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Sperry Rail International
                                A Rockwood Company




Sperry Rail International
       A Rockwo...
Sperry Rail International

        Overview                        A Rockwood Company




• Rail is an engineering structu...
Sperry Rail International
   A Rockwood Company
Sperry Rail International
   A Rockwood Company
Sperry Rail International
                                             A Rockwood Company


    Network Rail Infrastructur...
Sperry Rail International
                                      A Rockwood Company




The Facts of Life for a Railway

• ...
Sperry Rail International
                                                  A Rockwood Company




The Facts of Life for a...
Sperry Rail International
                                           A Rockwood Company



               Background
• Hit...
Sperry Rail International
   A Rockwood Company
Sperry Rail International
                        A Rockwood Company


Transverse Defects
  Tache Ovales
Sperry Rail International
                     A Rockwood Company



Squats   Squats
Sperry Rail International

                       Gauge        A Rockwood Company




                       Corner
      ...
Sperry Rail International
                             A Rockwood Company



Bolt Hole or “Star” Cracks
Sperry Rail International
                                A Rockwood Company

Web Defect – Bolt Hole Cracks
  • Star Cracks
Sperry Rail International
           A Rockwood Company



Welds
NDT Philosophy                   Sperry Rail International
                                               A Rockwood Compa...
Sperry Rail International           Sperry Rail International
                                             A Rockwood Comp...
Sperry Rail International -   Sperry Rail International
                                 A Rockwood Company


We’ve been a...
Customer Base                       Sperry Rail International
                                                   A Rockwoo...
Sperry Rail International
   A Rockwood Company
Horizontal Defects          Sperry Rail International
                                       A Rockwood Company

         ...
Transverse Defects
                                     Sperry Rail International

              Tache Ovales             ...
Hole-in-the-Web Defects   Sperry Rail International
                                  A Rockwood Company

          (37 De...
Sperry Roller Search Unit
                            Sperry Rail International
         (RSU)                 A Rockwood ...
RSU on Rail   Sperry Rail International
                 A Rockwood Company
Sperry Rail International
RSU Mounting      A Rockwood Company
Sperry UTU 2   Sperry Rail International
                  A Rockwood Company
Sperry 200 Rail Bound  Sperry Rail International
                              A Rockwood Company


Non Stop Inspection Ve...
Sperry UTU 5   Sperry Rail International
                  A Rockwood Company
Sperry Rail International

Sperry Land Rover      A Rockwood Company
Cometi   Sperry Rail International
            A Rockwood Company
Service Loco   Sperry Rail International
                  A Rockwood Company
Sperry Walking Stick   Sperry Rail International
                          A Rockwood Company
Sperry Rail International
               A Rockwood Company

The Usual
  Pose
Testing in Norway   Sperry Rail International
                       A Rockwood Company
Testing in Norway   Sperry Rail International
                       A Rockwood Company
Sperry in India         Sperry Rail International
                              A Rockwood Company




Organisation - Equi...
Sperry Rail International
                                                     A Rockwood Company



          Rail Inspec...
Sperry Rail International
                                                  A Rockwood Company



             Route Verif...
Which Track ?   Sperry Rail International
                   A Rockwood Company
Route Verification   Sperry Rail International
                        A Rockwood Company
Sperry Rail International
                                                       A Rockwood Company



                  D...
B-scan Analysis   Sperry Rail International
                     A Rockwood Company
B-scan Presentation
   Tache Ovale        Sperry Rail International
                         A Rockwood Company
B-scan Presentation
    Star Crack        Sperry Rail International
                         A Rockwood Company
B-scan Presentation
      Squat           Sperry Rail International
                         A Rockwood Company
B-scan Presentation Vertical
     Longitudinal Split        Sperry Rail International
                                  A ...
Sperry Rail International
         A Rockwood Company




  B-scan
Presentation
Twin View
Verification                 Sperry Rail International
                                                        A Rockwood ...
Defect Database   Sperry Rail International
                     A Rockwood Company
Sperry Rail International
         A Rockwood Company




