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Learning module biology form 4

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Learning module biology form 4

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Learning module biology form 4

  1. 1. LEARNING MODULE BIOLOGY FORM 4 — 2008 EDITION Prepared by : NAME CLASS AL MUMIN HJ. AL KANTA SMK Agaseh, Lahad Datu, SABAH
  2. 2. DIRECTION & ORIENTATION 1 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Gastro (stomach) Gaster juice is secreted by stomach wall. Hem (blood) Type of blood pigment are haemoglobin & haemoeritrin. Hepato (liver) Hepatic portal vein carry digested food from small intestine to the liver. Cardio (heart) Cardiovascular disease—heart attack. Reni, reno (kidney) Adrenaline is the hormone produced to prepare body to counter emergency such as fear and anger. Cerebro (brain) Cerebrum is the structure that control conscious actions.. Thrombo (coagulate) Thromboplastin & trombin (enzyme for blood coagulation). Min2009 a, an, ar (without) e.g., anaerobic respiration. ad (above) e.g., Adrenal gland. aero (air) e.g., Aerobic respiration. anti (anti/fight) e.g., antibody & antitoxin. bi (two) e.g., bisep muscle & bicuspid valve. co (together) e.g., codominan gene. glyco (sugar) e.g., glycolysis & glycogen. homo (same) hydro (water) e.g., hydrolysis. hyper (high) e.g., hypertonic hypo (low) e.g., hypoglisemia (low concentration of glucose) macro (big/large) e.g., macronutrient. mono (one/single) e.g., monosaccharides (single sugar molecule) multi/poly (many) e.g., multicellular. peri (around) e.g., perisikel (plant tissue) pod (leg) e.g. pseudopodium. sub (below) e.g., submaksila gland. genesis/genetic (formation) e.g., oogenesis. lysis (break down) e.g., haemolysis (red blood cell burst) uria (urine) e.g., glycosuria. Anterior (front) Posterior (back) Longitudal section A B Total Surface Area per Volume (TSA/V) Material A is breaks down into B. The volume is still the same but differ in total surface area. TSA/V of B is higher than A. Therefore, the smaller the higher the value of TSA/V. Food is need to be break down into a small pieces to increase its TSA/V so that easy for enzyme to digest. Cross sectional Dorsal (top) Ventral (bottom) TERMS, AFFIXES & SUFFIXES
  3. 3. CELL—STRUCTURE & ORGANISATION Cell Structure & Function Label the diagram and complete the table below. Organelle Function Plasma membrane Regulate (control) the movement of substances into and out of cell. Cell wall (plant) Cytoplasm 2 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Nucleus Min2009 1. Controls all the activities inside the cell. 2. Endoplasmic reticulum • rough : • smooth : Ribosome Mitochondrion Golgi apparatus Vacuole (plant) Chloroplast (plant)
  4. 4. Cell Comparison Compare the animal and plant cell based on aspects given below: i. cell shape ii. plasma membrane and cell wall iii. vacuole iv. organelle v. food storage Animal Cell Plant Cell The Density of Organelle • Some of the organelles presence in a large amount (high density) or abundance in cell. The density of organelles depends on cell / tissue functions. 3 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Complete the table below. Min2009 Cell’s shape is fixed and usually rectangular or hexagonal. Has a plasma membrane and no cell wall. Food is stored in form of glycogen. Food is stored in form of starch. Cell/Tissue High density organelle The importance Muscle cell Mitochondrion Produce energy for contraction and relaxation of muscle for movement. Liver cell Sperm Palisade cell Heart muscle cell Mitochondrion Produce energy for contraction and relaxation of muscle to pump blood to the entire body.
