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Sweetpotato weevil slide


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Sweetpotato weevil slide

  1. 1. Importance of Color in InsectControl: Sweetpotato Weevil Nirupa Gadi Conrad High School Conrad, MT 59425
  2. 2. Introduction• Sweetpotatoes are the sixth most important crop in the world• They are nutritious, high in carbohydrates, proteins, Vitamin A, riboflavin, and calcium• Leaves can also be used as a vegetable• Sweetpotatoes can also play a vital Healthy Sweetpotatoes role in future energy supply from organic production
  3. 3. Problems• The Sweetpotato Weevil (Cylas formicarius) is one of the most serious insects that causes damage to the sweetpotato crop• Even a small grub population can cause severe damage to the roots of a plant Grub of the Sweetpotato Weevil• Because of the high incidence, many farmers are frustrated and are giving up cultivation.• Without proper and effective control, they may cause complete loss of sweetpotato production Damaged Sweetpotatoes
  4. 4. Problems (cont’d)• Control methods such as using toxic pesticides are somewhat effective but are not desirable to the environment• There is an urgent need for development of an eco-friendly control methods• Pheromone traps are currently Standard Trap Currently Being Used being used for monitoring, but no effective control has been reached
  5. 5. Hypothesis• While reading some literature, I realized the importance of color to insects• Each species of insect is attracted to a different color• What color trap would attract the highest number of weevils?• Color preference would help in mass trapping these weevils from various fields
  6. 6. Materials• Nine standard unitraps• Colored tapes of brown, black, gray, yellow, red, white, green, and blue to cover eight of the traps• Stopwatch• Datasheets• Pencils and meter stick• Pheromones• Sweetpotato Weevils
  7. 7. Methods• Tests were conducted at the Chemical Ecology and Entomology Laboratory at the University of Guam• Experiments were run in a dimly lighted laboratory with the standard unitrap of different colors• Tested colors were brown, black, gray, yellow, red, white, green, and blue• One standard trap was also added as the control
  8. 8. Methods (cont’d)• Different colored traps were placed one meter from the center and had an equal distance apart• Ten weevils were released in the center of the trap circle and given five minutes to go to a trap• The number of adults attracted by the different colored traps were Color Choice Experiments Conducted in a recorded for the duration of the time Laboratory
  9. 9. Methods (cont’d)• Two sets of test were carried out in the laboratory• One set was tested with a pheromone which is a chemical that attracts insects• The other was conducted without a pheromone• Each set was repeated 70 times for validity
  10. 10. Analysis• The total number of weevils that responded per color were combined and set as a percentage that was attracted to each trap color
  11. 11. Results Percentage ( SE) of sweetpotato weevils attracted to traps (without pheromone lures) of different colors. Different letters indicate significant differences between treatments (one-way ANOVA) 45 A 40 20% increasePercentage of weevils attracted 35 30 B 25 B B 20 15 C 10 C C C C C 5 C 0 Green Standard Yellow Black Brown Gray Blue Red White
  12. 12. Results (cont’d) Percentage ( SE) of sweetpotato weevils attracted to traps (with pheromone lures of different colors. Different letters indicate significant differences between treatments (one-way ANOVA) 70 A 60Percentage of weevils attracted 42.5% increase 50 40 30 B 20 C 10 C C C C C C 0 Green Standard Yellow Black Brown Gray Blue Red White
  13. 13. Results (cont’d)• Green colored traps were most attractive to the weevil compared to the standard (a combination of white, yellow, and green) traps• Without pheromone, they drew 20% more than the standard traps that were currently used• With the pheromone, the green traps lured 42.5% more weevils than the standard traps
  14. 14. Discussion• The green colored traps attracted nearly 50% more weevils than the currently used standard trap• My results are agreed with the results of Frederiksen et al. (2008), Kelber et al. (2003), Reddy and Raman (2011)• They indicated the color importance for insects• I recommend my results for the sweetpotato weevil control
  15. 15. Conclusions• My study showed that green colored traps with a pheromone highly attracted sweetpotato weevils• If used by farmers, we can trap most of the weevils by this “attract and kill” method and save the sweetpotato crops• You can kill the weevils with these traps by filling them halfway with soap water• When the weevils enter the trap, they will drown Effective Green Colored Trap
  16. 16. References• Kelber, A., A. Balkenius, and E.J. Warrant. 2003. Color vision in diurnal and nocturnal hawkmoths. Integrat. Comp. Biol. 43: 571-579.• Fredericksen, R., W.T. Wcislo, and E.J. Warrant. 2008 Visual reliability and information rate in the retina of a nocturnal bee. Curr. Biol. 18: 349-353.• Reddy, G.V.P., and A. Raman. 2011. Visual cues are relevant in behavioral control measures for Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 104: 436-442.
  17. 17. Acknowledgements• I would like to thank G.V.P. Reddy for providing lab facilities and for guidance• I acknowledge the help I received from the staff of the Chemical Ecology Laboratory at the University of Guam• I would also like to thank Sigma Xi for giving me the opportunity to present my results