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CONSTRUCTED WETLAND PPT

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A wetland is a land area that is saturated  with water , either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem .
The primary factor that distinguishes wetlands from other
land forms or water bodies is the characteristic vegetation of aquatic plants , adapted to the unique hydric soil.

Published in: Environment
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CONSTRUCTED WETLAND PPT

  1. 1. DEVELOPING A PILOT SCALE CONSTRUCTED WETLAND FOR TREATMENT OF DOMESTIC SEWAGE Nischay.N B.E.(CIVIL)., M.Tech. ,IGBC-AP. ,
  2. 2. What is a Wetland??? • A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water , either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem . • The primary factor that distinguishes wetlands from other land forms or water bodies is the characteristic vegetation of aquatic plants , adapted to the unique hydric soil. Wetland Natural Constructed
  3. 3. . Natural Wetland • Naturalwetlandsystemshaveoftenbeendescribedasthe “earth’skidneys” because they filter pollutants fromwater that flows through on its way to receiving lakes ,streams and oceans.
  4. 4. Constructed Wetlands • Constructed wetlands are artificial wastewater treatment systems consisting of shallow (usually less than 1 m deep) ponds or channels which have been planted with aquatic plants, and which rely upon natural microbial, biological, physical and chemical processes to treat wastewater. • They typically have impervious clay or synthetic liners, and engineered structures to control the flow direction, liquid detention time and water level LOCATION : JAKKUR LAKE
  5. 5. Constructed Wetland • By various such process chemicals are considerably removed or settled and clean water is drawn. These chemicals include Nitrogen, Ammonia, Phosphorous and pathogens. • Constructed wetlands are most economical as compared to conventional treatment units which needs more energy for its process and this method require cheaper materials. LOCATION: NARSIPURA
  6. 6. TYPES Constructed Wetland Surface Flow Sub Surface Flow Vertical Flow Up Flow Down Flow Horizontal Flow
  7. 7. Objectives • Generally the waste water generated in the houses is released to the waste water carriage system. However, it is very difficult to treat the waste water generated in a centralised way in Bangalore city. • Hence, there is a necessity of decentralised waste water treatment facilities at household level. Necessity of constructed wetlands is to achieve the following 1.To treat domestic waste water generated in the houses at household level using constructed wetland 2. To test the quality of treated waste by using constructed wetlands for other beneficial uses (recycling of treated waste water).
  8. 8. Removal mechanism • Organic matter : Aerobic microbial degradation Anaerobic microbial degradation • Suspended solids: Sedimentation Filtration • Pathogens : Sedimentation Filtration Natural die-off Predation UV radiation
  9. 9. Removal mechanism • Nitrogen : Nitrification and denitrification Plant uptake Matrix adsorption • Phosphorus : Matrix absorption Plant uptake • Metals : Adsorption and cation exchange Complexation Precipitation Plant uptake Microbial oxidation/reduction
  10. 10. Practical Approach • Construction of “Horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland”.
  11. 11. Methodology • In this experimental set up of buckets with different sizes and dimensions will be used. • The vertical buckets as holding tank (Inlet) will be used to hold the waste water The water storing capacity of tank will be 50 litres. • A rectangular tub of size 62 cm length and height 35 cm having suitable outlet.
  12. 12. Methodology • The vertical pipe will be placed above the tub for distribution of water . Plastic cans will be used for the collection of treated water. • Treated water samples will be collected and analyzed in laboratory. • The Angular Horizontal Subsurface Flow constructed wetland will be prepared as follows: Three layers of support bed in constructed wetland will be prepared with coarse aggregate , Sand and Garden soil.
  13. 13. Methodology • Coarse aggregate of 20 kg total weight will be used for making bottom layer of 10 cm height • Followed by medium sized sand amounting total to 15 kg will be added to form a middle layer of 10 cm height and small size, sieved 6 kg of soil to form upper layer of 10 cm height will be used in construction of bed. • Selective healthy, small, young, locally available plant will be transplanted into the bed . • The rectangular tub with plant bed will be provided with 10 degree slope and kept in the slanting position. • Inlet flow and outlet flow of wastewater will be adjusted to maintain Hydraulic retention Time (HRT) of 7 days
  14. 14. Work done as per schedule PROJECT LOCATION : MALLATHALLI STARTED ON: 12th MARCH
  15. 15. STEP:1 PROVIDING SLOPE Slope :1:10
  16. 16. Layer 1: Coarse Aggregates 1st layer : Gravel stones Size between >20mm & <40mm Depth of layer: 100mm