  5. 5. Unicellular Organisms 1. Label the diagram of Amoeba and Paramecium. 2. Explain how Paramecium and Amoeba regulates the excess amount of water moves into their body? ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... 3. Compare Amoeba and Paramecium based on aspects given below: i. Habitat ii. Reproduction iii. Movement iv. Nutrition v. Number of nucleus Amoeba Paramecium Live in freshwater lakes and ponds. Live in freshwater lakes and ponds. 4. Explain why the cell structure of the unicellular organism is more complex compare to human cells (e.g. epithelial cell). ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... 4 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Min2009
  6. 6. Cell Specialisation & Organisation 1. Cell specialisation is ................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... 2. Cell organisation is ................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... Cell Tissue Organ System 5 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Tissue Function Epithelial tissue Connective tissue Vascular tissue Meristematic tissue Nerve tissue Muscle tissue Adipose tissue Smooth muscle cell Epithelial cell Min2009 Circular muscle and longitudal muscle Endothelium Esophagus, stomach and intestine. Inner layer of intestine and enzyme gland Digestive system Epithelial cell Smooth muscle cell Epithelial tissue Muscle tissue (circular muscle and longitudal muscle ) Organ : Intestine Cell specialisation Cell organisation (animal—digestive system)
  7. 7. Cambium cell Epidermal cell Parenchyma cell Xylem & Phloem cell Meristematic tissue Epidermal tissue Cortex tissue Temperature Osmosis pressure Physical Factors 6 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Min2009 Vascular tissue Stem—organ (cross sectional) Cell organisation (plant—stem) Regulating the Internal Environment Internal Environment of Cell Chemical Factors Respiration affect Enzyme affect pH Concentration of minerals affect Concentration of glucose • List down the tissues that can be found in hand. ......................................................................................................................................... • By giving the example, explain the formation of nerve system — name the cells, tissues and organs involved. ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................................
  8. 8. 1. Why the internal environment of cells need to be maintained (constant)? ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... 2. Based on diagram, give the meaning of homeostasis ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... 7 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 3. Explain the effect of factors given below. Factor Effect to the cell Temperature Concentration of mineral Min2009 Environment with higher concentration (hypertonic) will caused water to move out of the cell. Cell become dehydrated and finally die. Concentration of glucose pH The increase or decrease of pH will caused enzyme to denatured. Chemical reaction will stop and cell die. Discussion Predict the effect of factors given below to onion cell; i. temperature 0 oC ................................................................................... ii. salt solution 50% ................................................................................... iii. solution with no glucose / sugar ................................................................................... iv. hydrochloric acid solution (pH 2.0) ...................................................................................
  9. 9. Substances listed below are essential to living things. Explain the importance substances to the cell. Substances Function (the importance to the cell) Glucose Source of energy. Amino acid Minerals Water Oxygen 8 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Min2009 MOVEMENT OF SUBSTANCES List out two substances that must be excreted or removed form the cell and their effect. Substances Effect if not excreted from the cell Structure of Plasma Membrane 1. Why substances need to move (in or out) the plasma membrane? ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... 2. Explain the terms given below: i. polar .............................................................................................................. ii. non-polar .............................................................................................................. iii. hydrophobic .............................................................................................................. iv. hydrophilic .............................................................................................................. 3. State the characteristics of substances given below: i. glucose .............................................................................................................. ii. amino acid .............................................................................................................. iii. sodium ions .............................................................................................................. iv. water .............................................................................................................. v. lipid .............................................................................................................. 4. What is the meaning of selectively permeable? ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................................
  10. 10. 4. Draw a simple diagram (2D drawing) of plasma membrane in given space below (based on Fluid Mosaic Model). Label the carrier protein, pore protein and phospholipids bilayer. List out two substances which pass (move) through the structure given below: Structures Reasons — based on characteristic of Based on the structure of plasma membrane, why it selectively permeable? .............................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................. 9 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Min2009 substances and structure Phospholipids Carrier protein Pore protein Because its molecule is small enough to pass through pore and water soluble. Substances which pass through Movement of substances — types movement Type Type of movement — give two reasons Two examples Glucose and Amino acid
  11. 11. Effect of osmosis to the cell Explain the meaning of terms given below: i. hypertonic ........................................................................................................................ ii. hypotonic ........................................................................................................................ iii. isotonic ........................................................................................................................ 1. Compare the passive transport and active transport. 10 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Concentration of solution Type of solution Min2009 Hypertonic (high concentration) Isotonic (equal concentration) Hypotonic (low concentration) Cell shape (plant cell) Cell condition Normal Cell condition Normal Shape of Outer layer mustard stem (longitudal section) Inner layer Based on the table above, make a conclusion about osmosis? .............................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................. Practice Passive Transport Active Transport
  12. 12. 2. What is the effect of the excess use of fertilizer to the plant? Why? ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... 3. Why fermented fruits are not rotten (busuk) easily? ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... 4. Vegetables are wilt (layu) if not soaked in the water. Why? ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... 5. The diagram shows the changing of visking tube size after being soaked in solution Q for Solution P Solution R Solution Q 60 minutes (a) Explain why does the experiment shows the result as shown above — inferences. N ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... M ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... (b) Arrange in sequence the concentration of solution used in the experiment. Begins with the highest. ....................................................................................................................................... 11 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 a 60 minutes. Min2009 Tube N Tube M Tube N Tube M
