Differences among KingdomsThe 5 Kingdoms we use today. Monera: single celled, prokaryote organisms• Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) Protista: single celled, contains nucleus andinternal subdivisions• Diatoms, dinoflagellates, and protozoans Fungi: multicellular, chitinous cell wall, nochloroplasts, heterotrophic, nutrition by absorption,• Mushrooms Plantae: multicellular, cell wall, cellulose,chloroplasts, autotrophic Animalia: multicellular, no cell wall, heterotrophs
Protista: single celled, containsnucleus and internal subdivisions• Diatoms, dinoflagellates, andprotozoans Animalia: multicellular, no cell wall,heterotrophsDifferences among Kingdoms
Which Anatomical Features Mark BranchWhich Anatomical Features Mark BranchPoints on the Animal Evolutionary Tree?• Lack of Tissues Separates Sponges from All OtherAnimals• Animals with Tissues Exhibit Either Radial orBilateral Symmetry– Radially Symmetrical Animals Have TwoEmbryonic Tissue Layers; Bilaterally SymmetricalAnimals Have ThreeAnimals Have Three– Bilateral Animals Have Heads
Radial symmetrycentral axisBilateral symmetryplane ofsymmetryanteriorplane ofsymmetryposteriorBody symmetry and cephalization
It is aquatic in habitat. Body is unicellular, irregular in shape. Body is covered by plasma membrane orplasmalemma. Pseudopodia are projected from differentparts of body surface. Body cytoplasm is differentiated into outerectoplasm and inner endoplasm. In endoplasm Nucleus, Contractilevacuole, Food vacuole and otherorganelle are present.
Phylum Porifera•Sessile stays in one place•Sessile-stays in one place•Most simple multicellular organismMost simple multicellular organism•No tissues or organs•Central body cavity•Osculum- large opening(s) at topf i•Pores for incurrent water
Phylum PlatyhelminthesPhylum Platyhelminthes•Diffusion is used in place of important body systemsDiffusion is used in place of important body systems.•No real vision only senses light with eyespots•Examples:Flukes and Tapeworms•Reproduce asexually by fission•Reproduce sexually by cross fertilization
Fun Fact: Tapewormsphttp://www.micrographia.com/specbiol/helmint/platyhel/cest0100.htmIn the 1920’s ingesting tapeworms was a method of weight loss.The more intake of nutrients in the body; the longer thetapeworm becomes in the intestine.
75 mm long 30 mm longMOUTHGONOPOREACETABULUMORAL SUCKER(surrounds mouth)EXCRETERY PORE(Fasciola)
Fasciola hepatica “The Sheep Liver Fluke” Because sheep are thenormal definitive host. In places where sheepare not raised can befound in cattle. Humans can becomeinfected!30 mm long
Phylum Nematoda•Roundworms are found everywhere•In one cubic meter millions can live•Some Nematodes are parasitic•Trichinella is a muscle parasite found in pig meat•Hookworms are intestinal and drink blood of stomachp p g•Filarial Roundworms infect lymphatic system cause Elephantiasis
Phylum Annelida•Segmented worms are capable of more complex movementsg p p•Have a closed circulatory system•Have five pairs of “hearts”•Pharynx draws in food•Crop stores food•Gizzard grinds food up•Then it is passed into the intestine where nutrients is absorbed•And out the anus
Phylum Arthropoda•Most dominant animals on Earth•Exoskeleton “suit of armor” made of chitin•Efficient gas exchange allows rapid supply of oxygen to muscles•Well developed sensory system•Well developed nervous system•Well developed nervous system•Well developed circulatory system
Phylum Mollusca•Shell made of Calcium Carbonate•Open circulatory system except for Cephalopods•Mantle lays down the shellOpen circulatory system except for Cephalopods•Radula tongue made of chitin used to scrape for food•Bivalve named for number of shells•In some the shell is internal
Phylum Echinodermata•The name echinoderm is Greek for “hedgehog skin”•Use a water-vascular system for locomotion,respiration, and food capture•Lack a circulatory system•Have regenerative capabilities
Phylum EchinodermataPhylum EchinodermataStar fishhttp://www.inhissaddle.com/Scuba%20Pictures%20Album/pages/Sea%20Star%2002_jpg.htmStar fish
Phylum EchinodermataPhylum EchinodermataSea UrchinSe U chttp://www.inhissaddle.com/Scuba%20Pictures%20Album/pages/SeaCucumberUrchins_jpg.htm
Questions?1.To which phylum these organism include ?a)Sycon, b) pila, c) prawn, d) amoeba2.Match the followings:a)Mammalia, b) nemathelminthes, c) insecta,d) annelida, e) echinodermata, f) teleost1) Banded krait 2) leech 3) rat 4) round worm5) rohu 6) all marine species 7) honey bee3. Name the followings (biological).Earhworm,silk worm , liver fluke, pigeon, toad.