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Introduction to computers


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Introduction to computers

  1. 1. Introduction to ComputersModule 1. ECE –B
  2. 2. 2 Usha Mary Sharma, 01-Aug-11 DBCET. Dept of CS & ITContents• Definition of data.• Information and Processing.• Basic Computer Operations.• Applications of information systems.
  3. 3. 3 Usha Mary Sharma, 01-Aug-11 DBCET. Dept of CS & ITDefinition of Data• Usually the term data suggests something raw and unrefined.• Its the most fundamental form of information.• Information in raw or unorganized form (such as alphabets, numbers, or symbols) that refer to, or represent, conditions, ideas, or objects.• Data is limitless and present everywhere in the universe.
  4. 4. 4 Usha Mary Sharma, 01-Aug-11 DBCET. Dept of CS & ITInformation• Data that ▫ has been verified to be accurate and timely, ▫ is specific and organized for a purpose, ▫ is presented within a context that gives it meaning and relevance, and ▫ that can lead to an increase in understanding and decrease in uncertainty. The value of information lies solely in its ability to affect a behavior, decision, or outcome.
  5. 5. 5Processing Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT• Process or processing typically describes the action of taking something through an established and usually routine set of procedures• It can be the steps to convert the action from one form to another, such as processing paperwork to grant a mortgage loan, processing milk into cheese, or converting computer data from one form to another.• A process involves steps and decisions in the way work is accomplished01-Aug-11
  6. 6. 6 Usha Mary Sharma, 01-Aug-11 DBCET. Dept of CS & IT• Processing in technically refers to any process that a computer program does to enter data and summarise, analyse or otherwise convert data into usable information.• The process may be automated and run on a computer.
  7. 7. 7 Usha Mary Sharma, 01-Aug-11 DBCET. Dept of CS & ITApplications of Information systems• Information Systems is an academic/professional discipline bridging the business field and the well-defined computer science field that is evolving toward a new scientific area of study.• Some of its applications include: ▫ Geographic information system ▫ Hospital information system ▫ Airline information system ▫ Hotel information system
  8. 8. 8 Usha Mary Sharma, 01-Aug-11 DBCET. Dept of CS & ITIntroduction to structuredprogramming • Flow Chart • Pseudo code
  9. 9. 9What is a Flow Chart? Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT 01-Aug-11• A flow chart is a graphical or symbolic representation of a process.• Each step in the process is represented by a different symbol and contains a short description of the process step.• The flow chart symbols are linked together with arrows showing the process flow direction.
  10. 10. 10 Usha Mary Sharma, 01-Aug-11 DBCET. Dept of CS & ITA really simplistic flow chart showing the flow chart symbolsdescribed above can be seen above.
  11. 11. 11 Usha Mary Sharma, 01-Aug-11 DBCET. Dept of CS & ITA Note on Flowchart SymbolsDifferent flow chart symbols have different meanings. The most common flow chart symbols are:• Terminator: An oval flow chart shape indicating the start or end of the process.• Process: A rectangular flow chart shape indicating a normal process flow step.• Decision: A diamond flow chart shape indication a branch in the process flow.• Connector: A small, labeled, circular flow chart shape used to indicate a jump in the process flow.• Data: A parallelogram that indicates data input or output (I/O) for a process.• Document: used to indicate a document or report.
  12. 12. 12 Usha Mary Sharma, 01-Aug-11DBCET. Dept of CS & IT
  13. 13. 13 Usha Mary Sharma, 01-Aug-11 DBCET. Dept of CS & ITPseudocode• An outline of a program, written in a form that can easily be converted into real programming statements.• Pseudocode cannot be compiled nor executed, and there are no real formatting or syntax rules
  14. 14. 14 Usha Mary Sharma, 01-Aug-11 DBCET. Dept of CS & ITWhy use pseudocode?• Once pseudocode is created, it is simple to translate it into real programming code.• Opportunity to detect any logic error prior to actual coding, which is a lot more expensive and time consuming.• Used for planning the programming.
  15. 15. 15 Usha Mary Sharma, 01-Aug-11 DBCET. Dept of CS & ITExample• Read student name.• Get system date .• Read student ID number.• Get order for the books.
  16. 16. 16 Usha Mary Sharma, 01-Aug-11 DBCET. Dept of CS & ITMathematical symbols in Pseudocode: The following symbols can be used in pseudocode:  + for Add,  - for Subtract,  * for Multiply,  / for Divide,  ( ) for Parentheses• Compute C = (F - 32) * 5 / 9
  17. 17. 17 Usha Mary Sharma, 01-Aug-11 DBCET. Dept of CS & ITCommon Action Keywords Several keywords are often used to indicate common input, output, and processing operations. Input: READ, OBTAIN, GET Output: PRINT, DISPLAY, SHOW Compute: COMPUTE, CALCULATE, DETERMINE Initialize: SET, INIT Add one: INCREMENT, BUMP
  18. 18. Revision