode of administration.
Absorption of drug form tablets
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[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
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Commonly used tablet diluents  1. Lactose-anhydrous and spray dried lactose  2. Directly compressed starch-Sta Rx 1500  3. Hydrolyzed starch-Emdex and Celutab  4. Microcrystalline cellulose-Avicel (PH 101and PH 102)  5. Dibasic calcium phosphate dehydrate  6. Calcium sulphate dihydrate  7. Mannitol  8. Sorbitol  9. Sucrose- Sugartab, DiPac, Nutab  10. Dextrose
2.  Binders   and  Adhesives :  These materials are added either dry or in wet- form to form granules or to form cohesive compacts for directly compressed tablet.  Example : Acacia, tragacanth- Solution for 10-25% Conc.  Cellulose derivatives- Methyl cellulose, HPC, HPMC Gelatin- 10-20% solution  Glucose- 50% solution  Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)- 2% conc.  Starch paste-10-20% solution  Sodium alginate  Sorbitol
3.  Disintegrants :  Added to a tablet formulation to facilitate its breaking or disintegration when it contact in water in the GIT.  Example:  Starch- 5-20% of tablet weight.  Starch derivative – Primogel and Explotab (1-8%)  Clays- Veegum HV, bentonite 10% level in colored tablet only Cellulose  Cellulose derivatives- Ac- Di-Sol (sodium carboxy methyl cellulose)  Alginate  PVP (Polyvinylpyrrolidone), cross-linked
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
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[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Granulation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Granulation technology on large scale by various techniques
Mechanisms of Granulation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Mechanisms of Granulation
Steps to make powder ready for compression
Granulation Equipments (Granulators) ,[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Wet granulators ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
WET GRANULATION:  some equipment…. High Shear Granulator  Littleford Lodige Mixer/Granulator Littleford MGT Granulator Diosna Granulator Gral Mixer/Granulator Granulator with Drying Facility  Fluidized Bed Granulator Day Nauta Mixer Processor  Double cone/Twin Shell Processor Topo Granulator Special Granulator  Roto Granulator Marumerizer
[object Object],[object Object]
SOP Of Shear Mixture Granulator: ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Disadvantage ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
High speed  granulator   ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
High speed  granulator
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Diosna Mixer / Granulator ,[object Object],blade chopper
Rapid  Mixing Granulator: (RMG)
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Designs of FB granulators ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Suction Fan Fabric Filter Bag Granulating solution Product Bed Spray Nozzle Air Filter Air Heater
Fluidized Bed Granulator
Fluidized Bed Granulator ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Fluidized Bed Granulator (Industrial Equipment)
Merumizer (spheronizer) ,[object Object],[object Object],Cylinder Screw-feed Extruder ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Granules with regular size, shape with lower friability, so less amount of fines.
[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object]
MELT SOLIDIFICATION ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Direct Compression ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object]
[object Object],Bench top Model Industrial Model Working Mechanism
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Cutting Mill  Roller  Mill
Colloid Mill
Tablet Production ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Tableting Procedure ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Tablet Compression Machines ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Single Punch Machine ,[object Object],[object Object]
Upper and Lower Collar Collar locker Single Punch Machine (Tablets)
 
 
Multi-station Rotary Presses ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
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[object Object],[object Object]
Compression Machine Tooling ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
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Different Hardness Tester  Erweka Pfizer Schleuniger Monsanto Strong-cobb
6.Friability:  Friability of a tablet can determine in laboratory by Roche friabilator. This consist of a plastic chamber that revolves at 25 rpm, dropping the tablets through a Distance of six inches in the friabilator, which is then operate for 100 revolutions. The tablets are reweighed. Compress tablet that lose less than 0.5 to 1.0 % of the Tablet weigh are consider acceptable.
