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robotics basics and a brief introduction with recent trends in it.

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  1. 1. RoboticsRobotics BasicsBasics Prepared by: NISHANT SHARMA
  2. 2. Origin of the word Robot • The word robot was first used more than 60 years ago by Karel Capek, a Czechoslovakian writer, in his play R.U.R., or Rossum’s Universal Robots. • He derived robot from the Czech word robota, which means “drudgery” or “compulsory labor”. • Later in a letter written by him to Oxford English Dictionary, he is reported to have quoted his brother Josef Capek as the actual originator.
  3. 3. G. Walter’s Robot –The first Robot • 1948, 1953 • A wheeled machine with motors • Photocells • Two vacuum tubes • Moved toward light if moderate intensity • Avoided bright light
  4. 4. Definition of Robotics • “ A reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks”. • The science of building and programming robots.
  5. 5. Robots in the Media • Robots have been presented in the media since the 1927 movie “Metropolis”.
  6. 6. What is a Robot?What is a Robot? • A machine whose behavior can be programmed … • Then, is a VCR a robot? • Is a tethered machine a robot? • Surprisingly, there is no exact definition of a robot • Today, people use ‘robot’ for almost any machine designed to be clever
  7. 7. Three Laws of Robotics • Law 1: A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm • Law 2: A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law • Law 3: A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law
  8. 8. Automation vs. robots • Automation –Machinery designed to carry out a specific task – Bottling machine – Dishwasher – Paint sprayer • Robots – machinery designed to carry out a variety of tasks – Pick and place arms – Mobile robots – Computer Numerical Control machines (These are always better than robots, because they can be optimally designed for a particular task).
  9. 9. Types of robots • Pick and place – Moves items between points – Moves along a programmable path • Sensory – Employs sensors for feedback A SCARA robot (Selective Compliant Articulated Robot Arm): A pick-and-place robot with angular x-y-z positioning (Adept Technology) Continuous path control a six-axis industrial robot ($60K)(Fanuc Robotics), but an additional $200K is often spent for tooling and programming.
  10. 10. Pick and Place • Moves items from one point to another • Does not need to follow a specific path between points • Uses include loading and unloading machines, placing components on circuit boards, and moving parts off conveyor belts. A cartesian robot for picking and placing circuits on circuit-boards
  11. 11. Continuous path control • Moves along a specific path • Uses include welding, cutting, machining parts. Robotic seam welding
  12. 12. Sensory • Uses sensors for feedback. • Closed-loop robots use sensors in conjunction with actuators to gain higher accuracy – servo motors. • Uses include mobile robotics, telepresence, search and rescue, pick and place with machine vision.
  13. 13. Kinematics and dynamics of robots • Degrees of freedom—number of independent motions –Translation--3 independent directions –Rotation-- 3 independent axes –2D motion = 3 degrees of freedom: 2 translation, 1 rotation –3D motion = 6 degrees of freedom: 3 translation, 3 rotation
  14. 14. Kinematics and dynamics (cont.) • Actions – Simple joints • prismatic—sliding joint, e.g., square cylinder in square tube • revolute—hinge joint – Compound joints • ball and socket = 3 revolute joints • round cylinder in tube = 1 prismatic, 1 revolute • Mobility – Wheels – multipedal (multi-legged with a sequence of actions)
  15. 15. Robots forRobots for 3D3D JobsJobs •Dangerous •Dull •Dirty
  16. 16. Ideal Tasks Tasks which are: – Dangerous • Space exploration • chemical spill cleanup • disarming bombs • disaster cleanup – Boring and/or repetitive • Welding car frames • part pick and place • manufacturing parts. – High precision or high speed • Electronics testing • Surgery • precision machining.
  17. 17. Definition: (Autonomous)Robot • A mobile computer situated in the real world interacting with the environment through sensors and actuators in order to perform various intelligent tasks without constant attention.without constant attention. • Real robots do not need joy stickReal robots do not need joy stick remote controls!remote controls!
  18. 18. Fundamental Components of AutonomousFundamental Components of Autonomous RobotsRobots • A brain (or brains)A brain (or brains) • Body: physical chassis that holdsBody: physical chassis that holds other piecesother pieces • Actuators: allows to move.Actuators: allows to move. Motors, hydraulic pistons, lamps,Motors, hydraulic pistons, lamps, etc.etc. • SensorsSensors • Power sourcePower source • Communication
  19. 19. Sensors of Human • Eyes • Ears • Nose • Skin • Tongue • Equilibrium: Balance • … • 6th sense(?)
  20. 20. Robot Sensor Types • Passive Sensors (does not require power supply) – Touch – Temperature – Balance – … • Active Sensors (require power supply) – Light – Distance – Rotation – Sonar – …
  21. 21. Sensors for Mobile Robots • Contact sensors: Bumpers • Internal sensors – Accelerometers (spring-mounted masses) – Gyroscopes (spinning mass, laser light) – Compasses, inclinometers (earth magnetic field, gravity) • Proximity sensors – Sonar (time of flight) – Radar (phase and frequency) – Laser range-finders (triangulation, tof, phase) – Infrared (intensity) • Visual sensors: Cameras • Satellite-based sensors: GPS
  22. 22. Weaponised Robot • Better known as SWORDS. • The Pentagon's research arm, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, also recently awarded contracts to aid research of robots that one day could be dropped into combat from airplanes and others meant to scale walls using electrostatic energy — also known as "static cling."
  23. 23. Humanoid Robots • Honda's "ASIMO" Rings • Opening Bell at the NYSE • February 15, 2002
  24. 24. More Humanoid Robots: SONY QRIO • IREX: Seminar and exhibits
  25. 25. How to develop Intelligent Robots? • The most difficult task • Developing intelligent and adaptive software is the key • And even better is that we ec engineers design and fabricate faster , better , reliable systems on chips and such other components giving the robotics field the wings it needs to fly.
  26. 26. Why I like Robotics? • Answer:-----> • Multi-disciplinary learning: all STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) subjects • Develops critical thinking • Provides co-operative learning environment • Teaches real-life lessons, not virtual fantasy
  27. 27. • MIT’s Kismet: a robot which exhibits expressions, e.g., happy, sad, surprise, disgust.
  28. 28. Futurama • Haptics--tactile sensing • Other kinematic mechanisms, • e.g. snake motion • Robots that can learn A snake robot (OCRobotics)
  29. 29. Our Conclusions • Robots make life easier. • They have variety of applications. • Masses consider they are better as slaves • Mass production will be easily achieved. • Unemployment will increase.
  30. 30. Few Robots in the World
  31. 31. Thank You! •Queries please…