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julia-Latest Programming language


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Julia is a high performance high level dynamic language.
Julia was First Appeared in 2012.It was Designed by Jeff Bezanson, Stefan Karpinski, Viral B. Shah, Alan Edelman (MIT Group Leader).Which can be used in Linux OS X,Windows and in FREEBSD.The syntax of Julia is similar to MATLAB® and consequently MATLAB® programmers should feel immediately comfortable with Julia

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julia-Latest Programming language

  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  Julia is a high-level, highperformance dynamic programming language for technical computing, with syntax that is familiar to users of other technical computing environments. It provides a sophisticated compiler, distributed parallel execution, numerical accuracy, and an extensive mathematical function library.
  4. 4. Appeared in 2012 Designed by Jeff Bezanson, Stefan Karpinski, Viral B. Shah, Alan Edelman (MIT Group Leader) OS Linux, FreeBSD, Windows Stable release Typing discipline Influenced by 0.1.2 (March 7, 2013)) License Usual filename extensions MIT License .jl Dynamic with optional type annotations and type inference MATLAB, Scheme, Lisp, C Python Perl Ruby
  5. 5. FEATURES    High-Performance JIT Compiler Designed for Parallelism & Cloud Computing Free, Open Source & Library-Friendly
  6. 6. DATATYPES Integers and Floating-Point Numbers Integer Types Int8— signed 8-bit integers ranging from -2^7 to 2^7 - 1. Uint8 — unsigned 8-bit integers ranging from 0 to 2^8 - 1. Int16 — signed 16-bit integers ranging from -2^15 to 2^15 - 1. Uint16 — unsigned 16-bit integers ranging from 0 to 2^16 - 1
  7. 7. Int32 — signed 32-bit integers ranging from -2^31 to 2^31 - 1. Uint32 — unsigned 32-bit integers ranging from 0 to 2^32 - 1. Int64 — signed 64-bit integers ranging from -2^63 to 2^63 - 1.
  8. 8. Uint64 — unsigned 64-bit integers ranging from 0 to 2^64 - 1. Int128 - signed 128-bit integers ranging from -2^127 to 2^127 - 1. Uint128 - unsigned 128-bit integers ranging from 0 to 2^128 - 1.
  9. 9. Bool- either true or false, which correspond numerically to 1 and 0. Char- a 32-bit numeric type representing a Unicode character. Floating-point types: Float32- IEEE 754 32-bit floating-point numbers.  Float64-IEEE 754 64-bit floating-point numbers. 
  10. 10. Arbitrary Precision Arithmetic   allow computations with arbitrary precision integers and floating point numbers The BigInt and BigFloat types are available in Julia for arbitrary precision integer and floating point numbers respectively.
  11. 11. Numeric Literal Coefficients    make common numeric formulas and expressions clearer writing polynomial expressions much cleaner. makes writing exponential functions more elegant.
  12. 12. Syntax Conflicts   The hexadecimal integer literal expression 0xff could be interpreted as the numeric literal 0 multiplied by the variable xff. The floating-point literal expression 1e10 could be interpreted as the numeric literal 1 multiplied by the variable e10, and similarly with the equivalent E form.
  13. 13. MATHEMATICAL OPERATORS   Arithmetic Operators Bitwise Operators  Arithmetic operators • +x-unary plus is the identity operation. • x-unary minus maps values to their additive inverses. • x + y-binary plus performs addition. • x – y-binary minus performs subtraction. • x * y- times performs multiplication. • x / y-divide performs division.
  14. 14. Bitwise Operators • ~x •x&y •x|y • x $ y• x >> y • x >> y• x << y bitwise not. bitwise and. bitwise or. bitwise xor. logical shift right. arithmetic shift right. logical/arithmetic shift left.
  15. 15. NUMERIC COMPARISON  Comparison Operators • ==equality. • != inequality. • <less than. • <=less than or equal to. • >greater than. • >=greater than or equal to.
  16. 16. MATHEMATICALFUNCTIONS o o Julia provides a comprehensive collection of mathematical functions and operators All the standard trignometric functions are inluded
  17. 17. Some examples • sqrt(x)— the square root of x. • cbrt(x)— the cube root of x. • pow(x,y)—x raised to the exponent y. • exp(x)— the natural exponential function at x. • log(x)— the natural logarithm of x.