7. Drug Content and Release:  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
(III) Disintegration Test (U.S.P.):  The U.S.P. device to test disintegration uses 6 glass tubes that are 3” long; open at the top and 10 mesh screen at the bottom end. To test for disintegration time, one tablet is placed in each tube and the basket rack is positioned in a 1-L beaker of water, simulated gastric fluid or simulated intestinal fluid at 37 ± 2 0  C such that the tablet remain 2.5 cm below the surface of liquid on their upward movement and not closer than 2.5 cm from the bottom of the beaker in their downward movement. Move the basket containing the tablets up and down through a distance of 5-6 cm at a frequency of 28 to 32 cycles per minute. Floating of the tablets can be prevented by placing perforated plastic discs on each tablet.
According to the test the tablet must disintegrate and all particles must pass through the 10 mesh screen in the time specified. If any residue remains, it must have a soft mass.  Disintegration time:  Uncoated tablet: 5-30 minutes  Coated tablet: 1-2 hours
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[object Object],[object Object]
 
Problems In Tableting ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF CAPPING RELATED TO  ‘ FORMULATION’ (GRANULATION) Sr. No. CAUSES REMEDIES 1. Large amount of fines in the granulation Remove some or all fines through 100 to 200 mesh screen 2. Too dry or very low moisture content (leading to loss of proper binding action). Moisten the granules suitably. Add hygroscopic substance e.g.:  sorbitol, methyl- cellulose or PEG-4000 3. Not thoroughly dried granules. Dry the granules properly. 4. Insufficient amount of binder or improper binder. Increasing amount of binder OR Adding dry binder such as pre-gelatinized starch, gum acacia, powdered sorbitol, PVP, hydrophilic silica or powdered sugar. 5. Insufficient or improper lubricant. Increase the amount of lubricant or change the type of lubricant. 6. Granular mass too cold to compress firm. Compress at room temperature.
CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF CAPPING RELATED TO  ‘ MACHINE’ (DIES, PUNCHES AND TABLET PRESS) Sr. No. CAUSES REMEDIES 1. Poorly finished dies Polish dies properly. Investigate other steels or other materials. 2. Deep concave punches or beveled-edge faces of punches. Deep concave punches or beveled-edge faces of punches. 3. Lower punch remains below the face of die during ejection. Make proper setting of lower punch during ejection. 4. Incorrect adjustment of sweep-off blade. Adjust sweep-off blade correctly to facilitate proper ejection. 5. High turret speed. Reduce speed of turret (Increase dwell time).
Causes and Remedies of Lamination related to  MACHINE (Dies, Punches and Tablet Press)] Causes And Remedies Of Chipping Related To  Formulation (Granulation) Are As Follows Sr. No. CAUSES REMEDIES 1. Rapid relaxation of the peripheral regions of a tablet, on ejection from a die. Use tapered dies,  2 Rapid decompression Use pre-compression step. Reduce turret speed and reduce the final compression pressure. Sr. No. CAUSES REMEDIES 1. Sticking on punch faces Dry the granules properly or increase lubrication. 2. Too dry granules. Moisten the granules to plasticize. Add hygroscopic substances. 3. Too much binding causes chipping at bottom. Optimize binding, or use dry binders.
CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF CHIPPING RELATED TO  MACHINE (DIES, PUNCHES AND TABLET PRESS ) CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF CRACKING RELATED TO  FORMULATION (GRANULATION) Sr. No. CAUSES REMEDIES 1. Groove of die worn at compression point. Polish to open end, reverse or replace the die. 2. Barreled die (center of the die wider than ends) Polish the die to make it cylindrical 3. Edge of punch face turned inside/inward. Polish the punch edges 4. Concavity too deep to compress properly. Reduce concavity of punch faces. Use flat punches. Sr. No. CAUSES REMEDIES 1. Large size of granules. Reduce granule size. Add fines. 2. Too dry granules. Moisten the granules properly and add proper amount of binder 3. Tablets expand. Improve granulation. Add dry binders. 4. Granulation too cold. Compress at room temperature
CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF CRACKING RELATED TO  MACHINE (DIES, PUNCHES AND TABLET PRESS ) THE CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF STICKING RELATED TO  FORMULATION (GRANULATION) Sr. No. CAUSES REMEDIES 1. . Tablet expands on ejection due to air entrapment. Use tapered die. 2. Deep concavities cause cracking while removing tablets Use special take-off Sr. No. CAUSES REMEDIES 1. Granules not dried properly. Dry the granules properly. Make moisture analysis to determine limits. 2. Too little or improper lubrication Increase or change lubricant. 3. Too much binder Reduce the amount of binder or use a different type of binder. 4. Hygroscopic granular material. Modify granulation and compress under controlled humidity. 5. Oily  materials Modify mixing process. Add an absorbent. 6. Too soft or weak granules. Optimize the amount of binder and granulation technique.
CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF STICKING RELATED TO  MACHINE (DIES, PUNCHES AND TABLET PRESS ) CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF PICKING RELATED TO  FORMULATION (GRANULATION) Sr. No. CAUSES REMEDIES 1. Concavity too deep for granulation. Reduce concavity to optimum. 2. Too little pressure. Increase pressure. 3. Compressing too fast. Reduce speed Sr. No. CAUSES REMEDIES 1. Excessive moisture in granules. Dry properly the granules, determine optimum limit. 2. Too little or improper lubrication. Increase lubrication; use colloidal silica as a ‘polishing agent’, so that material does not cling to punch faces. 3. Low melting point substances, may soften from the heat of compression and lead to picking. Add high melting-point materials. Use high meting point lubricants. 4. Low melting point medicament in high concentration. Refrigerate granules and the entire tablet press. 5. Too warm granules when compressing. Compress at room temperature. Cool sufficiently before compression. 6. Too much amount of binder. Reduce the amount of binder, change the type or use dry binders.
CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF PICKING RELATED TO  MACHINE (DIES, PUNCHES AND TABLET PRESS) CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF BINDING RELATED TO FORMULATION (GRANULATION) Sr. No. CAUSES REMEDIES 1. Rough or scratched punch faces. Polish faces to high luster. 2. Embossing or engraving letters on punch faces such as B, A, O, R, P, Q, G. Design lettering as large as possible. Plate the punch faces with chromium to produce a smooth and non-adherent face. 3. Pressure applied is not enough; too soft tablets. Increase pressure to optimum. Sr. No. CAUSES REMEDIES 1. Too moist granules and extrudes around lower punch. Dry the granules properly. 2. Insufficient or improper lubricant. Increase the amount of lubricant or use a more effective lubricant 3. Too coarse granules. Reduce granular size, add more fines, and increase the quantity of lubricant. 4. Too hard granules for the lubricant to be effective. Modify granulation. Reduce granular size. 5. Granular material very abrasive and cutting into dies. If coarse granules, reduce its size. Use wear-resistant dies. 6. Granular material too warm, sticks to the die. Reduce temperature.
CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF BINDING RELATED TO MACHINE (DIES, PUNCHES AND TABLET PRESS ) CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF MOTTLING Sr. No. CAUSES REMEDIES 1. Poorly finished dies. Polish the dies properly. 2. Rough dies due to abrasion, corrosion. Investigate other steels or other materials or modify granulation. 3. Undersized dies. Too little clearance. Rework to proper size. Increase clearance. 4. Too much pressure in the tablet press. Reduce pressure. OR Modify granulation. Sr. No. CAUSES REMEDIES 1. A coloured drug used along with colourless or white-coloured excipients. Use appropriate colourants. 2. A dye migrates to the surface of granulation while drying. Change the solvent system, Change the binder, Reduce drying temperature and Use a smaller particle size. 3. Improperly mixed dye, especially during ‘Direct Compression’. Mix properly and reduce size if it is of a larger size to prevent segregation. 4. Improper mixing of a coloured binder solution. Incorporate dry colour additive during powder blending step, then add fine powdered adhesives such as acacia and tragacanth and mix well and finally add granulating liquid.
