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VI Editor

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Vi Editor Important Commands. This is specifically of GKV Students.

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VI Editor

  1. 1. UNIT-III Vi Editor,AWK Filters, Perl Manipulator
  2. 2. VI EDITOR Vi editor is a visual screen editor which is available in almost all Unix systems. It is a fast powerful editor. Starting vi-  to Start vi editor just type vi followed by the filename. Is the file is already exists then it will show the contents of the file and allow you to edit them and if the file dosent exist then it will create a new file.  $ vi filename
  3. 3. MODES OFVI 1. Command mode: in this mode only commands will work to arrange, copy or delete the data.Vi always start out in command mode and if you are working and then you want to switch it back in command mode press ESC. 2. Insert mode: in this mode data can be enter into the file. By pressing ‘I’ will shift you into the insert ode from command mode. General command information: Vi commands are  Case sensitive  Are not displayed on the screen when we type them.  Generally do not require return after we type the command.
  4. 4. MOVING ONE CHARACTER AT ATIME: h Left one space i Right one space j Down one space k Up one space
  5. 5. MOVING AMONG WORDS AND LINES: w Moves the cursor forward one word b Moves the cursor backward one word e Moves to the end of a word ctrl+f Scrolls down one screen ctrl+b Scrolls up one screen ctrl+u Scrolls up half a screen ctrl+d Scrolls down half a screen Shortcuts: Two shortcuts for moving quickly on a line include $ and 0. $ - will move us to the end of a line. 0 - will move us to the beginning of a line. Screen Movement:
  6. 6. x Deletes the character under the cursor X Deletes the character to the left of the cursor dw Deletes the character selected to the end of the word dd Deletes all the current line. (7dd – will deletes 7 lines) D Deletes from the current character to the end of the line. Yw Copies a word into buffer (7yw will copy 7 words) Yy Copies a line into buffer (7yy will copy 7 lines) P Will paste all the copied things. Deleting Characters, Words and Lines: Copying and Pasting text:
  7. 7. u Undoes the last change we made anywhere in the file U Undoes all the recent changes to current line. J To join lines (4J - to join 4 lines) :w To save your file but not quit vi :q To quit if we have not made any edits :wq To quit and save edits ZZ To quit and save edits (same as above) :!q Force quit ( when it is not allowing you to quit file do force quit) Quitting and Saving a File Joining and Undoing a line
  8. 8. / [string] Search forward for string ? [string] Search backward for string N Repeat last search :1,10w file Write lines 1 through 10 to file newfile :sh Escape temporarily to a shell ^d Return from shell to vi :set number Show line numbers :set all Display current values of vi Searching and Substitution Commands Other Commands:
  9. 9. PROGRAMMING WITH AWK  Awk is not just a command but a programming language too. It uses unusual syntax that uses two components and requires single quotes and curly braces. awk options ‘selection criteria {action}’ files  The selection criteria (a form of addressing) filters input and selects lines for the action component to act on.This component is enclosed within curly braces.  The address (rather than selection criteria) and action constitutes and awk program that is surrounded by a set of single quotes. awk –F: ‘$3>200’ { print $1, $3 }’ /etc/passwd Selection Criteria Action Use to split fields with white spaces or on the delimiter specified with –F option
  10. 10. SPLITTING A LINE INTO FIELDS  AWK breaks-up a line into fields on whitespaces or on the de-limiter specified with the –F option. These fields are represented by the variables $1, $2, $3 and so forth. $0 represents the full line.  Since these parameters are evaluated by the shell in double quotes, awk programs must be a single quoted. $awk –F”|” ‘/sales/ { print $2,$3,$4 } empn.lst In the above line, awk will fetch all the records contains keyword ‘sales’ and will print second, third and fourth word from empn.lst.
