SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 37
Download to read offline
BATRACHOSPERMUM
Red Alga
Nisar Ahmad lone
Assistant Professor Botany
GDC Women Bla
RHODOPHYCEAE
CLASSIFICATION
Class Rhodophyceae
Sub-Class: Florideae
Order: Nemalionales
Family: Batrachospermaceae
Genus Batrachospermum
OCCURANCE
 Fresh water red alga
found in slow moving
waters of lakes, ponds,
streams in tropical and
temperate regions
 Some species attached
to stones in rivers
 Most species annual but
B.vagum perennial
 5 species in india
e.g, B .monaliformae,
B.vagum
OCCURANCE
The plants are blue-green, olive-green, violet and reddish
in colour.
The colour varies as a result of the differences in light
intensity. The species which grow in deep water are
reddish or violet in colour whereas the species growing in
shallow water are olive-green in colour.
The alga is also known as the ‘frog spawn’.
The plants are mucilaginous, moniliform or beaded in
appearance to the naked eye.
The plants may reach a length of twenty centimetres and
may easily be collected from the slow running streams
around Dehradun especially in winter season
THALLUS STRUCTURE
 The mature thallus is
branched, soft and gelatinous
 It Appears as the branching
chain of beads
 15 – 20 cms long and Blue
green, violet or red in color
depending on the intensity of
available light
 The thallus growing in deep
and shady ponds appear
violet or dark red
THALLUS STRUCTURE
 In shallow and illuminated
ponds the thallus appears
dark green in colour
 The Thallus differentiated into
a prostrate and an erect
system
 The prostrate branches
anchor the thallus to the
substratum whereas the
branches of erect system float
freely on water
THALLUS STRUCTURE
 The plant body consists
of central main axis
which is uniserriate
made up of elongated
cylindrical cells
 It is differentiated into
nodes and internodes
 Main axis corticated in
adult plants
THALLUS STRUCTURE
2 types of
branches arise
from nodes
• Branches of limited
growth (BLG)
• Branches of
unlimited growth
(BULG)
BRANCHES OF LIMITED GROWTH (BLG)
Produced in whorls from upper
ends of cells of axial filament just
below the septum
Made up of monaliform cells
Branches are of equal length and
each branches again to produce
cluster of branches at a node
called GLUMERULE
Gives Beaded appearance to the
thallus
BRANCHES OF UNLIMITED GROWTH
They arise from the nodal cells of
the main axis or te basal cells of
the branches of the limited growth
They are differentiated into nodes
and internodes
From their nodes branches of
limited growth arise
Branching in
Batrachospermum
• 2 main kinds of lateral
branches
• Branches of unlimited
growth
• Branches of limited
growth
Whorls of lateral
branches of limited
growth are called
Glomerule
CORTICATION
Nodal cells and the basal
cells of the BLG give rise
to some elongated
filamentous cells called
Cortical Threads
These grow down wards
to the next node forming
envelope around the
internode
CELL STRUCTURE
Cells uninucleate with several discoid
chromatophores along the periphery with single
pyrenoid
Main pigments : Chl a, Chl d, r- phycoerythrin and
r- phycocyanin
But due to the excess of red pigment green color
of chlorophyll is masked
Reserve food material – Floridean Starch
Pit connections between the cells of the axial
filament
GROWTH
 The main axis as well as the branches of unlimited
growth grow by means of a dome shaped,
hemispherical apical cell
 Repeated transverse divisions- uniseriate row of cell
 From the upper ends of each cell 4-6 protuberances are
given out which separate by means of septa to give rise
to Pericentral Cells
 Pericentral Cells function as the basal cells of BLG
 Branches of unlimited growth also develop from the
basal cells
 Basal cell also gives rise to corticating threads
 In older parts the basal cells separate and give rise to
node and the cells of the central axis elongate and form
internode
LIFE CYCLE
Reproduction
Asexual and Sexual
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
Carpogonium
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
FERTILIZATION
FERTILIZATION AND POST FERTILIZATION
CHANGES
 After fertilization Trichogyne shrivels
 Zygote undergoes meiosis- 4 haploid nuclei
 Nuclei divide repeatedly
 Protuberances formed on carpogonial wall
 Nuclei migrate into them
 Gonimoblast initials
 Divide repeatedly to form Gonimoblat filaments
 Terminal cell of gonimoblast filament forms
Carposporangium
FERTILIZATION AND POST FERTILIZATION
CHANGES
Single carpospore in each carposporangium
Carpospores- single, naked and non-motile
The lower sterile cells of the gonimoblast filaments give rise to many
sterile filaments which form an envelope around the carposporangia and
gonimoblast filaments
This composite structure is called Cystocarp of Carposporophyte
Carposporophyte i,e gonimoblast filaments and carposporangia and
sterile filaments grow as a parasite on the female plant
Carpospores liberated from carposporangia
FERTILIZATION AND POST FERTILIZATION
CHANGES
CARPOSORANGIUM
GERMINATION OF CARPOSPORE
Carpospores after being released
from the carposporangia get attached
t some substratum
Germinate by protonema formation
which is heterotrichous system
This stage is called juvenile stage or
Chantrantia stage as it was earlier
considered to be separate genus
GERMINATION OF CARPOSORE, MONOSPORANGIA AND
MONOSPORES, AND CHANTRANTIA STAGE
ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
CHANTRANTIA STAGE
The erect branches of this heterotrichous juvenile
stage gives rise to adult Batrachospermum
LIFE CYCLE
Haplobiontic
Life cycle
Batrachospermum.pptx