  13. 13. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION IN THE CELL What is: i. inorganic compound ................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ii. organic compound ................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... State one the role of substances and organic compounds given below. Substances The importance (state one only) Nitrogen Synthesis of protein, nucleic acid and organic compounds. Sodium Organic compound The importance to the cells Carbohydrates Lipid Protein Formation of plasma membrane and cell growth. 1 ......................................................................................................................................... 2 ......................................................................................................................................... 3 ......................................................................................................................................... 4 ......................................................................................................................................... Carbo means carbon (C), while hydrates is water (H2O). Based on that meaning, what are the elements that made up carbohydrates? .............................................................................................................................................. 12 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Sulphur Phosphorus Calsium Magnesium Nucleic acid Min2009 Role of Water Carbohydrates
  14. 14. 13 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Glucose Min2009 Short notes (structure & function) Glucose ....................................................... ....................................................... ....................................................... S F Starch ....................................................... ....................................................... ....................................................... S F Glycogen ....................................................... ....................................................... ....................................................... S F Cellulose ....................................................... ....................................................... ....................................................... Glycogen Starch Cellulose S F Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides Cellobiose Cellulose Glucose Starch / Glycogen Sucrose (sugarcane) - Lactose (milk sugar) - Monosaccharides : Glucose-Fructose-Galactose (MonoGFG) Disaccharides : Sucrose-Lactose-Maltose (DiSuLaM) Monomer condensation Polymer - H2O hydrolysis + H2O Formation of disaccharides & polysaccharides Hydrolysis—addition of water that cause molecule to break down Protein 1. Elements that made up protein are ............................................................................. 2. Essential amino acid is.................................................................................................. ....................................................................................................................................... 3. Non essential amino acid is........................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... 4. Egg white changes its physical characteristic and colour when heated. Explain why? ....................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................
  15. 15. 14 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Types protein based on function Level of protein structure & examples Min2009 Essential amino acids 1. Alanine 2. Aspartic acid 3. Glutamic acid 4. Aspargine 5. Gyicine 6. Glutamine 7. Proline 8. Serine 9. Sisteine 10. Tyrosine Non essential amino acids 1. Arginine 2. Phenilalanine 3. Histidine 4. Isolucine 5. Leucine 6. Lysine 7. Methionine 8. Threonine 9. Tryptophane 10. Valine DON’T MEMORISE THIS LIST Protein Polypeptide Dipeptide Amino acid Pepsin/tripsin Eripsin/Peptidase Eripsin/Peptidase hydrolysis (+ H2O) condensation (- H2O) Group The role inside body Antibody • Reacts to the antigen (foreign substance) which enter the body and acts as protector. Hormone • Stimulates reactions or process such as growth. Transport protein • Haemoglobin acts as carrier to transport respiratory gases. There are also carrier protein in plasma membrane. Contractile protein • Found in muscle and able to contract to produce movement. Catalyst protein • All types of enzyme which is trigger or initiate chemical reactions. Primary Secondary Tertiery Quartenery Polypeptide chain Fibrous protein Globular protein Haemoglobin
  16. 16. Lipids 1. Elements that made up lipid are ........................................................................................ 2. Fat or oil made up from ....................................... and ............................................... in the ratio of ..................... 3. In space given below, draw the “building block” of triglyceride (fat). Type Location and function Fat • As a energy storage (under skin), organ protector, energy storage and isolation of 4. Compare the saturated and the unsaturated fat based on (i) chemical structure, (ii) state of matter in room temperature, (iii) effect to the blood cholesterol level and (iv) sources. Differences of saturated fat and unsaturated fat 15 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Min2009 heat. Phospholipid • Found in plasma membrane—part of plasma membrane. Cholesterol • Basic molecule for making steroid e.g. sex hormone. Bile • Colesterol byproduct which emulsify fat and turn it into small droplets. Vitamine D • Synthesized on skin with the presence of ultraviolet rays and helps absorption of calcium ion for bone growth. Steroid • Oestrogen and progesterone involved in menstrual cycle and pregnancy. • Adrenaline secreted by adrenal gland as a reaction to an emergency such as panic, fear and angry. Saturated fat Unsaturated fat
  17. 17. Enzyme Substrate Gland 16 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Min2009 reaction occur when enzyme collided/ make contact with substrate. Enzymes 1. Meaning of enzyme. ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... 2. Function of enzyme. ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... 3. Three examples of enzymes and its substrate: 4. Four characteristics of enzyme: a ...................................................................................................................................... b ...................................................................................................................................... c ...................................................................................................................................... d ...................................................................................................................................... 5. What is active site? ......................................................................................................................................... 6. Why does the denatured enzyme does not perform its function? Relate your answer with active site. ...................................................................................... ...................................................................................... ...................................................................................... ...................................................................................... ...................................................................................... 7. Draw a schematic diagram to show the synthesis of protein (e.g. enzymes). 8. By giving appropriate example, describe how different organelles works together to enable cell to function in orderly manner. (e.g. protein / enzyme) ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................................
