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CONCEPT OF EXTRACTION AND
EXPRESSION…..
Submitted to Submitted By
Dr. Smita Johar PhD Dr. Nitika Rattan MD
INTRODUCTION
 AWide range ofTechnologies is Available for
the Extraction of Active Components and
Essential Oils from Medicinal and Aromatic
Plants.
 The Choice depends on the Economical
feasibility and suitability of the process in the
particular situation.
Definition Of EXTRACTION……
 EXTRACTION ,as the term is used
pharmaceutically involves the seperation of
Medicinaaly Active portion of the plants or
Animal tissues from the inactive or inert
component by using selective solvent in
standard extraction procedure.
 The product so obtained from the plants are
relatively impure liquids , semisolids or
powders intended only for oral or external
use.
TYPES OF EXTRACTION ….
EXTRACTION is classified into following
Categories :
1.DECOCTION
2. INFUSION
3. MACERATION
4. FLUID EXTRACTS
5.TINCTURES
6. POWDERED EXTRACTS
BENEFITS of EXTRACTION
PROCEDURES….
 The Purpose of Standardised Extraction
Procedures for the Crude drugs are to attain
the therapeutically desired portion and to
eliminate the inert material by treatment
with selective solvents.
 Thus , Standardisation of Extraction
Procedures contributes significantally to the
Final quality of Herbal Drug.
CONTINUED…….
 The Mixture then is strained , the Marc (the
damp solid material)is pressed and the
combined liquids are clarifiedby Filterartion
or decantation after standing.
 The Strained mixture then is used for various
therapeutic purposes .
 In this method whole part of Crude Drug is
Strained out.
INFUSION…
 It is also the type of Extractive procedure.
 In this process ,fresh infusions are prepared
by macerating the crude drug for a short
period of time with cold or boiling water.
 These are dilute solutions of the readilly
soluble constituents of crude drug.
INFUSION / FAANTA TYPES:
 FAANTA is of twoTypes :
 The HOTWATER INFUSION
 The COLDWATER INFUSION
*THE HOTWATER INFUSION- Faanta is
prepared from the plant material requiring
low grade temperature for extraction of
water soluble ingredients which are likely to
be sensitive at high temperature.
Continued…..
 Finally powdered plant material is soaked in
hot water and thoroughly mixed.
 The Mixture then is filtered through four
layered muslin cloth .The filterate so
obtained is termed as FAANTA.
 The Dose of FAANTA is 80 ml.
SHEETA or COLD WATER
INFUSION..
 Heat sensitive plant material is subjected to
cold water infusion and the product so
obtained is termed as SHEETA or HIMA.
 Finally powdered plant material is soaked
overnight in sixparts of water .
 The Contents then filtered through four
layered muslin cloth .The Filterate so
obtained is called as SHEETA.
 Dose is 80 ml.
Stability period of different
dosage forms… (Sarangdhara
Samhita)DRUG FORM SHELF LIFE
1. UNPROCEESED DRIED PLANT
MATERIAL
1YEAR
2. POWDER 2 MONTHS
3.TABLET ,PILLS SYRUPS 1YEAR
4. MEDICAL OIL AND GHEE 16 MONTHS
5. LOW POTENCY DRUGS 1YEAR
DECOCTION (KWATHA KALPANA)
 In this process ,the crude drug is boiled in a
specified volume of water for definite time.
 It is then cooled and strained out or filtered.
 This procedure is suitable for extracting water
soluble and heat stable constituents.
 This procedure in Ayurvedic terms is called as
KWATHA procedure.
 The Starting Ratio of crude drug to water fixed
eg 1:4 or 1:16 ,the volume brought down to one
fourth its original volume by extraction
procedure.
IMPORTANCE OF DECOCTION
PROCEDURE
 Decoction procedure is very easy and cheap.
 It require less instruments.
 Whole content of the drug is obtained.
 Herbs whose swaras is not obtained can be
used either by Kwatha process or by Puta
paka Swarasa process.
 Less time consauming and can be obtained
by less skills.
PERCOLATION
 This is the procedure used most frequently to
extract active ingredients in the preparation
ofTinctures and fluid extracts.
 An instrument called Percolator is mainly
used in this procedure.
 Steps involving in this procedure are as
follows;
Continued…….