More Related Content

What's hot

General characters of pteridophytes
General characters of pteridophytesGeneral characters of pteridophytes
General characters of pteridophytesAliAbbasAslam
 
General Characters of Phaeophyceae & Life Cycle of Sargassum SMG
General Characters of Phaeophyceae & Life Cycle of Sargassum   SMGGeneral Characters of Phaeophyceae & Life Cycle of Sargassum   SMG
General Characters of Phaeophyceae & Life Cycle of Sargassum SMGsajigeorge64
 
Selaginella zk
Selaginella  zkSelaginella  zk
Selaginella zkChZaheer3
 
Structure, reproduction, life history and systematic position of Lycopodium
Structure, reproduction, life history and systematic position of LycopodiumStructure, reproduction, life history and systematic position of Lycopodium
Structure, reproduction, life history and systematic position of LycopodiumSankritaShankarGaonk
 
Monographic study of Osmunda.pptx
Monographic study of Osmunda.pptxMonographic study of Osmunda.pptx
Monographic study of Osmunda.pptxShiv kumar patel
 
Marchantia
MarchantiaMarchantia
MarchantiaAkumpaul
 
life cycle of vaucheria
life cycle of vaucherialife cycle of vaucheria
life cycle of vaucheriaCoolBuddy11
 
Oedogonium LifeCycle /vegetative cell/Asexual and sexual reproduction.
Oedogonium LifeCycle /vegetative cell/Asexual and sexual reproduction.Oedogonium LifeCycle /vegetative cell/Asexual and sexual reproduction.
Oedogonium LifeCycle /vegetative cell/Asexual and sexual reproduction.Katta Vani
 
General Characters of Bacillariophyceae & Pinnularia SMG
General Characters of Bacillariophyceae  & Pinnularia   SMGGeneral Characters of Bacillariophyceae  & Pinnularia   SMG
General Characters of Bacillariophyceae & Pinnularia SMGsajigeorge64
 
Marsilea structure and reproduction
Marsilea structure and reproductionMarsilea structure and reproduction
Marsilea structure and reproductionMuhammad ArSlan
 

What's hot (20)

General characters of pteridophytes
General characters of pteridophytesGeneral characters of pteridophytes
General characters of pteridophytes
 
Chara
CharaChara
Chara
 
Oedogonium
OedogoniumOedogonium
Oedogonium
 
Vaucheria
VaucheriaVaucheria
Vaucheria
 
CYCAS 1.pdf
CYCAS 1.pdfCYCAS 1.pdf
CYCAS 1.pdf
 
General Characters of Phaeophyceae & Life Cycle of Sargassum SMG
General Characters of Phaeophyceae & Life Cycle of Sargassum   SMGGeneral Characters of Phaeophyceae & Life Cycle of Sargassum   SMG
General Characters of Phaeophyceae & Life Cycle of Sargassum SMG
 