  18. 18. 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 (oC) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 17 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Min2009 Effect of substrate concentration Concentration of substrate The rate of reaction Concentration of enzyme The rate of reaction Effect of enzyme concentration The rate of reaction Effect of temperature Effect of pH pH The rate of reaction 9. Complete the graph below. 10. Explain why acid able to stop the enzyme reaction? ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... 11. State two examples of intracellular enzymes and its function. Enzyme Function 12. State two examples of extracellular enzymes and its function. Enzyme Function 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4
  19. 19. Practice 1. Complete the diagram below to demonstrate the Lock and Key hypothesis. Enzyme & substrate Enzyme & substrate 3. State four enzymes and its uses in industries. 18 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Min2009 complex Enzyme & product substrate Enzyme (globular shape) 2. In the space given below, draw an enzyme (based on answer in 1) and its shape after being denatured. denatured (by temperature or pH) Enzyme Function
  20. 20. 1. Give two reasons why cell is need to be divided (increase in number)? i. ................................................................................................................................... ii. ................................................................................................................................... 2. Label the stages of cell cycle diagram above. 3. State the function of stages below; ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... b. Why does the chromosomes need to be replicated? ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... 5 Why does the chromosome number of an organisms are must to be in constant from a generation to the next generation? Explain. ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... 6 Explain the difference of cytokinesis in animal and plant cells. ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... 19 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 i. Growth phase 1 (G1) ii. DNA Synthesis (S) iii. Growth phase 2 (G2) iv. Mitosis v. Cytokinesis 4 a. What is replication? Min2009 CELL DIVISION Cell Cycle
  21. 21. 20 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Min2009 Mitosis Interphase Explanations Number of chromosome ..... 1 ................................................................... 2 ................................................................... Number of chromosome ..... 1 ................................................................... 2 ................................................................... 3 ................................................................... Number of chromosome ..... 1 ................................................................... 2 ................................................................... Number of chromosome ..... 1 ................................................................... 2 ................................................................... Number of chromosome ..... 1 ................................................................... 2 ................................................................... 3 ................................................................... 4 ................................................................... Use Ward’s Finger Model
  22. 22. i. ................................................................................................................................... ii. ................................................................................................................................... iii. ................................................................................................................................... iv. ................................................................................................................................... Uncontrolled Mitosis—Cancer What is cancer? .............................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................. Causes of cancer i. ......................................................................................................................................... ii. ......................................................................................................................................... iii. ......................................................................................................................................... Treatments—explain i. surgery .................................................................................................................. ii. chemotherapy .................................................................................................................. iii. radiotherapy .................................................................................................................. Application of Mitosis Cloning—tissue culture Purpose :................................................................................................................ Advantages i. ............................................................................................................ 21 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 The significance of mitosis Min2009 ii. ............................................................................................................ Disadvantages i. ............................................................................................................ ii. ............................................................................................................ Procedure ............................................................ ............................................................ ............................................................ ............................................................ ............................................................ ............................................................ ............................................................ ............................................................ ............................................................ ............................................................ ............................................................ ............................................................ ............................................................
