To design a solar rickshaw which would be manual driven as well as motor driven using solar energy. Project Guide – Mrs. Richa Pandey Project Supervisor – Mr. Jeeoot Singh Nitesh Prasad (BE/1183/08) Vishal Balodia(BE/1149/08) Prateek Jha (BE/1181/08) Sunny Kumar(BE/1194/08)
Why Solar Rickshaw ?1.To reduce the effort of rickshaw puller2. To use abundantly available solar power3. To reduce the use of fossil fuels4. Ecofriendly in nature5. High future prospects in Renewable energy field
ObjectiveTo design a hybrid rickshaw, manual driven as well as motor drivenusing Solar Energy to reduce the effort of rickshaw puller. The payloadwould be 250 kg, two passengers with a driver. This includes: Maximising the surface area of the hood. Minimising the weight of the rickshaw. Selection of motor and other circuitry elements. Circuit design (electrical and mechanical). Selection of solar cells.
Introduction The sun provides the earth with energy at a rate of more than 100 000 TW (1 TW = 1012 W). India has high solar insolation, an ideal combination for using solar energy. This energy can be used to drive a rickshaw. To reduce the effort of rickshaw puller decision has been taken to assist rickshaw puller with the help of solar driven motors. This can be done in two ways: Modification / improvement in prevailing rickshaw design. Modification / improvement in solar cells. Since the field related to improvement in solar cells is confined for scientific research we will purchase solar cells directly from the market and will switch our focus on the mechanical part i.e. Designing the solar rickshaw.
Mathematical Modeling Force analysis of rickshaw up the inclined plane F= µMg cos + Mg sin Power, P=Force (F) × Velocity (V)
Solar cells and its selection Solar cells are devices which convert solar energy directly into electricity by photovoltaic effect. The current generation of crystalline and amorphous silicon solar cells has efficiencies between 5% and 17%. Solar cells have been classified into following types: • Silicon wafer based solar cells • Photo-electrochemical solar cells • Dye sensitize solar cells
Battery and its selection A storage battery is a group of one or more electrochemical cells which comes in different sizes, shapes and specifications. Some of the commonly used include : Lead-Acid Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) Lithium ion (Li-ion)
Total daily energy expenditure by Electric Rickshaws
Electric Motor and its selectionA electric motor converts electrical energy to mechanical energy.Brushless DC motors are powered by direct current and have electroniccommutation system rather than mechanical commutators and brushes.The current-to-torque and frequency-to-speed relationships of BLDCmotors are linear. 48 volt Heinzmann hub motor 1200 watt is selected
Specifications of Solar RickshawPower Source Electrical and Pedal Controller Mounting On Centre of handle of RickshawType of Drive Electric Motor Assisted Pedal Driven Electronic Throttle Mounted on Right Side of HandleElectric Motor 48 volt Heinzmann hub motor 1200 watt Battery 48V,18 Ah, Deep Cycle,Li-ionElectric Motor type Hub Motor BatteryMotor Controller Driving and Controlling the RPM Charge Controller From 220 VAC supply or of BLDC Motor Optional Solar ChargingTransmission Sprocket and Chain Drive with override at rear axle Battery Weight 15 Kg approx.Payload 250 kg considering 2 passengers Weight 160 kg ( including all items) and 1 driverAverage Speed 15 kmph Body Made of CRC Sheet or FRPMotor RPM 160 rpm Weight 45 kgMotor Mounting Front Wheel Hub Overall Size 1300 mm x 1200 mm x 1500 mmWeight of Motor 8 kg approx. Hood Material RexinMotor Control Electronic Controller and Throttle Hood Type Folding
Sample Calculations For total (rickshaw + Passengers + Driver) mass, m = 400 kg to run on a flat road (ϴ=0o) running at a speed of 15 kmph/4 mps, the power required is 3136 W. For the same rickshaw running on an inclined road (ϴ=4o) at the same speed, the power required is 4228 W. The extra effort to be compensated is 4228 – 3136 = 1092 W For the selected solar cell, power output per unit area = 168.1 W/m2 Through our CAD model we have achieved roughly 2 m2 generating 168.1 *2= 336.2 W
Future Aspects To increase the efficiency of solar cell. To reduce the weight of the frame and body. To use light weight high energy density battery. To use alternator or regenerative braking down the slope to charge the battery. To use sensors and actuators for speed control and battery indicator.