Vaucheria
VaucheriaVaucheria
Vaucheria
 
Xanthophyta by sohail riaz hashmi
Xanthophyta by sohail riaz hashmiXanthophyta by sohail riaz hashmi
Xanthophyta by sohail riaz hashmi
 
Selaginella zk
Selaginella  zkSelaginella  zk
Selaginella zk
 
Puccina
PuccinaPuccina
Puccina
 
Structure, reproduction, life history and systematic position of Lycopodium
Structure, reproduction, life history and systematic position of LycopodiumStructure, reproduction, life history and systematic position of Lycopodium
Structure, reproduction, life history and systematic position of Lycopodium
 
Monographic study of Osmunda.pptx
Monographic study of Osmunda.pptxMonographic study of Osmunda.pptx
Monographic study of Osmunda.pptx
 
Marchantia
MarchantiaMarchantia
Marchantia
 
life cycle of vaucheria
life cycle of vaucherialife cycle of vaucheria
life cycle of vaucheria
 
Chlamydomonas
ChlamydomonasChlamydomonas
Chlamydomonas
 
Oedogonium LifeCycle /vegetative cell/Asexual and sexual reproduction.
Oedogonium LifeCycle /vegetative cell/Asexual and sexual reproduction.Oedogonium LifeCycle /vegetative cell/Asexual and sexual reproduction.
Oedogonium LifeCycle /vegetative cell/Asexual and sexual reproduction.
 
Nostoc
NostocNostoc
Nostoc
 
General Characters of Bacillariophyceae & Pinnularia SMG
General Characters of Bacillariophyceae  & Pinnularia   SMGGeneral Characters of Bacillariophyceae  & Pinnularia   SMG
General Characters of Bacillariophyceae & Pinnularia SMG
 
Marsilea structure and reproduction
Marsilea structure and reproductionMarsilea structure and reproduction
Marsilea structure and reproduction
 
14. Peziza.pdf
14. Peziza.pdf14. Peziza.pdf
14. Peziza.pdf
 

Similar to Batrachospermum.pptx

Life-cycle-of-Sphagnum.pdf
Life-cycle-of-Sphagnum.pdfLife-cycle-of-Sphagnum.pdf
Life-cycle-of-Sphagnum.pdfVainyaVerma
 
Chara algae Morphology Cell Structure Reproduction
Chara algae Morphology Cell Structure ReproductionChara algae Morphology Cell Structure Reproduction
Chara algae Morphology Cell Structure Reproductionssuseref8144
 
PSILOTUM : structure, morphology, anatomy, reproduction , life cycle etc.
PSILOTUM : structure, morphology, anatomy,  reproduction , life cycle etc.PSILOTUM : structure, morphology, anatomy,  reproduction , life cycle etc.
PSILOTUM : structure, morphology, anatomy, reproduction , life cycle etc.Silpa Selvaraj
 
12b. Spirogyra.pptx
12b. Spirogyra.pptx12b. Spirogyra.pptx
12b. Spirogyra.pptxranamuneeb25
 
Oedogonium
OedogoniumOedogonium
OedogoniumMANSI
 
Kingdom Plantae presented by Vrushali Gharat to Mr. Kailash vilegave
Kingdom Plantae presented by Vrushali Gharat to Mr. Kailash vilegaveKingdom Plantae presented by Vrushali Gharat to Mr. Kailash vilegave
Kingdom Plantae presented by Vrushali Gharat to Mr. Kailash vilegaveKailash Vilegave
 
Lecture- 22 - Classification of Basidiomycota.pptx
Lecture- 22 - Classification of Basidiomycota.pptxLecture- 22 - Classification of Basidiomycota.pptx
Lecture- 22 - Classification of Basidiomycota.pptxSriSivaSwetha
 