  23. 23. Graph shows the division of cell inside organism X. 1. How many chromosomes in parent cell and daughter cell? i. parent ............ ii. daughter ............ 2. What type of division involved? .................................................................... 3. Give your reason for answer in 1. .................................................................... .................................................................... .................................................................... 4. What happen to the chromosomes during stage M1 and M2? i. M1 ….................................................... 22 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Min2009 ....................................................... ii. M2 ….................................................... ....................................................... 5. i. What is organism X? ............................................................... ii. Give your reason for answer in 5.i. .................................................................... .................................................................... 6. Mark on graph the stage of: i. Prophase ii. Metaphase iii. Anaphase iv. Telophase 1. What is cloning? ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. 2. Draw a schematic diagram to show the cloning of Dolly. 3. What is the role of ultraviolet rays in cloning process? ................................................................. ................................................................. 4. Advantages of cloning: i. ................................................................. ii. ................................................................. iii. ................................................................. 5. Disadvantages of cloning: i. ................................................................. ii. ................................................................. iii. ................................................................. Practice Cloning
  24. 24. Meiosis with Paper Cuttings 1. Make sure your group have 8 paper cuttings with 2 size and 2 colours. For example, large paper cuttings —2 blue and 2 red and small paper cuttings —2 blue and 2 red. 2. Analogy 1: each paper cutting represent a chromosome. 3. Analogy 2: paper cuttings with the same size are homologous or identical (same size and shape). 4. Analogy 3: do the replication by adding paper cuttings with same size and colour. 5. Analogy 4: do the crossing over by “cut and paste” the paper cuttings. 6. Draw a cell, nucleus membrane and spindle fiber on the table by using chalk. 7. Follow your teacher’s instruction and complete the worksheet for this activity. 1 2 3 4 5 6 23 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Min2009 Meiosis Worksheet Interphase Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II 7 8
  25. 25. 8 Telophase II Synapsis ..................................................................................................................... Chiasma ..................................................................................................................... Crossing over ..................................................................................................................... Variation ..................................................................................................................... Role of meiosis 1 ............................................................................................................................................ 2 ............................................................................................................................................ 3 ............................................................................................................................................ 24 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Meaning of terms Min2009 Practice 1. Based on the diagram you’ve drew (in page 19 and 23), state the differences of mitosis and meiosis based on: i. number of chromosome ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... ii. genetic content ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... 2. Draw the chromosome for stages below: Mitosis - Metaphase Meiosis - Metaphase I
  26. 26. 3. Based on drawing in 2, explain the difference in term of chromosome position. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ Parent Gametes Offspring 25 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Min2009 46 46 23 23 46 4. Which cell division produce variation? How? ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ 5. Name the cell division, where the separation of homologous chromosome occurs? Name the stage. ........................................................................................................................................ 6. In human, the diploid (2n) number of chromosomes are 46. Based on diagram, explain how the number of chromosome is maintained (keep in constant) from a generation to the next generation. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ 7. State the tissue where the process of mitosis and meiosis take place in animal and plant. Animal Plant Meiosis ....................................................... ....................................................... Mitosis ....................................................... ....................................................... 8. Draw the chromosome of daughter cells inside the diagram below. Metaphase I Daughter cell Meiosis Meiosis 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
  27. 27. 9. Compare mitosis and meiosis based on; i. the difference in chromosome number in daughter and parent cell; ii. number of cell division; iii. number of daughter cell; iv. crossing over; and v. the difference in genetic content in daughter and parent cell. Mitosis Meiosis Number of chromosomes in parent’s and daughter’s cell are equal. NUTRITION Four process involved in nutrition are: i. ......................................................... ii. ......................................................... iii. ......................................................... iv. ......................................................... Types of Nutrition Autotroph organisms are ....................................................................................................... .............................................................................................................................................. Heterototroph organisms are ................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................................. Nutrition Meaning and two example of organisms Chemosyntesis Synthesis the organic compound (glucose) by oxidizing in organic 26 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Min2009 substances such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and ammonia (NH3). Photosynthesis Holozoic Saprophytism Parasitsm Obtained food by living on or in the body of living organisms.