 The Solid Ingredients are moistened with an
appropriate amount of menstrum and are
allowed to stand for approximately 4 hr. in a
well closed container, after which top of the
percolater is closed.
 Additional Menstrum is allowed to form
shallow layer above the mass.
 The outlet of the percolator then is opened
and the liquid contained there in is allowed to
drip slowly .
Continued…
 Additional Menstrum is added as required.
 The Marc is then pressed and the expressed
liquid is added to percolate.
 Sufficient Menstrum is added to produce the
required volume , and the mixed liquid is
clarified by filteration or by standinf followed
by Decanting.
ADVANTAGES OF EXTRACTION
PROCEDURES
 The Extraction of constituents at low
temperature , which strictly avoid damage
from heat nd some organic solvents.
 No solvent residues.
 Environmemt friendly Extraction procedures.
DISTILLATION….
 INTRODUCTION : In order to isolate essential
oils by Distillation the aromatic plant material
is packed in a still and sufficient quantity of
water and is added and brought to boil and
alternatively live steam is injected into the
plant charge.
 Due to the influence of hot water and steam ,
the essential oil is freed from the oil glands in
the plant tissues.
Continued…..
 TheVapour mixture of water and oil is
condensed by indirect cooling with water.
 From the condenser , distiilate flows into the
seperator ,where oil seperates automatically
from the distillate water.
TYPES OF DISTILLATION…..
1. WATER DISTILLATION
2. WATERAND STEAM DISTILLATION
3. DIRECT STEAM DISTILLATION
Water and Steam Distillation has more benefits
overWater distillation and Direct steam
Distillation.
EXPRESSION
 Expression or cold pressing and is mainly
used in the production of citrus oils..
 The term Expression refers to any physical
process in which the essential oil glands in the
peel are crushed or broken to release the oil.
 This process is not widely used as that of
Extraction procedure.
CONCLUSION….
 The Process of Extraction determines how
Efficientely we add value to the Bioresource.
 In case of Essential Oils , the Extraction
process affects the physical as well as internal
composition.
 Furthermore, Essential Oils are evaluated
internationally for their various preparations.
 Variations in the chemical constituents of the
extracts of the plants may result by using non
staandardisation procedure of extraction.
THANK YOUUU……

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CONCEPT OF EXTRACTION AND EXPREESION

  • 1. CONCEPT OF EXTRACTION AND EXPRESSION….. Submitted to Submitted By Dr. Smita Johar PhD Dr. Nitika Rattan MD
  • 2. INTRODUCTION  AWide range ofTechnologies is Available for the Extraction of Active Components and Essential Oils from Medicinal and Aromatic Plants.  The Choice depends on the Economical feasibility and suitability of the process in the particular situation.
  • 3. Definition Of EXTRACTION……  EXTRACTION ,as the term is used pharmaceutically involves the seperation of Medicinaaly Active portion of the plants or Animal tissues from the inactive or inert component by using selective solvent in standard extraction procedure.  The product so obtained from the plants are relatively impure liquids , semisolids or powders intended only for oral or external use.
  • 4. TYPES OF EXTRACTION …. EXTRACTION is classified into following Categories : 1.DECOCTION 2. INFUSION 3. MACERATION 4. FLUID EXTRACTS 5.TINCTURES 6. POWDERED EXTRACTS
  • 5. BENEFITS of EXTRACTION PROCEDURES….  The Purpose of Standardised Extraction Procedures for the Crude drugs are to attain the therapeutically desired portion and to eliminate the inert material by treatment with selective solvents.  Thus , Standardisation of Extraction Procedures contributes significantally to the Final quality of Herbal Drug.
  • 6. CONTINUED…….  The Mixture then is strained , the Marc (the damp solid material)is pressed and the combined liquids are clarifiedby Filterartion or decantation after standing.  The Strained mixture then is used for various therapeutic purposes .  In this method whole part of Crude Drug is Strained out.
  • 7. INFUSION…  It is also the type of Extractive procedure.  In this process ,fresh infusions are prepared by macerating the crude drug for a short period of time with cold or boiling water.  These are dilute solutions of the readilly soluble constituents of crude drug.
  • 8. INFUSION / FAANTA TYPES:  FAANTA is of twoTypes :  The HOTWATER INFUSION  The COLDWATER INFUSION *THE HOTWATER INFUSION- Faanta is prepared from the plant material requiring low grade temperature for extraction of water soluble ingredients which are likely to be sensitive at high temperature.