Oedogonium Introduction, Features, Unique Characters and Life Cycle, Phycolog...
Oedogonium Introduction, Features, Unique Characters and Life Cycle, Phycolog...Oedogonium Introduction, Features, Unique Characters and Life Cycle, Phycolog...
Oedogonium Introduction, Features, Unique Characters and Life Cycle, Phycolog...Muhammad Mubashir Ali
 
Types of cotyledons, embryo and endosperm
Types of cotyledons, embryo and endospermTypes of cotyledons, embryo and endosperm
Types of cotyledons, embryo and endospermRaju Ram Choudhary
 
Gnetum: A Powerpoint Presentation on Gymnospems
Gnetum: A Powerpoint Presentation on GymnospemsGnetum: A Powerpoint Presentation on Gymnospems
Gnetum: A Powerpoint Presentation on Gymnospemsshivduraigaran
 

Similar to Batrachospermum.pptx (20)

Life-cycle-of-Sphagnum.pdf
Life-cycle-of-Sphagnum.pdfLife-cycle-of-Sphagnum.pdf
Life-cycle-of-Sphagnum.pdf
 
CHARA.pptx
CHARA.pptxCHARA.pptx
CHARA.pptx
 
Chara algae Morphology Cell Structure Reproduction
Chara algae Morphology Cell Structure ReproductionChara algae Morphology Cell Structure Reproduction
Chara algae Morphology Cell Structure Reproduction
 
PSILOTUM : structure, morphology, anatomy, reproduction , life cycle etc.
PSILOTUM : structure, morphology, anatomy,  reproduction , life cycle etc.PSILOTUM : structure, morphology, anatomy,  reproduction , life cycle etc.
PSILOTUM : structure, morphology, anatomy, reproduction , life cycle etc.
 
12b. Spirogyra.pptx
12b. Spirogyra.pptx12b. Spirogyra.pptx
12b. Spirogyra.pptx
 
8. Vegetative and sexual reproduction in funaria
8. Vegetative and sexual reproduction in funaria8. Vegetative and sexual reproduction in funaria
8. Vegetative and sexual reproduction in funaria
 
Oedogonium
OedogoniumOedogonium
Oedogonium
 
Pteridophytes
PteridophytesPteridophytes
Pteridophytes
 
DICTYOSTELIUM AND ALLOMYCES
DICTYOSTELIUM AND ALLOMYCESDICTYOSTELIUM AND ALLOMYCES
DICTYOSTELIUM AND ALLOMYCES
 
Marsilea.pptx
Marsilea.pptxMarsilea.pptx
Marsilea.pptx
 
Kingdom Plantae presented by Vrushali Gharat to Mr. Kailash vilegave
Kingdom Plantae presented by Vrushali Gharat to Mr. Kailash vilegaveKingdom Plantae presented by Vrushali Gharat to Mr. Kailash vilegave
Kingdom Plantae presented by Vrushali Gharat to Mr. Kailash vilegave
 
Lecture- 22 - Classification of Basidiomycota.pptx
Lecture- 22 - Classification of Basidiomycota.pptxLecture- 22 - Classification of Basidiomycota.pptx
Lecture- 22 - Classification of Basidiomycota.pptx
 
Oedogonium Introduction, Features, Unique Characters and Life Cycle, Phycolog...
Oedogonium Introduction, Features, Unique Characters and Life Cycle, Phycolog...Oedogonium Introduction, Features, Unique Characters and Life Cycle, Phycolog...
Oedogonium Introduction, Features, Unique Characters and Life Cycle, Phycolog...
 
Furneria
FurneriaFurneria
Furneria
 
ROOT-ANATOMY.pptx
ROOT-ANATOMY.pptxROOT-ANATOMY.pptx
ROOT-ANATOMY.pptx
 
Types of cotyledons, embryo and endosperm
Types of cotyledons, embryo and endospermTypes of cotyledons, embryo and endosperm
Types of cotyledons, embryo and endosperm
 
Gnetum
 Gnetum Gnetum
Gnetum
 
Gnetum: A Powerpoint Presentation on Gymnospems
Gnetum: A Powerpoint Presentation on GymnospemsGnetum: A Powerpoint Presentation on Gymnospems
Gnetum: A Powerpoint Presentation on Gymnospems
 