  28. 28. Meaning of balanced diet * ............................................................................................ ............................................................................................ ............................................................................................ The necessity of balanced diet ............................................................................................ ............................................................................................ ............................................................................................ ............................................................................................ 1. How to prove that food contain / produce energy? Explain. ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... 2. State the class of foods which does not contain/produce energy. Explain why? ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... 27 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Body size Gender Age Occupation Min2009 Balanced Diet Energy Value NOTE The role of water, carbohy-drates, proteins & lipids aren’t stated here because its already being stated in Chapter 4. Draw a pyramid of food 3. Explain how does the factors listed below affects the requirement of energy. 4. In a rest condition (such as sleep) we still need energy. Explain why? ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ 5. Why does the Eskimo (live in Artic region) consume a lot of fatty food? i. ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... ii. ................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................
  29. 29. 28 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Min2009 Calculation of energy value Mineral Mineral Function Deficiency Calcium Bone and tooth formation, aids in blood clotting, needed in muscle and nerve coordination. Ricket (children), delayed blood clotting and osteoporosis. Magnesium Activates most types of enzymes (as a cofactor) Retarded function of muscle. Ferum / iron Component of haemoglobin needed for oxygen transport in the blood. Anemia. Sodium Maintain the osmotic pressure and important component in blood plasma. Muscle cramps. Potassium Maintenance of acid-base and water balance. Heart failure & muscular weakness. Iodine Component of the thyroxine hormone. Goiter (adult) & kretinisme (children) Phosphorus Needed for muscle growth, bone and tooth formation, nucleotide and ATP synthesis. Rickets & demineralization of bone (lost of calcium) Chlorine Maintenance of osmotic pressure. Muscle cramps. Vitamin Function Deficiency A Needed for formation of light pigment in retina Retinol and maintenance of epithelial tissue. Vision problem (night blindness) and scaling skin. B1 Thiamine Precursor of a coenzyme which functions in carbohydrate metabolism. Beriberi (muscle weakness, nerve disorder, heart disorder, swollen feet and loss of skin sensitivity. B2 Riboflavin Component of coenzymes in energy metabolism. Sore eyes and swollen tongues and skin lesions at the corner of mouth, nose and ears. B3 Niacin Component of coenzymes in energy metabolism. Pellagra (skin and gastrointestinal lesions, nervous, mental disorders and loss of appetite). B5 Pantothenic acid Component of coenzyme A, with a role in energy metabolism. Muscle cramps, fatigue, impaired motor coordination. B6 Pyridoxine Coenzymes in amino acid metabolism. Irritability, muscular twitching, convulsions, dermatitis, retarded growth, kidney stones and pernicious anemia. Vitamin
  30. 30. Vitamin Function Deficiency B12 Cobalamin Group Work Explain the necessity of diet on a person below: 1. Expectant mother. 2. Sumo wrestler. 3. Long distance runner. 4. Everest climber. 5. Old man. 6. Children. 29 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Group Discussion Scrap Book Min2009 • A coenzyme in nucleic acid metabolism. • Synthesis of red blood cells. Pernicious anemia, neurological disorders and weight loss. C Ascorbic acid • Required in the synthesis of collagen. • Maintenance of cartilage, bone and dentin. • A strong antioxidant. 1. Poor collagen formation. 2. Scaly skin. 3. Scurvy: symptoms include swollen, bleeding gums and tooth loss. 4. Degeneration of blood vessels, muscles and cartilage. D Calcipherol Aids in the absorption of calcium and phosphorus ions for bones and teeth growth. ♦ Ricet (demineralization of bone) ♦ Tooth decay. E Tocopherol Produce red blood cells. Acts an antioxidant. ♦ Anemia. K Phylloquinone Important in blood clotting. Defective blood clotting which leads to excessive bleeding. • Make a scrap book or booklet about the effect of vitamin and minerals deficiency and malnutrition in human. Information mainly based on pictures and simple explanation about the picture. • Use internet search engine such as google.com, click on image and key in the key word of image you want. • Make sure the pictures that you want to download not less than 40 kb (file size). • The procedure of finding the information using internet will be provided. Malnutrition • Meaning ........................................................................................................................ • Causes ........................................................................................................................ • Effect ........................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................
  31. 31. 30 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Foods test—experiment Reducing sugar test Starch and Fat Test Min2009 Material ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... Result ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... Benedict solution Water Glucose solution Non reducing sugar test Sodium bicarbonate Solution sucrose + HCL Water Benedict solution Material :....................................................................................................................... Result :....................................................................................................................... Millon test (protein) Material ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... Result ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... Millon solution Egg white Water Starch :....................................................................................................................... Fat :.......................................................................................................................
