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Ppt ch05

  1. 1. Web Design Principles 5th Edition Chapter Five Creating Web Typography
  2. 2. Objectives When you complete this chapter, you will be able to: • Understand type design principles • Understand Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) measurement units • Use the CSS font properties • Use the CSS text-spacing properties • Build a font and text properties style sheet • Customize bulleted and numbered lists 2Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  3. 3. Understanding Type Design Principles 3
  4. 4. Understanding Type Design Principles • Choose fewer fonts and sizes • Choose available fonts • Design for legibility • Avoid using text as graphics Web Design Principles 5th Ed. 4
  5. 5. Choose Fewer Fonts and Sizes • Your pages will look cleaner when you choose fewer fonts and sizes of type • Decide on a font for each different level of topic importance, such as page headings, section headings, and body text • Communicate the hierarchy of information with changes in the size, weight, or color of the typeface 5Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
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  7. 7. Use Common Web Fonts • The user’s browser and operating system determine how a font is displayed • To control more effectively how text appears on your pages, think in terms of font families, such as serif and sans-serif typefaces 7Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
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  10. 10. Specifying Proprietary Web Fonts • The CSS3 font-face property lets you link to a font, download it, and use it in style rules • The common browsers support the font-face property, though they each implement it differently • The font-face property opens a new range of fonts to make Web pages more attractive and legible • Web designers or the clients they work with must be prepared to pay licensing fees 10Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  11. 11. Design for Legibility • Browser version, operating system, and video capabilities can produce variations in the weight, spacing, and rendering of the font families to individual users 11Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
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  13. 13. Avoid Creating Text as Graphics • New font options means less text as graphics • Most Web sites use text graphics in one form or another whether for a main logo, banner, or advertisement • Because you add download overhead with every additional graphic, save text graphics for important purposes • Whenever possible, use HTML-styled text on your pages, including creating HTML and CSS-based navigation 13Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  14. 14. Understanding CSS Measurement Units
  15. 15. Understanding CSS Measurement Units • CSS offers a variety of measurement units • The measurement values you choose depends on the destination medium • For print media, use absolute units of measurement • For the Web, use relative units of measurement 15Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
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  17. 17. Absolute Units • Specify a fixed value P {margin: 1.25in;} • Cannot be scaled to client display • Should only be used when exact measurements of destination medium are known 17Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  18. 18. Relative Units • Enables scalable Web pages that adapt to different display types and sizes • Recommended method for Web page design • Relative measurement values such as em and px are designed to let you build scalable Web pages that adapt to different display types and sizes • The W3C recommends that you always use relative values 18Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  19. 19. The em Unit • The em is a printing measurement, traditionally equal to the horizontal length of the capital letter M in any given font size • In CSS, the em unit is equal to the font size of an element • It can be used for both horizontal and vertical measurement 19Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  20. 20. Percentages • Percentages for fonts work exactly the same as ems • For example, if the default paragraph font size is 12-point text, a 100% font size equals 12 point; a font size set to 125% based on a 12-point default would be 15 points. 20Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  21. 21. The ex Unit • The ex unit is equal to the height of the lowercase letter x in any given font • The height of the lowercase letter x varies widely from one typeface to another 21Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
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  23. 23. The px Unit • Pixels are the basic picture element of a computer display • The size of the pixel is determined by the display resolution • Pixel measurements work well for computer displays, but they are not so well suited to other media, such as printing • Pixels are not a good choice for font sizing 23Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  24. 24. Using the CSS Font Properties
  25. 25. Using the CSS Font Properties • font-family • font-face • font-size • font-style • font-variant • font-weight • font-stretch • font-size-adjust • font (shorthand property) 25Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  26. 26. Specifying Font Family • Allows specification of generic font family names (e.g., sans-serif) or a specific name (e.g., Arial) p {font-family: sans-serif;} p {font-family: arial;} 26Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  27. 27. Generic Font Families • Serif • Sans serif • Monospace • Cursive • Fantasy 27Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
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  29. 29. Specific Font Families • The font-family property lets you declare a specific font family such as Arial or Verdana • The user must have the font installed on his or her computer; otherwise, the browser uses the default font 29Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  30. 30. Font Fallbacks • You can specify a list of alternate fonts • The browser will attempt to load each successive font in the list • If no fonts match, the browser falls back to the default font p {font-family: arial, helvetica, sans- serif;} 30Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  31. 31. Specifying Font Face • The @font-face property lets you specify a font to be downloaded • In the style sheet: @font-face {font-family: Generica; src: url(http://www.generic.com/fonts/generica.ttf)} • In the document: h1 {font-family: generica, serif;} 31Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  32. 32. Specifying Font Size • The font-size property gives you control over the specific sizing of your type • You can choose from various length units such as ems or percentages • The following rule sets the block quote element to 1.5 em Arial: blockquote {font-family: arial, sans-serif; font- size: 1.5em;} 32Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