Lycopodium
LycopodiumLycopodium
Lycopodium
 
Plant kingdom-I
Plant kingdom-IPlant kingdom-I
Plant kingdom-I
 

Recently uploaded

Immunoblott technique for protein detection.ppt
Immunoblott technique for protein detection.pptImmunoblott technique for protein detection.ppt
Immunoblott technique for protein detection.pptAmirRaziq1
 
Efficient Fourier Pricing of Multi-Asset Options: Quasi-Monte Carlo & Domain ...
Efficient Fourier Pricing of Multi-Asset Options: Quasi-Monte Carlo & Domain ...Efficient Fourier Pricing of Multi-Asset Options: Quasi-Monte Carlo & Domain ...
Efficient Fourier Pricing of Multi-Asset Options: Quasi-Monte Carlo & Domain ...Chiheb Ben Hammouda
 
Think Science: What Are Eclipses (101), by Craig Bobchin
Think Science: What Are Eclipses (101), by Craig BobchinThink Science: What Are Eclipses (101), by Craig Bobchin
Think Science: What Are Eclipses (101), by Craig BobchinNathan Cone
 
GLYCOSIDES Classification Of GLYCOSIDES Chemical Tests Glycosides
GLYCOSIDES Classification Of GLYCOSIDES  Chemical Tests GlycosidesGLYCOSIDES Classification Of GLYCOSIDES  Chemical Tests Glycosides
GLYCOSIDES Classification Of GLYCOSIDES Chemical Tests GlycosidesNandakishor Bhaurao Deshmukh
 
6.2 Pests of Sesame_Identification_Binomics_Dr.UPR
6.2 Pests of Sesame_Identification_Binomics_Dr.UPR6.2 Pests of Sesame_Identification_Binomics_Dr.UPR
6.2 Pests of Sesame_Identification_Binomics_Dr.UPRPirithiRaju
 
Interpreting SDSS extragalactic data in the era of JWST
Interpreting SDSS extragalactic data in the era of JWSTInterpreting SDSS extragalactic data in the era of JWST
Interpreting SDSS extragalactic data in the era of JWSTAlexander F. Mayer
 
LAMP PCR.pptx by Dr. Chayanika Das, Ph.D, Veterinary Microbiology
LAMP PCR.pptx by Dr. Chayanika Das, Ph.D, Veterinary MicrobiologyLAMP PCR.pptx by Dr. Chayanika Das, Ph.D, Veterinary Microbiology
LAMP PCR.pptx by Dr. Chayanika Das, Ph.D, Veterinary MicrobiologyChayanika Das
 
Introduction of Organ-On-A-Chip - Creative Biolabs
Introduction of Organ-On-A-Chip - Creative BiolabsIntroduction of Organ-On-A-Chip - Creative Biolabs
Introduction of Organ-On-A-Chip - Creative BiolabsCreative-Biolabs
 
Role of Gibberellins, mode of action and external applications.pptx
Role of Gibberellins, mode of action and external applications.pptxRole of Gibberellins, mode of action and external applications.pptx
Role of Gibberellins, mode of action and external applications.pptxjana861314
 
Science (Communication) and Wikipedia - Potentials and Pitfalls
Science (Communication) and Wikipedia - Potentials and PitfallsScience (Communication) and Wikipedia - Potentials and Pitfalls
Science (Communication) and Wikipedia - Potentials and PitfallsDobusch Leonhard
 
Speed Breeding in Vegetable Crops- innovative approach for present era of cro...
Speed Breeding in Vegetable Crops- innovative approach for present era of cro...Speed Breeding in Vegetable Crops- innovative approach for present era of cro...
Speed Breeding in Vegetable Crops- innovative approach for present era of cro...jana861314
 
complex analysis best book for solving questions.pdf
complex analysis best book for solving questions.pdfcomplex analysis best book for solving questions.pdf
complex analysis best book for solving questions.pdfSubhamKumar3239
 