  32. 32. Food Digestion-Human 1. Name two organic polymer (large molecule) found in food and its source. i ................................................................................................................................... ii ................................................................................................................................... 2. Can organic polymer absorbed into blood stream / cells? Why? ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... 3. Why does the organic polymer need to be hydrolysed (break down) into its monomer? ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... 4. Why does the food need to be break down into a small pieces? ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... 5. Complete the short notes below by stating the adaptation (characteristic + role) of an organ to perform its function. Fill in only the main idea and use a simple and short sentences. Liver ............................................................................................. ............................................................................................. ............................................................................................. 31 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Mouth • Produce saliva to lubricate and digest starch. • Chewing breaks down food into small pieces to increase total surface area. Min2009 Oesofagus • Consist of circular and longitudal muscle. Foods are moved by peristalsis action. Stomach i. ........................................................................................ ........................................................................................ ii. ........................................................................................ ........................................................................................ Small Intestine i. ........................................................................................ ........................................................................................ ii. ........................................................................................ ........................................................................................ iii. ........................................................................................ ........................................................................................ iv. ........................................................................................ ........................................................................................ Large Intestine ............................................................................................. ............................................................................................. .............................................................................................
  33. 33. Digestive enzymes Gland Enzyme Substrate End product Salivary Amilase Starch Stomach Rennin (gastric juice) Pepsin Pancreas Amilase Starch (pancreatic juice) Trypsin 32 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Experiment — digestion of starch Test tube Distilled water Yeast suspension Visking tube Yeast suspension Inference A (reason) Inference B (reason) Min2009 Fatty acid + Glyserol Intestinal Asid amino Maltose Lactose Sucrase Purpose To investigate the digestion of starch. Procedure 1. Apparatus as shown is prepared. 2. Iodine and Benedict test is done to the sample of water every 30 minutes. 3. Observation are recorded. Note : Iodine test —> starch —> Dark blue A B : Benedict test —> Glucose —> Copper Observation A No change in color for Iodine and Benedict test Observation B No change in color for Iodine test but the colour of water turn into copper when tested with Benedict solution. Discussion Conclusion + saliva
  34. 34. 1. Label the digestive system above. 2. State two the role of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. i. ................................................................................................................................... ii. ................................................................................................................................... 3. Explain the role of bile in digestion process. i. ................................................................................................................................... ii. ................................................................................................................................... iii. ................................................................................................................................... 4. Explain two adaptations of small intestine to increase the absorption of digested food. i. ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... ii. ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... 33 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Min2009 Ruminant 1. Label parts of ruminant’s and rodent’s stomach. 2. Draw an arrow to show the flow of food inside ruminant’s stomach. Rodent Practice Digestion in Ruminant & Rodent mouth anus
  35. 35. 3. Animals unable to produce cellulase to digest cellulose (component of plant cell wall) into glucose. Explain how the ruminants digest the cellulose? ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... 4. Compare the digestive system of ruminant and rodent based on: Absorption & Assimilation of Digested Food 34 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 i. stomach structure Min2009 ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... ii. Digestion of cellulose ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... 5. Why ruminant need more than one stomach? ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... 1. Draw the structure of one villi inside the given space. 2. Three adaptations (characteristic + role) of villi to increase the rate of food absorption are; i. ...................................................................................... ...................................................................................... ...................................................................................... ii. ...................................................................................... ...................................................................................... ...................................................................................... iii. ...................................................................................... ...................................................................................... ...................................................................................... 3. State the digested food absorbed by the structure below: i. Blood capillary .............................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................. ii. Lacteal .............................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................. Creative essay If you’re the starch or protein (choose one), describe your experience in human digestive system start from mouth until you’re inside the liver. *
  36. 36. The Role of Liver Small intestine Glucose Amino acid Glycogen Other Functions • Break down old red blood cell and haemoglobin. • Storage of blood (300 cm3 – 1500 cm3). • Synthesis of plasma protein such as albumin and • Storage of vitamine A, D and B12. • Storage of minerals, Fe and Cu. • Detoxification of drugs, alcohol and poisons. 35 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 globulin. Min2009 Liver Glucose Amino acid Protein Blood Glucose Amino acid Plasma protein Cell / Tissue Energy production Protein synthesis 1. State two functions of large intestine. i. ................................................................................................................................... ii. ................................................................................................................................... 2. State the role of rectum. ......................................................................................................................................... 3. Why does the undigested food must be expelled (eliminated) out of the body? ......................................................................................................................................... 4. Explain the cause of constipation. ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... Problem Causes Symptom & Effect Gastric Anoreksia nervosa Urea Defaecation Problems Related to Nutrition What is? • Glycogen ........................................... • Urea ........................................... • Plasma protein ...........................................