Tablet Coating ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
1. Tablet  Properties ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
2. Coating Process ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
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[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Industrial FBC with bottom spray
Spray application System ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Parameters of Coating Process ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
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[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Problems And Remedies For Tablet Coating
PROBLEMS AND REMEDIES FOR TABLET COATING THE CAUSE AND REMEDY OF BLISTERING Sr. No. CAUSES REMEDIES 1. Effect of temperature on the strength, elasticity and adhesion of the film Use mild drying condition. THE CAUSE AND REMEDY OF CHIPPING 1. High degree of attrition associated with the coating process. Increase hardness of the film by increasing the molecular weight grade of polymer. THE CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF CRATERING 1. Inefficient drying. Use efficient and optimum drying conditions. 2. Higher rate of application of coating solution. Increase viscosity of coating solution to decrease spray application rate. THE CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF PICKING 1. Inefficient drying. Use optimum and efficient drying conditions or increase the inlet air temperature. 2. Higher rate of application of coating solution Decrease the rater of application of coating solution by increasing viscosity of coating solution. THE CAUSE AND REMEDY OF PITTING 1. Inappropriate drying (inlet air ) temperature Dispensing with preheating procedures at the initiation of coating and modifying the drying (inlet air) temperature such that the temperature of the tablet core is not greater than the melting point of the batch of additives used. THE CAUSE AND REMEDY OF BLOOMING 1. High concentration and low molecular weight of plasticizer. Decrease plasticizer concentration and increase molecular weight of plasticizer
THE CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF BLUSHING 1. High coating temperature Decrease the drying air temperatur 2. Use of sorbitol in formulation which causes largest fall in the thermal gelation temperature of the Hydroxy Propyl Cellulose, Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose, Methyl Cellulose and Cellulose ethers. Avoid use of sorbitol with Hydroxy Propyl Cellulose, Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose, Methyl Cellulose and Cellulose ethers. THE CAUSE AND REMEDY OF COLOUR VARIATION 1. Improper mixing, uneven spray pattern, insufficient coating, migration of soluble dyes-plasticizers and other additives during drying. Go for geometric mixing, reformulation with different plasticizers and additives or use mild drying conditions. THE CAUSE AND REMEDY OF INFILLING 1. Bubble or foam formation because of air spraying of a polymer solution Add alcohol or use spray nozzle capable of finer atomization. THE CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF ORANGE PEEL/ROUGHNESS 1. Rapid Drying Use mild drying conditions 2. High solution viscosity Use additional solvents to decrease viscosity of solution. THE CAUSE AND REMEDY OF CRACKING/SPLITTING 1. Use of higher molecular weight polymers or polymeric blends. Use lower molecular weight polymers or polymeric blends.  Also adjust plasticizer type and concentration.
Thank  You If you salute your duties, No need to salute anybody If you don’t  salute your duties, You have to salute everybody. [email_address]

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Tablets

  • 1. Tablets By, Mr. Nitin M. Kadam
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4. Introduction Definition: Tablet is defined as a compressed unit solid dosage form containing medicaments with or without excipients. According to the Indian Pharmacopoeia, Pharmaceutical tablets are solid, flat or biconvex dishes, unit dosage form, prepared by compressing a drugs or a mixture of drugs, with or without diluents. They vary in shape and differ greatly in size and weight, depending on amount of medicinal substances and the intended mode of administration.
  • 5. Absorption of drug form tablets
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  • 13.