  18. 18. Complex Numbers  We can perform all the standard arithmetic operations with complex numbers: julia> (1 + 2im)*(2 - 3im) 8 + 1im  Standard functions to manipulate complex values are provided: julia> real(1 + 2im) 1 Julia> imag(1 + 2im) 2 julia> conj(1 + 2im) 1 - 2im
  19. 19. Rational Numbers   Julia has a rational number type to represent exact ratios of integers. Rationals are constructed using the // operator: If the numerator and denominator of a rational have common factors, they are reduced to lowest terms such that the denominator is nonnegative: Julia> 6//9 2//3 julia> 5//-15 -1//3
  20. 20. STRINGS • Strings are finite sequences of characters. Julia supports the full range of unicode characters: Characters A Char value represents a single character: it is just a 32-bit integer with a special literal representation and appropriate arithmetic behaviors, whose numeric value is interpreted as a Unicode code point
  21. 21. Interpolation    To reduce the need for these verbose calls to strcat, Julia allows interpolation into string literals using $, as in Perl: julia> "$greet, $whom.n" "Hello, world.n"
  22. 22. STRING FUNCTIONS  strchr function: Julia> strchr("xylophone", ’x’) 1  repeat: julia> repeat(".:Z:.", 10) ".:Z:..:Z:..:Z:..:Z:..:Z:..:Z:..:Z:..:Z:.. :Z:..:Z:.“  •endof(str) gives the maximal (byte) index that can be used to index into str.
  23. 23. • i = start(str) gives the first valid index at which a character can be found in str (typically 1). • c, j = next(str,i) returns next character at or after the index i and the next valid character index following that. With start and endof, can be used to iterate through the characters in str. • ind2chr(str,i) gives the number of characters in str up to and including any at index i • chr2ind(str,j) gives the index at which the jth character in str occurs.
  24. 24. FUNCTIONS   In Julia, a function is an object that maps a tuple of argument values to a return value syntax for defining functions in Julia is: function f(x,y) x+y end
  25. 25. CONTROL FLOW • Compound Expressions: begin and (;). • Conditional Evaluation: if-elseifelse and ?: (ternary operator). • Short-Circuit Evaluation: &&, || and chained comparisons. • Repeated Evaluation: Loops: while and for.
  26. 26. Julia Standard Library There are 65 pacages in Julia some of them are: 1. ArgPars-Package for parsing command-line arguments to Julia programs. 2. Calculus-Calculus functions in Julia 3.Calendar-Calendar time package for Julia 4. Color-Basic color manipulation utilities
  27. 27. 5.Graph-Working with graphs in Julia 6. HTTP-HTTP library (server, client, parser) for the Julia language 7. Languages-A package for working with human language 8.Sound-Reading and writing from WAV files (should probably be named WAV) 9. Winston-2D plotting for Julia
  28. 28. Simple Ploting To plot sin(x) between 0 and 2π, you can go like this julia> xVector=[0:0.01:2*pi]; julia> yVector=0.0*xVector; julia> for n=1:length(xVector): yVector[n] = sin(xVector[n]); end julia> plot(xVector, yVector)
  29. 29. Advantages of JULIA • Free and open source (MIT licensed) • User-defined types are as fast and compact as built-ins • Designed for parallelism and distributed computation • Elegant and extensible conversions and promotions for numeric and other types • Call C functions directly
  30. 30. CONCLUSION Julia is a is a flexible dynamic language, appropriate for scientific and numerical computing Julia features optional typing, multiple dispatch, and good performance, achieved using type inference and justintime (JIT) compilation. Julia combines the features of many other Programing languages like C,Matlab,java etc. Which is useful for scientific computing.It is a User friendly and easly Understandable Programming Language
  31. 31. REFERENCES "The Julia Language" (official website). O'Reilly Strata. Retrieved 7 February 2013.  Krill, Paul. "New Julia language seeks to be the C for scientists " InfoWorld. Retrieved 7 February 2013.  "Julia: A Fast Dynamic Language for Technical Computing" (PDF). 2012.  "Why We Created Julia"(World Wide Web log). Feb 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2013.  "The Julia Studio" (official website).  Julia Language Documentation Release development 
  32. 32. Any questions???? ??????