Gas-ExchangeS-in-Plants-and-Animals.pptx
Gas-ExchangeS-in-Plants-and-Animals.pptxGas-ExchangeS-in-Plants-and-Animals.pptx
Gas-ExchangeS-in-Plants-and-Animals.pptxGiovaniTrinidad
 
Observation of Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 2.5–4.5 M⊙ Compa...
Observation of Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 2.5–4.5 M⊙ Compa...Observation of Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 2.5–4.5 M⊙ Compa...
Observation of Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 2.5–4.5 M⊙ Compa...Sérgio Sacani
 
Combining Asynchronous Task Parallelism and Intel SGX for Secure Deep Learning
Combining Asynchronous Task Parallelism and Intel SGX for Secure Deep LearningCombining Asynchronous Task Parallelism and Intel SGX for Secure Deep Learning
Combining Asynchronous Task Parallelism and Intel SGX for Secure Deep Learningvschiavoni
 
The Sensory Organs, Anatomy and Function
The Sensory Organs, Anatomy and FunctionThe Sensory Organs, Anatomy and Function
The Sensory Organs, Anatomy and FunctionJadeNovelo1
 
3.-Acknowledgment-Dedication-Abstract.docx
3.-Acknowledgment-Dedication-Abstract.docx3.-Acknowledgment-Dedication-Abstract.docx
3.-Acknowledgment-Dedication-Abstract.docxUlahVanessaBasa
 
Environmental Acoustics- Speech interference level, acoustics calibrator.pptx
Environmental Acoustics- Speech interference level, acoustics calibrator.pptxEnvironmental Acoustics- Speech interference level, acoustics calibrator.pptx
Environmental Acoustics- Speech interference level, acoustics calibrator.pptxpriyankatabhane
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Introduction Classification Of Alkaloids
Introduction Classification Of AlkaloidsIntroduction Classification Of Alkaloids
Introduction Classification Of Alkaloids
 
Immunoblott technique for protein detection.ppt
Immunoblott technique for protein detection.pptImmunoblott technique for protein detection.ppt
Immunoblott technique for protein detection.ppt
 
Efficient Fourier Pricing of Multi-Asset Options: Quasi-Monte Carlo & Domain ...
Efficient Fourier Pricing of Multi-Asset Options: Quasi-Monte Carlo & Domain ...Efficient Fourier Pricing of Multi-Asset Options: Quasi-Monte Carlo & Domain ...
Efficient Fourier Pricing of Multi-Asset Options: Quasi-Monte Carlo & Domain ...
 
Think Science: What Are Eclipses (101), by Craig Bobchin
Think Science: What Are Eclipses (101), by Craig BobchinThink Science: What Are Eclipses (101), by Craig Bobchin
Think Science: What Are Eclipses (101), by Craig Bobchin
 
GLYCOSIDES Classification Of GLYCOSIDES Chemical Tests Glycosides
GLYCOSIDES Classification Of GLYCOSIDES  Chemical Tests GlycosidesGLYCOSIDES Classification Of GLYCOSIDES  Chemical Tests Glycosides
GLYCOSIDES Classification Of GLYCOSIDES Chemical Tests Glycosides
 
6.2 Pests of Sesame_Identification_Binomics_Dr.UPR
6.2 Pests of Sesame_Identification_Binomics_Dr.UPR6.2 Pests of Sesame_Identification_Binomics_Dr.UPR
6.2 Pests of Sesame_Identification_Binomics_Dr.UPR
 
Interpreting SDSS extragalactic data in the era of JWST
Interpreting SDSS extragalactic data in the era of JWSTInterpreting SDSS extragalactic data in the era of JWST
Interpreting SDSS extragalactic data in the era of JWST
 
LAMP PCR.pptx by Dr. Chayanika Das, Ph.D, Veterinary Microbiology
LAMP PCR.pptx by Dr. Chayanika Das, Ph.D, Veterinary MicrobiologyLAMP PCR.pptx by Dr. Chayanika Das, Ph.D, Veterinary Microbiology
LAMP PCR.pptx by Dr. Chayanika Das, Ph.D, Veterinary Microbiology
 