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  34. 34. Specifying Font Style • This font-style property lets you specify italic text • Remember that italic text is hard to read on a computer display • Use italics for special emphasis only • The following rule sets italicized text for the note class attribute .note {font-style: italic;} 34Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  35. 35. Specifying Font Variant • The font-variant property lets you define small capitals 35Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  36. 36. Specifying Font Weight • The font-weight property lets you set the weight of the typeface • You can use numerical keyword values • The following style rule sets the warning class to bold .warning {font-weight: bold;} 36Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  37. 37. Specifying Font Stretch • The font-stretch property lets you expand or compress the font face • This is a CSS3 property that is not yet commonly supported h1 {font-family: sans-serif; font- stretch: expanded} 37Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  38. 38. Using the Font Shortcut Property • The font shortcut property lets you abbreviate the more verbose individual property listings • The following rules produce the same results p {font-weight: bold; font-size: 18pt; line-height: 24pt; font-family: arial;} p {font: bold 18pt/24pt arial;} 38Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  39. 39. Using the CSS Text Spacing Properties
  40. 40. Using the CSS Text Spacing Properties • text-indent • text-align • line-height • vertical-align • letter-spacing • word-spacing • text-decoration • text-transform • text-shadow 40Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  41. 41. Specifying Text Indents • Use the text-indent property to set the amount of indentation for the first line of text and element such as a paragraph • You can specify a length or percentage value • The following rules set an indent of 2em for the <p> element and -2em for the <blockquote> element: p {text-indent: 2em;} blockquote {text-indent: −2em;} 41Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
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  43. 43. Specifying Text Alignment • Use the text-align property to set a horizontal alignment for the lines of text and element • You can specify for alignment values – Left – Center – Right – Justify • The following style rule sets the P element to justified alignment p {text-align: justify;} 43Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
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  45. 45. Specifying Line Height • You can specify either a length or percentage value for the line height • Line height is also known as leading the white space between lines of text • The following rule sets the line height to 150% p {line-height: 150%;} 45Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
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  47. 47. Specifying Vertical Alignment • The vertical-align property lets you adjust the vertical line of text within the line box • Vertical line works only on in-line elements • You can use this property to superscript or subscript characters • The baseline sub and super values are the most evenly supported • You can also use vertical alignment to align text with graphics 47Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
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  50. 50. Specifying Letter Spacing • The letter-spacing property lets you adjust the white space between letters, often called kerning • Length you specify is added to the default letter spacing • The following rule sets the letter spacing to four pixels: h1 {letter-spacing: 4px;} 50Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
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  52. 52. Specifying Word Spacing • The word-spacing property lets you adjust the white space between words in the text • The length you specify is added to the default spacing • The following rule sets the word spacing to 2 em h1 {word-spacing: 2em;} 52Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  53. 53. Specifying Text Decoration • The text-decoration property lets you apply line effects to your text • Underlining should not be used except for hypertext links • Some sites choose to remove the underlining from the hypertext links with this property 53Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  54. 54. Specifying Capitalization • The text-transform property lets you change the capitalization of text • Useful for headings • Lets you change text formatting without actually editing the text h1 {text-transform: uppercase;} 54Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  55. 55. Specifying Text Shadow • The text shadow property lets you define a shadow that is displayed behind text • You can specify the horizontal and vertical offset as well as the blur value • The first two length values indicate the horizontal and vertical offset • The third length value specifies the blur amount h1 {text-shadow: 2px 2px 2px #666;} 55Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
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  57. 57. Customizing Bulleted and Numbered Lists
  58. 58. Customizing Bulleted and Numbered Lists • The list-style properties let you control the visual characteristics of bulleted and numbered lists 58Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
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  60. 60. Specifying the list-style-type Property • The list-style-type property lets you specify one of three types of markers for a list • You can choose a symbol, a numbering system, or an alphabetical system 60Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
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  62. 62. Specifying the list-style-image Property • The list-style-image property lets you easily attach an image to a list and have it repeated as the list symbol • The following code shows the style rule that attaches an image to a bulleted list: ul {list-style-image: url(pawprint.gif);} 62Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
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  64. 64. Specifying the list-style-position Property • The list-style-position property lets you determine the placement of the list marker 64Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
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  66. 66. Summary • Use type to communicate information structure • HTML text downloads faster than graphics-based text • Use fonts that appear consistently across operating systems • Standardize your styles • Use external style sheets • Test your work • Design for legibility 66Web Design Principles 5th Ed.
  67. 67. Summary • Choose the correct measurement unit based on the destination medium • Use font properties to control the look of your letter forms • Use text spacing properties to create more visually interesting and legible text 67Web Design Principles 5th Ed.