  B-scan
Presentation
Twin View
Repeated
   Sperry Rail International
      A Rockwood Company

 Objects
Analysis – Run-on-Run View   Sperry Rail International
                                         A Rockwood Company


• Giv...
The Integrated Process
            Compliant Track Analysis                      Sperry Rail International
               ...
Data becomes Information
The Integrated Approach                            Sperry Rail International
                    ...
Sperry Rail International

             Summary                       A Rockwood Company




• Frequent, comprehensive ult...
Sperry Rail International
This is what it is all really about                         A Rockwood Company




             ...
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Rdso Presentation Sperry Rail India

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Rdso Presentation Sperry Rail India

  1. 1. Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company Ultrasonic Testing of Rail Bob Crocker
  2. 2. Sperry Rail International Overview A Rockwood Company • Rail is an engineering structure like many others • Strength and stiffness based on material properties and shape • However, introduce a sharp tipped crack as a stress intensifier and all bets are off • Huge holes have no effect as long as the radius is large
  3. 3. Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company
  4. 4. Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company
  5. 5. Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company Network Rail Infrastructure • Network Rail owns approximately 21,000 miles of track, therefore 42,000 miles of rail • This comprises of approximately 16,000 miles of continuously welded rail (CWR) and 5,000 miles of jointed track, so millions of welds and bolted joints • This includes approximately 35,000 switch and crossing (S&C) units.
  6. 6. Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company The Facts of Life for a Railway • Cracks can occur anywhere at any time • 42000 miles and 35000 S&C to cover • The only way to avoid cracks in railway rails is to stop running trains !
  7. 7. Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company The Facts of Life for an NDT Man • It is a peculiar irony which is often overlooked, even by the NDT community: – We can’t find a crack until it is there • Therefore the task is: – We have to find cracks between point of creation and before they cause the rail to break
  8. 8. Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company Background • Hither Green disaster November 1967 • Section of rail at a bolted joint came away • Caused by cracks growing from bolt holes • Realisation that cracks too small to be detected by visual inspection could cause catastrophic failure • Real NDT arrived
  9. 9. Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company
  10. 10. Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company Transverse Defects Tache Ovales
  11. 11. Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company Squats Squats
  12. 12. Sperry Rail International Gauge A Rockwood Company Corner Cracking Direction of Travel
  13. 13. Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company Bolt Hole or “Star” Cracks
  14. 14. Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company Web Defect – Bolt Hole Cracks • Star Cracks
  15. 15. Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company Welds
  16. 16. NDT Philosophy Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company • Objective: – find everything – test it often – pre-emptive crack detection – defect management to replace crisis recovery • How: – comprehensive ultrasonic inspection
  17. 17. Sperry Rail International Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company Who are we ? • The Worlds First Company to Provide the Railways with a Rail Flaw Detection Service • Worlds Largest Rail Inspection Company • Over 65 Years Experience in Rail Flaw Detection • An Expanding Fleet of over 120 vehicles The Only Company Totally Focused to Rail Flaw Detection
  18. 18. Sperry Rail International - Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company We’ve been around awhile
  19. 19. Customer Base Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company • Europe North America – Network Rail (UK) Amtrak – LUL (UK) BNSF – Sweden CSX – Norway Norfolk Southern – Germany Canadian Pacific – Estonia Canadian National – Finland New York Subway – Switzerland – Spain • India • China • Australia
  20. 20. Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company
  21. 21. Horizontal Defects Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company (0 Degree) A B C D E A B C D E
  22. 22. Transverse Defects Sperry Rail International Tache Ovales A Rockwood Company (0 and 70 Degree) A B A B A B A B
  23. 23. Hole-in-the-Web Defects Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company (37 Degree) A B C D E A B C D E
  24. 24. Sperry Roller Search Unit Sperry Rail International (RSU) A Rockwood Company
  25. 25. RSU on Rail Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company
  26. 26. Sperry Rail International RSU Mounting A Rockwood Company
  27. 27. Sperry UTU 2 Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company
  28. 28. Sperry 200 Rail Bound Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company Non Stop Inspection Vehicle
  29. 29. Sperry UTU 5 Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company
  30. 30. Sperry Rail International Sperry Land Rover A Rockwood Company
  31. 31. Cometi Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company