Introduction of Organ-On-A-Chip - Creative Biolabs
Introduction of Organ-On-A-Chip - Creative BiolabsIntroduction of Organ-On-A-Chip - Creative Biolabs
Introduction of Organ-On-A-Chip - Creative Biolabs
 
Role of Gibberellins, mode of action and external applications.pptx
Role of Gibberellins, mode of action and external applications.pptxRole of Gibberellins, mode of action and external applications.pptx
Role of Gibberellins, mode of action and external applications.pptx
 
Science (Communication) and Wikipedia - Potentials and Pitfalls
Science (Communication) and Wikipedia - Potentials and PitfallsScience (Communication) and Wikipedia - Potentials and Pitfalls
Science (Communication) and Wikipedia - Potentials and Pitfalls
 
Speed Breeding in Vegetable Crops- innovative approach for present era of cro...
Speed Breeding in Vegetable Crops- innovative approach for present era of cro...Speed Breeding in Vegetable Crops- innovative approach for present era of cro...
Speed Breeding in Vegetable Crops- innovative approach for present era of cro...
 
complex analysis best book for solving questions.pdf
complex analysis best book for solving questions.pdfcomplex analysis best book for solving questions.pdf
complex analysis best book for solving questions.pdf
 
Gas-ExchangeS-in-Plants-and-Animals.pptx
Gas-ExchangeS-in-Plants-and-Animals.pptxGas-ExchangeS-in-Plants-and-Animals.pptx
Gas-ExchangeS-in-Plants-and-Animals.pptx
 
Observation of Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 2.5–4.5 M⊙ Compa...
Observation of Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 2.5–4.5 M⊙ Compa...Observation of Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 2.5–4.5 M⊙ Compa...
Observation of Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 2.5–4.5 M⊙ Compa...
 
Combining Asynchronous Task Parallelism and Intel SGX for Secure Deep Learning
Combining Asynchronous Task Parallelism and Intel SGX for Secure Deep LearningCombining Asynchronous Task Parallelism and Intel SGX for Secure Deep Learning
Combining Asynchronous Task Parallelism and Intel SGX for Secure Deep Learning
 
The Sensory Organs, Anatomy and Function
The Sensory Organs, Anatomy and FunctionThe Sensory Organs, Anatomy and Function
The Sensory Organs, Anatomy and Function
 
3.-Acknowledgment-Dedication-Abstract.docx
3.-Acknowledgment-Dedication-Abstract.docx3.-Acknowledgment-Dedication-Abstract.docx
3.-Acknowledgment-Dedication-Abstract.docx
 
Environmental Acoustics- Speech interference level, acoustics calibrator.pptx
Environmental Acoustics- Speech interference level, acoustics calibrator.pptxEnvironmental Acoustics- Speech interference level, acoustics calibrator.pptx
Environmental Acoustics- Speech interference level, acoustics calibrator.pptx
 