  • 14. Commonly used tablet diluents 1. Lactose-anhydrous and spray dried lactose 2. Directly compressed starch-Sta Rx 1500 3. Hydrolyzed starch-Emdex and Celutab 4. Microcrystalline cellulose-Avicel (PH 101and PH 102) 5. Dibasic calcium phosphate dehydrate 6. Calcium sulphate dihydrate 7. Mannitol 8. Sorbitol 9. Sucrose- Sugartab, DiPac, Nutab 10. Dextrose
  • 15. 2. Binders and Adhesives : These materials are added either dry or in wet- form to form granules or to form cohesive compacts for directly compressed tablet. Example : Acacia, tragacanth- Solution for 10-25% Conc. Cellulose derivatives- Methyl cellulose, HPC, HPMC Gelatin- 10-20% solution Glucose- 50% solution Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)- 2% conc. Starch paste-10-20% solution Sodium alginate Sorbitol
  • 16. 3. Disintegrants : Added to a tablet formulation to facilitate its breaking or disintegration when it contact in water in the GIT. Example: Starch- 5-20% of tablet weight. Starch derivative – Primogel and Explotab (1-8%) Clays- Veegum HV, bentonite 10% level in colored tablet only Cellulose Cellulose derivatives- Ac- Di-Sol (sodium carboxy methyl cellulose) Alginate PVP (Polyvinylpyrrolidone), cross-linked
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  • 22. Granulation technology on large scale by various techniques
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  • 25. Steps to make powder ready for compression
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  • 29. WET GRANULATION: some equipment…. High Shear Granulator Littleford Lodige Mixer/Granulator Littleford MGT Granulator Diosna Granulator Gral Mixer/Granulator Granulator with Drying Facility Fluidized Bed Granulator Day Nauta Mixer Processor Double cone/Twin Shell Processor Topo Granulator Special Granulator Roto Granulator Marumerizer
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  • 34. High speed granulator
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  • 36. Rapid Mixing Granulator: (RMG)
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  • 41. Fluidized Bed Granulator (Industrial Equipment)
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  • 50. Cutting Mill Roller Mill
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  • 56. Upper and Lower Collar Collar locker Single Punch Machine (Tablets)
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  • 71. Different Hardness Tester Erweka Pfizer Schleuniger Monsanto Strong-cobb
  • 72. 6.Friability: Friability of a tablet can determine in laboratory by Roche friabilator. This consist of a plastic chamber that revolves at 25 rpm, dropping the tablets through a Distance of six inches in the friabilator, which is then operate for 100 revolutions. The tablets are reweighed. Compress tablet that lose less than 0.5 to 1.0 % of the Tablet weigh are consider acceptable.
  • 73.
  • 74. (III) Disintegration Test (U.S.P.): The U.S.P. device to test disintegration uses 6 glass tubes that are 3” long; open at the top and 10 mesh screen at the bottom end. To test for disintegration time, one tablet is placed in each tube and the basket rack is positioned in a 1-L beaker of water, simulated gastric fluid or simulated intestinal fluid at 37 ± 2 0 C such that the tablet remain 2.5 cm below the surface of liquid on their upward movement and not closer than 2.5 cm from the bottom of the beaker in their downward movement. Move the basket containing the tablets up and down through a distance of 5-6 cm at a frequency of 28 to 32 cycles per minute. Floating of the tablets can be prevented by placing perforated plastic discs on each tablet.
  • 75. According to the test the tablet must disintegrate and all particles must pass through the 10 mesh screen in the time specified. If any residue remains, it must have a soft mass. Disintegration time: Uncoated tablet: 5-30 minutes Coated tablet: 1-2 hours
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  • 79.
  • 80. CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF CAPPING RELATED TO ‘ FORMULATION’ (GRANULATION) Sr. No. CAUSES REMEDIES 1. Large amount of fines in the granulation Remove some or all fines through 100 to 200 mesh screen 2. Too dry or very low moisture content (leading to loss of proper binding action). Moisten the granules suitably. Add hygroscopic substance e.g.: sorbitol, methyl- cellulose or PEG-4000 3. Not thoroughly dried granules. Dry the granules properly. 4. Insufficient amount of binder or improper binder. Increasing amount of binder OR Adding dry binder such as pre-gelatinized starch, gum acacia, powdered sorbitol, PVP, hydrophilic silica or powdered sugar. 5. Insufficient or improper lubricant. Increase the amount of lubricant or change the type of lubricant. 6. Granular mass too cold to compress firm. Compress at room temperature.
  • 81. CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF CAPPING RELATED TO ‘ MACHINE’ (DIES, PUNCHES AND TABLET PRESS) Sr. No. CAUSES REMEDIES 1. Poorly finished dies Polish dies properly. Investigate other steels or other materials. 2. Deep concave punches or beveled-edge faces of punches. Deep concave punches or beveled-edge faces of punches. 3. Lower punch remains below the face of die during ejection. Make proper setting of lower punch during ejection. 4. Incorrect adjustment of sweep-off blade. Adjust sweep-off blade correctly to facilitate proper ejection. 5. High turret speed. Reduce speed of turret (Increase dwell time).