  32. 32. Service Loco Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company
  33. 33. Sperry Walking Stick Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company
  34. 34. Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company The Usual Pose
  35. 35. Testing in Norway Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company
  36. 36. Testing in Norway Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company
  37. 37. Sperry in India Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company Organisation - Equipment
  38. 38. Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company Rail Inspection Process • Vehicle runs along a route selected by the railway organisation and gathers data about features (“suspects”) in the rail • The data is analysed according to defined standards • Reports are sent out to staff “on ground” via internet. • They verify “suspects” to confirm them as “defects” using walking sticks to defined standards. • Verification Reports are transmitted back via internet • Verified data used to compile run-on-run analysis
  39. 39. Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company Route Verification • All our data is tagged with a satellite location (GPS) • We take the list of satellite locations recorded at 5 second intervals and superimpose them on a detailed map of the network • This has the intended route marked on it and we can see where we were diverted off route
  40. 40. Which Track ? Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company
  41. 41. Route Verification Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company
  42. 42. Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company Data Analysis • We use 9 probes on each rail • We store the ultrasonic response from every probe every 5mm interval along the rail • We construct a side view of the rail using the ultrasonic data. This is called the B-scan • We can scroll through every test using the stored records. • The analyser is trained to look for characteristic patterns in the data and the process is aided by machine-based algorithms • Most suspects produce a response on more than one of the probes which increases confidence in the data because every probe is independent of every other probe
  43. 43. B-scan Analysis Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company
  44. 44. B-scan Presentation Tache Ovale Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company
  45. 45. B-scan Presentation Star Crack Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company
  46. 46. B-scan Presentation Squat Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company
  47. 47. B-scan Presentation Vertical Longitudinal Split Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company
  48. 48. Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company B-scan Presentation Twin View
  49. 49. Verification Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company •Verification carried out by NR personnel •Staff directed to the site of a suspect using the railway mileage and GPS in the reports •They use a Sperry walking stick and hand-held probes to confirm the suspect as a defect (or not) •Procedures have been established to ensure uniformity of reporting •Often track features give an ultrasonic response but are not a defect. These are entered into the “features” database to create an inventory of track features. •All this information is fed back to the analyser on the next inspection run
  50. 50. Defect Database Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company
  51. 51. Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company B-scan Presentation Twin View
  52. 52. Repeated Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company Objects
  53. 53. Analysis – Run-on-Run View Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company • Gives the user an overview of tests of a section of track over a period of time • Provides a visual indication of the location and severity of suspects and defects • Indicates gaps in testing
  54. 54. The Integrated Process Compliant Track Analysis Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company Start 1. B-Scan Analysis 2. Route Validation Create Base 3. Suspect Reporting Track Map 4. Verification Feedback 5. Verification Validation Pre-Compliance 6. Twin View Analysis Process x3 7. RMO Identification NR / Sperry Min 8. BMO Identification Defect Audit 9. Compliance Rev Meeting 10. NARMO Identification NO 11. BMO / RMO Growth Analysis 3 Audits OK YES Compliant Verification only of new indications or Track Indications that are growing / changing End
  55. 55. Data becomes Information The Integrated Approach Sperry Rail International A Rockwood Company to Defect Management Track Insp Freq Rail Test Proc Management Standards Binders Detection Standards Calibration Location Rail Inspection Database Process Reporting / Verification
  56. 56. Sperry Rail International Summary A Rockwood Company • Frequent, comprehensive ultrasonic inspection of the whole rail cross-section of plain line, welds and joints. • Population of a Defect Database that turns data into Management Information • Pro-active defect management, rather than reactive crisis recovery
  57. 57. Sperry Rail International This is what it is all really about A Rockwood Company Number Of Broken Rails 1000 800 600 Number Of 400 Broken Rails 200 0 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Year “The lowest number of broken rails in the UK railway’s history”

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