PLASMODIUM. PPTX
PLASMODIUM. PPTXPLASMODIUM. PPTX
PLASMODIUM. PPTX
 

Batrachospermum.pptx

  • 1. BATRACHOSPERMUM Red Alga Nisar Ahmad lone Assistant Professor Botany GDC Women Bla RHODOPHYCEAE
  • 2.
  • 3. CLASSIFICATION Class Rhodophyceae Sub-Class: Florideae Order: Nemalionales Family: Batrachospermaceae Genus Batrachospermum
  • 4. OCCURANCE  Fresh water red alga found in slow moving waters of lakes, ponds, streams in tropical and temperate regions  Some species attached to stones in rivers  Most species annual but B.vagum perennial  5 species in india e.g, B .monaliformae, B.vagum
  • 5. OCCURANCE The plants are blue-green, olive-green, violet and reddish in colour. The colour varies as a result of the differences in light intensity. The species which grow in deep water are reddish or violet in colour whereas the species growing in shallow water are olive-green in colour. The alga is also known as the ‘frog spawn’. The plants are mucilaginous, moniliform or beaded in appearance to the naked eye. The plants may reach a length of twenty centimetres and may easily be collected from the slow running streams around Dehradun especially in winter season
  • 6. THALLUS STRUCTURE  The mature thallus is branched, soft and gelatinous  It Appears as the branching chain of beads  15 – 20 cms long and Blue green, violet or red in color depending on the intensity of available light  The thallus growing in deep and shady ponds appear violet or dark red
  • 7. THALLUS STRUCTURE  In shallow and illuminated ponds the thallus appears dark green in colour  The Thallus differentiated into a prostrate and an erect system  The prostrate branches anchor the thallus to the substratum whereas the branches of erect system float freely on water
  • 8. THALLUS STRUCTURE  The plant body consists of central main axis which is uniserriate made up of elongated cylindrical cells  It is differentiated into nodes and internodes  Main axis corticated in adult plants
  • 9.
  • 10. THALLUS STRUCTURE 2 types of branches arise from nodes • Branches of limited growth (BLG) • Branches of unlimited growth (BULG)
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13. BRANCHES OF LIMITED GROWTH (BLG) Produced in whorls from upper ends of cells of axial filament just below the septum Made up of monaliform cells Branches are of equal length and each branches again to produce cluster of branches at a node called GLUMERULE Gives Beaded appearance to the thallus
  • 14.
  • 15. BRANCHES OF UNLIMITED GROWTH They arise from the nodal cells of the main axis or te basal cells of the branches of the limited growth They are differentiated into nodes and internodes From their nodes branches of limited growth arise
  • 16.
  • 17. Branching in Batrachospermum • 2 main kinds of lateral branches • Branches of unlimited growth • Branches of limited growth Whorls of lateral branches of limited growth are called Glomerule
  • 18. CORTICATION Nodal cells and the basal cells of the BLG give rise to some elongated filamentous cells called Cortical Threads These grow down wards to the next node forming envelope around the internode
  • 19.
  • 20. CELL STRUCTURE Cells uninucleate with several discoid chromatophores along the periphery with single pyrenoid Main pigments : Chl a, Chl d, r- phycoerythrin and r- phycocyanin But due to the excess of red pigment green color of chlorophyll is masked Reserve food material – Floridean Starch Pit connections between the cells of the axial filament
  • 21. GROWTH  The main axis as well as the branches of unlimited growth grow by means of a dome shaped, hemispherical apical cell  Repeated transverse divisions- uniseriate row of cell  From the upper ends of each cell 4-6 protuberances are given out which separate by means of septa to give rise to Pericentral Cells  Pericentral Cells function as the basal cells of BLG  Branches of unlimited growth also develop from the basal cells  Basal cell also gives rise to corticating threads  In older parts the basal cells separate and give rise to node and the cells of the central axis elongate and form internode
  • 28. FERTILIZATION AND POST FERTILIZATION CHANGES
  • 29.  After fertilization Trichogyne shrivels  Zygote undergoes meiosis- 4 haploid nuclei  Nuclei divide repeatedly  Protuberances formed on carpogonial wall  Nuclei migrate into them  Gonimoblast initials  Divide repeatedly to form Gonimoblat filaments  Terminal cell of gonimoblast filament forms Carposporangium FERTILIZATION AND POST FERTILIZATION CHANGES
  • 30. Single carpospore in each carposporangium Carpospores- single, naked and non-motile The lower sterile cells of the gonimoblast filaments give rise to many sterile filaments which form an envelope around the carposporangia and gonimoblast filaments This composite structure is called Cystocarp of Carposporophyte Carposporophyte i,e gonimoblast filaments and carposporangia and sterile filaments grow as a parasite on the female plant Carpospores liberated from carposporangia FERTILIZATION AND POST FERTILIZATION CHANGES
  • 32. GERMINATION OF CARPOSPORE Carpospores after being released from the carposporangia get attached t some substratum Germinate by protonema formation which is heterotrichous system This stage is called juvenile stage or Chantrantia stage as it was earlier considered to be separate genus
  • 33. GERMINATION OF CARPOSORE, MONOSPORANGIA AND MONOSPORES, AND CHANTRANTIA STAGE
  • 35. CHANTRANTIA STAGE The erect branches of this heterotrichous juvenile stage gives rise to adult Batrachospermum