  11. 11. COMPARISON OPERATORS  $awk –F”|” ‘$3 == “director” || $3==“chairman” empn.lst - Prints the complete line.  $awk –F”|” ‘$3 == “director” || $3==“chairman” { printf “%-20s %-12s %dn, $2,$3, $6 }” empn.lst -prints the specific words. John woodcook director 120000 20939 Barry wood chairman 160000 27288 John woodcook director 120000 Barry wood chairman 160000 Bill Johnson Director 130000
  12. 12. …  $awk –F”|” ‘$3 == “director” || $3==“chairman” { printf “NR, %-20s %-12s %dn, $2,$3, $6 }” empn.lst -NR is a new keyword which prints the line number.  $awk –F”|” ‘$6 > 120000 { printf “NR, %-20s %-12s %dn, $2,$3, $6 }” empn.lst 13 John woodcook director 120000 15 Barry wood chairman 160000 19 Bill Johnson Director 130000
  13. 13. COMPARISON OPERATORS < LessThan <= Less than or equal to == Equal to != Not Equal to >= Greater than or equal to > Greater than ~ Matches a regular expression !~ Does not match a regular expression
  14. 14. NUMBER PROCESSING  Awk can perform computations on numbers using the arithmetic operators +, -, *, / and % (modulus).  Salespeople often earn a bonus apart from salary. We will assume here that the bonus amount is equal one month’s salary. $awk –F”|” ‘$4 == “sales” { printf “NR, %-20s %-12s %6d %8.2fn, NR,$2,$3,$6,$6/12 }” empn.lst 13 John woodcook director 90000 7500.00 15 Barry wood chairman 140000 11666.67 19 Bill Johnson Director 110000 9166.67
  15. 15. VARIABLES  AWK has certain built-in variables like,  NR  $0  AWK provides user a flexibility to define own variables. It has two special feature-  No type declarations are needed.  By default and depending on its type, variables are initialized to zero or a null string. AWK has a mechanism of identifying the typeof a variable used from its context. $awk –F”|” ‘$4 == “sales” { >kount = kount + 1 >printf “NR, %-20s %-12s %6d %8.2fn,kount,NR,$2,$3,$6,$6/12 }” empn.lst 1 13 John woodcook director 90000 7500.00 2 15 Barry wood chairman 140000 11666.67
  16. 16. BUILT-INVARIABLES NR Cumulative number of lines read FS Input field separator OFS Output field separator NF Number of fields in the current line FILENAME Current input file ARGC Number of arguments in command line ARGV List of arguments
  17. 17. THE BEGIN AND END SECTIONS  If you have to print something before you process the input, the BEGIN section can be used quite gainfully. Similarly, the end section is equally useful for printing some totals after the processing is over.  BEGIN { action }  END { action }
  18. 18. LET’S DO A PROGRAM  $cat emawk2.awk BEGIN { printf “ntt Employee Detailsnn” } $6 > 12000 { #Increment variables for serial number and pay kount++; total+-$6 printf “%3d %-20s %-12s %sn”, kount,$2,$3,$6 } END { printf “ntThe average salary is %6dn”, total/kount }
  19. 19. EXECUTION & OUTPUT  $ awk –F”|” –f empawk2.awk empn.lst Employee Details The average salary is 115000 1 John woodcook director 90000 2 Barry wood chairman 140000
  20. 20. ARRAYS  Awk handles only one-dimensional arrays.  No array declaration is required.  It is automatically initialized to zero unless initialized explicitly. $ cat empawk4.awk BEGIN { FS = “|” ; printf “%40sn”, “Salary Commission” } /sales/ { commission = $6*0.20 tot[1]+=$6; tot[2]+=commission kount++; } END { printf “T Average %5d %5dn”, tot[1]/kount, tot[2]/kount } OUTPUT $ awk –f empawk4.awk empn.lst Salary Commission Average 105625 21125
  21. 21. FUNCTIONS  AWK has several built-in functions performing both arithmetic and string operations. $ awk –F”|” ‘length($2) < 11’ empn.lst It will search those people who have short names. int(x) Returns integer value of x sqrt(x) Returns the square root of x length Returns length of complete line length($x) Returns length of x substr(stg,m,n) Returns portion of string length n, starting from position m in a string stg index(s1,s2) Returns position of string s2 in string s1 split(stg,arr,ch) Split string stg into array arr using ch as delimiter; optionally returns number of fields system(“cmd”) Runs UNIX command cmd, and returns its exit status
  22. 22. THANKS

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