  • 82. Causes and Remedies of Lamination related to MACHINE (Dies, Punches and Tablet Press)] Causes And Remedies Of Chipping Related To Formulation (Granulation) Are As Follows Sr. No. CAUSES REMEDIES 1. Rapid relaxation of the peripheral regions of a tablet, on ejection from a die. Use tapered dies, 2 Rapid decompression Use pre-compression step. Reduce turret speed and reduce the final compression pressure. Sr. No. CAUSES REMEDIES 1. Sticking on punch faces Dry the granules properly or increase lubrication. 2. Too dry granules. Moisten the granules to plasticize. Add hygroscopic substances. 3. Too much binding causes chipping at bottom. Optimize binding, or use dry binders.
  • 83. CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF CHIPPING RELATED TO MACHINE (DIES, PUNCHES AND TABLET PRESS ) CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF CRACKING RELATED TO FORMULATION (GRANULATION) Sr. No. CAUSES REMEDIES 1. Groove of die worn at compression point. Polish to open end, reverse or replace the die. 2. Barreled die (center of the die wider than ends) Polish the die to make it cylindrical 3. Edge of punch face turned inside/inward. Polish the punch edges 4. Concavity too deep to compress properly. Reduce concavity of punch faces. Use flat punches. Sr. No. CAUSES REMEDIES 1. Large size of granules. Reduce granule size. Add fines. 2. Too dry granules. Moisten the granules properly and add proper amount of binder 3. Tablets expand. Improve granulation. Add dry binders. 4. Granulation too cold. Compress at room temperature
  • 84. CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF CRACKING RELATED TO MACHINE (DIES, PUNCHES AND TABLET PRESS ) THE CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF STICKING RELATED TO FORMULATION (GRANULATION) Sr. No. CAUSES REMEDIES 1. . Tablet expands on ejection due to air entrapment. Use tapered die. 2. Deep concavities cause cracking while removing tablets Use special take-off Sr. No. CAUSES REMEDIES 1. Granules not dried properly. Dry the granules properly. Make moisture analysis to determine limits. 2. Too little or improper lubrication Increase or change lubricant. 3. Too much binder Reduce the amount of binder or use a different type of binder. 4. Hygroscopic granular material. Modify granulation and compress under controlled humidity. 5. Oily materials Modify mixing process. Add an absorbent. 6. Too soft or weak granules. Optimize the amount of binder and granulation technique.
  • 85. CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF STICKING RELATED TO MACHINE (DIES, PUNCHES AND TABLET PRESS ) CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF PICKING RELATED TO FORMULATION (GRANULATION) Sr. No. CAUSES REMEDIES 1. Concavity too deep for granulation. Reduce concavity to optimum. 2. Too little pressure. Increase pressure. 3. Compressing too fast. Reduce speed Sr. No. CAUSES REMEDIES 1. Excessive moisture in granules. Dry properly the granules, determine optimum limit. 2. Too little or improper lubrication. Increase lubrication; use colloidal silica as a ‘polishing agent’, so that material does not cling to punch faces. 3. Low melting point substances, may soften from the heat of compression and lead to picking. Add high melting-point materials. Use high meting point lubricants. 4. Low melting point medicament in high concentration. Refrigerate granules and the entire tablet press. 5. Too warm granules when compressing. Compress at room temperature. Cool sufficiently before compression. 6. Too much amount of binder. Reduce the amount of binder, change the type or use dry binders.
  • 86. CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF PICKING RELATED TO MACHINE (DIES, PUNCHES AND TABLET PRESS) CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF BINDING RELATED TO FORMULATION (GRANULATION) Sr. No. CAUSES REMEDIES 1. Rough or scratched punch faces. Polish faces to high luster. 2. Embossing or engraving letters on punch faces such as B, A, O, R, P, Q, G. Design lettering as large as possible. Plate the punch faces with chromium to produce a smooth and non-adherent face. 3. Pressure applied is not enough; too soft tablets. Increase pressure to optimum. Sr. No. CAUSES REMEDIES 1. Too moist granules and extrudes around lower punch. Dry the granules properly. 2. Insufficient or improper lubricant. Increase the amount of lubricant or use a more effective lubricant 3. Too coarse granules. Reduce granular size, add more fines, and increase the quantity of lubricant. 4. Too hard granules for the lubricant to be effective. Modify granulation. Reduce granular size. 5. Granular material very abrasive and cutting into dies. If coarse granules, reduce its size. Use wear-resistant dies. 6. Granular material too warm, sticks to the die. Reduce temperature.