  17. 17. Layer 2: Fine Aggregates 2nd layer: Sand 10cm sand, the layer consists of 2 layers of fine sand , each layer is 50mm.
  18. 18. Layer 3: Soil 3rd layer: Soil Red soil or which is locally available and suitable for plant growth is filled at the top layer of about 100mm depth
  19. 19. Testing for flow of water
  20. 20. Plant location Plant : Colocasia esculenta. Location: Herohalli Raj Kaluve. •Colocasia esculenta is a tropical plant •The selected plant Colocasia esculenta belongs to: • Kingdom - plantae • Order - Alismatales • Family - Araceae •Subfamily - Aroideae •Tribe - Colocasiodeae • Genus - Colocasia and • Species - C. esculenta . • The plant is locally known as kesaradantu in Karnataka
  21. 21. Planting to setup
  22. 22. Project final setup
  23. 23. Location of sewage sample: Mallathalli
  24. 24. Collection of sewage sample •For the treatment of sewage, the grab samples were collected from Mallathalli lake located near Nagarbhavi Ring road, Bangalore. •Collected sewage is a combination of grey water and black water.
  25. 25. Detention time: 7days By providing a detention time of seven days ,the plant absorbs maximum amount of impurities present in sewage water.
  26. 26. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION FOLLOWING PARAMETERS WERE TESTED :- • PH • EC • TP • TDS • TSS • SULPHATE • NITRATE • BOD • COD
  27. 27. Results: Sewage and Treated water PARAMETER RESULT ( sewage water) In Mg/l RESULT (treated water) In Mg/l PROTOCOL Standard Limits as KSPCB Phosphorus as PO4, mg/l 0.09 0.03 IS-3025 0.1 Dissolved solids, mg/l 700 885 IS-3025 part-16 2100 Total suspended solid 20 NIL IS-3025 part-17 30 BOD(5days at 20⁰c) 28.5 9.85 IS-3025 part-44 10 COD 220 100 IS-3025 part-58 250 Nitrate as NO3 10.5 8 IS-3025 part-34 45 Sulphates as SO4 160 238 IS-3025 part-24 1000
  28. 28. RESULTS: SOIL PARAMETER LIMITS RESULTS before treatment in % RESULTS after treatment in % pH 6 - 8.5 7.85 7.15 Electrical Conductivity ........ 0.35 MicroOhms/cm 0.28 Organic Carbon (Nitrogen) >0.51 – 0.75% 0.6 (MEDIUM) 0.88 Available phosphorous as P >10 – 25 kg/acre 12 (MEDIUM) 16 Available potassium as K >60 – 120kg/acre 85 (MEDIUM) 110 Zinc >0.65ppm 0.66(SUFFICIENT) 0.7 Iron >4.5ppm 3.8 (SUFFICIENT) 4.3 Copper >0.21ppm 0.8(SUFFICIENT) 0.83 Manganese >2ppm 1.0 (SUFFICIENT) 1.5 Sulphate 28 30 20
  29. 29. Removal Efficiency Parameter Removal Efficiency (%) Phosphorus as PO4, mg/l 66.66 Total Dissolved solids, mg/l ….. Total suspended solid 83.35 BOD(5days at 20⁰c) 71.23 COD 61.36 Nitrate as NO3 24.7 Sulphate as SO4 …..
  30. 30. Conclusion • The treatment efficiency of the Angular Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland unit was examined by wastewater quality parameters such as pH, EC, TSS, TDS, TS, BOD, COD, Nitrate, Phosphate and Sulphate respectively, in the inlet and outlet of wastewater . • The results in the set of Colocasia esculenta reveal that the maximum pollution reduction efficiency was observed in 70% sewage concentration. • Angular Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed wetland through phytoremediation is an effective green technology for the treatment of sewage. • The proper selection of locally adaptive aquatic plant is more trust worthy and insured technology for better treatment of sewage in local environment.
  31. 31. Field implementation in Bangalore LOCATION : JAKKUR LAKE • The project works like this. Out of the 49.63-hectare span of Jakkur Lake, 4.63 hectares have been set aside adjoining the BWSSB's existing sewage treatment plant (STP) to create a man-made wetland integrated with an algal pond. • First, sewage is treated at the plant using the regular process. • In the second stage, the treated water is let out into the man- made wetland where aquatic plants and algae remove contaminants. In the final stage, wind and sunlight do another round of cleaning before it's released into the lake proper.
  32. 32. Field implementation in Bangalore • T V Ramachandra, Coordinator, Energy and Wetlands Research Group at IISc, gives us the scientific perspective. • "The STP cannot fully remove the nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) from the sewage. Hence it has to be purified in a natural way using wetlands and the water flows into the main lake spanning over 45 hectares.“ • Sounds elegant, but does it work? • For the past eight months, a team of six scientists led by Ramachandra, have been trying to find out exactly that. They fanned out into groups to monitor and analyse the water quality. JAKKUR LAKE
  33. 33. • "At about nine locations within the lake we used to collect water samples twice at 45-day intervals • To put it in simple words, the team found that while the STP and the man-made wetland remove 70 percent of the contaminants in about 4-5 days, wind, sunlight, and plankton in the lake proper do the rest of the cleaning. • The team will soon submit a report to both the state and union governments to replicate the model in other lakes as well
  34. 34. THANK YOU.

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