  • 9. Continued…..  Finally powdered plant material is soaked in hot water and thoroughly mixed.  The Mixture then is filtered through four layered muslin cloth .The filterate so obtained is termed as FAANTA.  The Dose of FAANTA is 80 ml.
  • 10. SHEETA or COLD WATER INFUSION..  Heat sensitive plant material is subjected to cold water infusion and the product so obtained is termed as SHEETA or HIMA.  Finally powdered plant material is soaked overnight in sixparts of water .  The Contents then filtered through four layered muslin cloth .The Filterate so obtained is called as SHEETA.  Dose is 80 ml.
  • 11. Stability period of different dosage forms… (Sarangdhara Samhita)DRUG FORM SHELF LIFE 1. UNPROCEESED DRIED PLANT MATERIAL 1YEAR 2. POWDER 2 MONTHS 3.TABLET ,PILLS SYRUPS 1YEAR 4. MEDICAL OIL AND GHEE 16 MONTHS 5. LOW POTENCY DRUGS 1YEAR
  • 12. DECOCTION (KWATHA KALPANA)  In this process ,the crude drug is boiled in a specified volume of water for definite time.  It is then cooled and strained out or filtered.  This procedure is suitable for extracting water soluble and heat stable constituents.  This procedure in Ayurvedic terms is called as KWATHA procedure.  The Starting Ratio of crude drug to water fixed eg 1:4 or 1:16 ,the volume brought down to one fourth its original volume by extraction procedure.
  • 13. IMPORTANCE OF DECOCTION PROCEDURE  Decoction procedure is very easy and cheap.  It require less instruments.  Whole content of the drug is obtained.  Herbs whose swaras is not obtained can be used either by Kwatha process or by Puta paka Swarasa process.  Less time consauming and can be obtained by less skills.
  • 14. PERCOLATION  This is the procedure used most frequently to extract active ingredients in the preparation ofTinctures and fluid extracts.  An instrument called Percolator is mainly used in this procedure.  Steps involving in this procedure are as follows;
  • 15. Continued…….  The Solid Ingredients are moistened with an appropriate amount of menstrum and are allowed to stand for approximately 4 hr. in a well closed container, after which top of the percolater is closed.  Additional Menstrum is allowed to form shallow layer above the mass.  The outlet of the percolator then is opened and the liquid contained there in is allowed to drip slowly .
  • 16. Continued…  Additional Menstrum is added as required.  The Marc is then pressed and the expressed liquid is added to percolate.  Sufficient Menstrum is added to produce the required volume , and the mixed liquid is clarified by filteration or by standinf followed by Decanting.
  • 17. ADVANTAGES OF EXTRACTION PROCEDURES  The Extraction of constituents at low temperature , which strictly avoid damage from heat nd some organic solvents.  No solvent residues.  Environmemt friendly Extraction procedures.
  • 18. DISTILLATION….  INTRODUCTION : In order to isolate essential oils by Distillation the aromatic plant material is packed in a still and sufficient quantity of water and is added and brought to boil and alternatively live steam is injected into the plant charge.  Due to the influence of hot water and steam , the essential oil is freed from the oil glands in the plant tissues.
  • 19. Continued…..  TheVapour mixture of water and oil is condensed by indirect cooling with water.  From the condenser , distiilate flows into the seperator ,where oil seperates automatically from the distillate water.
  • 20. TYPES OF DISTILLATION….. 1. WATER DISTILLATION 2. WATERAND STEAM DISTILLATION 3. DIRECT STEAM DISTILLATION Water and Steam Distillation has more benefits overWater distillation and Direct steam Distillation.
  • 21. EXPRESSION  Expression or cold pressing and is mainly used in the production of citrus oils..  The term Expression refers to any physical process in which the essential oil glands in the peel are crushed or broken to release the oil.  This process is not widely used as that of Extraction procedure.
  • 22. CONCLUSION….  The Process of Extraction determines how Efficientely we add value to the Bioresource.  In case of Essential Oils , the Extraction process affects the physical as well as internal composition.  Furthermore, Essential Oils are evaluated internationally for their various preparations.  Variations in the chemical constituents of the extracts of the plants may result by using non staandardisation procedure of extraction.