  • 87. CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF BINDING RELATED TO MACHINE (DIES, PUNCHES AND TABLET PRESS ) CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF MOTTLING Sr. No. CAUSES REMEDIES 1. Poorly finished dies. Polish the dies properly. 2. Rough dies due to abrasion, corrosion. Investigate other steels or other materials or modify granulation. 3. Undersized dies. Too little clearance. Rework to proper size. Increase clearance. 4. Too much pressure in the tablet press. Reduce pressure. OR Modify granulation. Sr. No. CAUSES REMEDIES 1. A coloured drug used along with colourless or white-coloured excipients. Use appropriate colourants. 2. A dye migrates to the surface of granulation while drying. Change the solvent system, Change the binder, Reduce drying temperature and Use a smaller particle size. 3. Improperly mixed dye, especially during ‘Direct Compression’. Mix properly and reduce size if it is of a larger size to prevent segregation. 4. Improper mixing of a coloured binder solution. Incorporate dry colour additive during powder blending step, then add fine powdered adhesives such as acacia and tragacanth and mix well and finally add granulating liquid.
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  • 114.
  • 115. PROBLEMS AND REMEDIES FOR TABLET COATING THE CAUSE AND REMEDY OF BLISTERING Sr. No. CAUSES REMEDIES 1. Effect of temperature on the strength, elasticity and adhesion of the film Use mild drying condition. THE CAUSE AND REMEDY OF CHIPPING 1. High degree of attrition associated with the coating process. Increase hardness of the film by increasing the molecular weight grade of polymer. THE CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF CRATERING 1. Inefficient drying. Use efficient and optimum drying conditions. 2. Higher rate of application of coating solution. Increase viscosity of coating solution to decrease spray application rate. THE CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF PICKING 1. Inefficient drying. Use optimum and efficient drying conditions or increase the inlet air temperature. 2. Higher rate of application of coating solution Decrease the rater of application of coating solution by increasing viscosity of coating solution. THE CAUSE AND REMEDY OF PITTING 1. Inappropriate drying (inlet air ) temperature Dispensing with preheating procedures at the initiation of coating and modifying the drying (inlet air) temperature such that the temperature of the tablet core is not greater than the melting point of the batch of additives used. THE CAUSE AND REMEDY OF BLOOMING 1. High concentration and low molecular weight of plasticizer. Decrease plasticizer concentration and increase molecular weight of plasticizer
  • 116. THE CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF BLUSHING 1. High coating temperature Decrease the drying air temperatur 2. Use of sorbitol in formulation which causes largest fall in the thermal gelation temperature of the Hydroxy Propyl Cellulose, Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose, Methyl Cellulose and Cellulose ethers. Avoid use of sorbitol with Hydroxy Propyl Cellulose, Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose, Methyl Cellulose and Cellulose ethers. THE CAUSE AND REMEDY OF COLOUR VARIATION 1. Improper mixing, uneven spray pattern, insufficient coating, migration of soluble dyes-plasticizers and other additives during drying. Go for geometric mixing, reformulation with different plasticizers and additives or use mild drying conditions. THE CAUSE AND REMEDY OF INFILLING 1. Bubble or foam formation because of air spraying of a polymer solution Add alcohol or use spray nozzle capable of finer atomization. THE CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF ORANGE PEEL/ROUGHNESS 1. Rapid Drying Use mild drying conditions 2. High solution viscosity Use additional solvents to decrease viscosity of solution. THE CAUSE AND REMEDY OF CRACKING/SPLITTING 1. Use of higher molecular weight polymers or polymeric blends. Use lower molecular weight polymers or polymeric blends. Also adjust plasticizer type and concentration.
  • 117. Thank You If you salute your duties, No need to salute anybody If you don’t salute your duties, You have to salute everybody. [email_address]