Wheat

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Wheat

  1. 2. <ul><li>Wheat is grown in India over an area of about 266.92 lakh with a production of 721.40 lakh tonnes. </li></ul><ul><li>The normal National productivity is about 2703 kg/ha. </li></ul><ul><li>The major Wheat producing States are Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, Maharashtra, Gujarat,. </li></ul><ul><li>These States contribute about 99.5% of total Wheat production in the country. </li></ul>WHEAT
  2. 3. WHEAT& RICE   Normal Area (in lakh ha) % Share  of area Normal Production (in lakh tonnes) % share of  Production Rice 447.750 36.50 868.77 42.77 Wheat 266.925 21.76 721.399 35.52 Total Foodgrains 126.847 100.00 2031.081 100.00  
  3. 4. History of Wheat Production in India <ul><li>The production and productivity of Wheat crop were quite low, when India became independent in 1947. </li></ul><ul><li>The production of Wheat was only 6.46 million tones and productivity was merely 663 kg per hectare during 1950-51, which was not sufficient to feed the Indian population. </li></ul><ul><li>The Country used to import Wheat in large quantities for fulfilling the needs of our people from many countries like USA. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>The reasons of low production and productivity of Wheat at that time was:- </li></ul><ul><li>The tall growing plant habit resulting in lodging, when grown under fertile soils, </li></ul><ul><li>The poor tillering and low sink capacity of the varieties used, </li></ul><ul><li>Higher susceptibility to diseases, </li></ul><ul><li>The higher sensitivity to thermo & photo variations, etc., resulting in poor adaptability. </li></ul>WHEAT
  5. 6. <ul><li>The Government of India appointed a commission in 1961 to assess the feasibility of increasing the crop productivity under prevailing Indian ecological conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Several policy decisions and actions were taken by Government of India from time to time to increase production and productivity in the country. </li></ul><ul><li>The Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India launched and implemented various Centrally Sponsored/ Central Sector Schemes, namely, IADP (1960-61), IAAP (1964-65), High Yielding Varieties Programme. </li></ul>WHEAT
  6. 7. CLASSIFICATION Species % share of production Major growing areas 1. T. Aestivum 95% UP, Punjab, Rajasthan, Bihar, MP, J& K, Assam. 2. T.Durum 4% MP, Maharashtra, Gujarat. 3. T. Dicoccum 1% Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu.
  7. 8. WHEAT USES <ul><li>Food Products:- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapaties, Pasta products, bread, Biscuits, Noodles, Cookies, dalia etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Industrial uses:- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wheat gluten is useful for preparing coatings, polymers etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wheat starch is used in cosmetic, paper & pharmaceutical industry. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. WHEAT USES <ul><li>Other uses:- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many other forms like its straw and bran as cattle feed etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Food value:- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates 70%, Protein 12%, fat 1.7%, Minerals 2.7%, fiber 2% and moisture 12%. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. IMPORT AND EXPORT <ul><li>Due to unmanageable food grain stocks in October 2000, the govt. of India decided to export its Wheat Stock at a high price of Rs. 4,150 per tone. </li></ul><ul><li>Export of Wheat has become imp. For Indian government. </li></ul><ul><li>India has exported 84.20 lakh tones of Wheat and has emerged as the 6 th largest exporter of Wheat. </li></ul>
  10. 11. IMPORT AND EXPORT <ul><li>Punjab State is set to become major Wheat exporter state of the country. </li></ul>
  11. 12. WHEAT IMPORTS Year Quantity (Lakh Tones) Value (Crore rupees) 1996-97 6.16004 405. 7746 1999-2000 13.70046 779.1037 2002-2003 0.00263 0.4695
  12. 13. WHEAT EXPORTS Year Quantity (Lakh Tones) Value (Crore rupees) 1996-97 18.49115 1206.48600 1999-2000 0.01040 1.09070 2002-2003 19.45540 941.35880
  13. 14. AREA, PRODUCTION & PRODUCTIVITY
  14. 15. State - wise % Share of  Normal  Area
  15. 16. State - wise % Share of  Normal Production
  16. 17. Plan-wise Area, Production and Productivity of Wheat in India
  17. 18. WORLD SCENARIO <ul><li>The total area of   Wheat in the world is around 215.26 million with a production of 584.76 million tones. </li></ul><ul><li>The normal world productivity is 2717 Kg./ha. The major Wheat producing countries are China, India, USA, France, Russia, Canada, Australia, Pakistan, Turkey, UK, Argentina, Iran and Italy. </li></ul><ul><li>These countries contribute about 76% of the total world Wheat production. </li></ul>
  18. 19. % Share of  Normal World Area
  19. 20. % Share of  Normal World Production
  20. 21. MEASURES <ul><li>Falguni </li></ul>
  21. 22. Diseases of Wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) <ul><li>Glume blotch </li></ul><ul><li>Loaf blotch </li></ul><ul><li>rot </li></ul><ul><li>Pythium root </li></ul><ul><li>Sclerotial disease </li></ul><ul><li>Dilophospors Leaf spot </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf blight </li></ul><ul><li>Foot rot </li></ul>
  22. 23. Pests of  Wheat ( Triticum aestivum Linnaeus) <ul><li>Termites: Odontotermee obesus Rambur Microtermes obesi Holmgren </li></ul><ul><li>Stem-borer, Sesamia inference Walker </li></ul><ul><li>Gujhia weevil, Tanymecus indious Faust </li></ul><ul><li>Thrip,     Anaphothrips flavicinctus Karny </li></ul><ul><li>Armyworm   Mythimna unipuncta Haworth </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat aphids:  Schizaphie (Taxoptera) graminum Rondani   Rhopalosiphum maidis Fitch Sitobion avenace Fabricius </li></ul><ul><li>Surface grasshopper, Chrotogonus trachypterus Blanchard </li></ul><ul><li>Cutworms                      Agrotis ipsilon  Hufner  A. flammatra  Schiffer-Mueller </li></ul>
  23. 24. Harvesting & Threshing <ul><li>The crop is harvested when the grains become hard and the straw becomes yellow, dry and brittle. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the harvesting in India is done with sickle. </li></ul><ul><li>However, in recent years in some states like Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh etc. harvesting & threshing is done by combine harvester at a large scale. </li></ul><ul><li>The maturity time of the crop differs from zone to zone and so is the harvesting. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Measures Developmental <ul><li>(A) Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Integrated Cereals Development Program in Rice/Wheat/Course cereals based Cropping System Areas (ICDP-Wheat/Rice/Coarse cereals) </li></ul><ul><li>(B) Frontline Demonstrations through ICAR </li></ul><ul><li>C) Wheat / Barely Minikit Demonstration Program </li></ul><ul><li>Minikit Demonstration </li></ul><ul><li>State Level Training Program (SLTP) </li></ul><ul><li>Special Orientation Program (SOP) </li></ul><ul><li>National Work shop/Seminar. </li></ul>
  25. 26. ADDITIONAL SPECIFIC TECNOLOGY RCOMMENDATION <ul><li>Zero- Tillage (ZT) Technology </li></ul><ul><li>General instructions and precautions while using Zero-till-fertilizer-seed-drill </li></ul><ul><li>The Machine </li></ul><ul><li>Furrow Irrigated Raised Bed-Planting (FIRB) System </li></ul><ul><li>Rotary Tillage Technology </li></ul>
  26. 27. QUALITY OF WHEAT 4 EXPORT PURPOSE <ul><li>hetal </li></ul>

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