  37. 37. Problem Causes Symptom & Effect Obesity Belumia Nutrient Requirement in Plant 1 Does the plant able to live only by using product of photosynthesis (starch)? Explain. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ 2 What is nutrients / minerals? ............................................................................................................................................ 3 Complete the table below. Macronutrient Micronutrient Meaning Minerals The Role of Macronutrient Minerals Function Effect of deficiencies 36 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Nitrogen (N) Min2009 • Synthesis of protein, chlorophyll & nucleic acid (DNA & RNA) • Growth of leaf & stem ♦ Yellowish & stunted leaves (chlorosis) Phosphorus (P) • Synthesis of protein & nucleic acid (DNA & RNA) • Enhanced cell division ♦ Stunted growth ♦ Poor root growth ♦ Formation of dull, dark green leaves Potassium (K) • Synthesis of protein & starch ♦ Stunted growth ♦ Premature death of plants Calcium (Ca) • Growth of shoot & root ♦ Stunted growth ♦ Leaves become distort & cupped Sulphur (S) • Synthesis of protein ♦ General yellowing of leaves or entire plant Magnesium (Mg) • Synthesis of chlorophyll (constituent) ♦ General yellowing of leaves
  38. 38. Lack (deficiencies) of mineral will cause several symptoms. Based on minerals and symptoms given below, explain why the symptom occur? 1. Nitrogen—stunted growth ........................................................................................................................................ 2. Phosphorus—stunted growth ........................................................................................................................................ 3. Magnesium—yellowish leaves ........................................................................................................................................ Preparation of Culture Solution 37 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Min2009 Knop Solution (complete solution) Calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2) 0.8 g Potassium nitrate (KNO3) 0.2 g Potassium dehidrogen fosfat (KH2PO4) 0.2 g Magnesium sulfat (MgSO4) 0.2 g Ferum (III) fosfat (FePO4) trace Distilled water 1000 cm3 1. Objective :....................................................................................................................... 2. Variables i. manipulated :...................................................................................... ii. response :...................................................................................... iii. constant :...................................................................................... 3. Hypothesis :....................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................ 4. What the purpose of covering jar with black paper? ........................................................................................................................................ 5. Why does the root need to be aerated (provided with air)? ........................................................................................................................................ 6. Name one mineral which provides elements listed below; i) sulphur ........................................ ii) phosphorus ................................................ iii) nitrogen ........................................ iv) calcium ................................................ 7. Based on Knop solution above, how do you prepare solution with lack of (without): i. Nitrogen ............................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................. ii. Phosphorus ............................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................. iii. Calcium ............................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................. iv. All minerals ............................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................
  39. 39. Photosynthesis 1. Label the cross sectional of leaf above. Label must include palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll, epidermal cell, cuticle, vascular bundle (xylem and phloem) and stoma. i. Palisade mesophyll ................................................................................................... ii. Spongy mesophyll ................................................................................................... iii. Vascular bundle ........................................................................................................ iv. Stoma ........................................................................................................ 38 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 2. State the function of structures below: Min2009 Purpose ............................................................................................... Result and Discussion ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... Conclusion ............................................................................................... Purpose ............................................................................................... Result and Discussion ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... Conclusion ............................................................................................... Cross sectional of leaf
  40. 40. 3. State three structural adaptations (characteristic + role) of leaf to increase the rate of photosynthesis. i. ................................................................................................................................... ii. ................................................................................................................................... iii. ................................................................................................................................... 4. State the adaptations to carry out photosynthesis for plants given below: 6 O2 12 H2O 39 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Mechanism of photosynthesis 24 H+ 24 e- 24 H 6 CO2 Min2009 * i. Seaweed (rumpair) ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... ii. Cactus ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... 24 H2O Photolysis Chlorophyll Absorb energy from sunlight 6 H2O 24 OH- 24 e- C6H12O6 1. Based on flow chart, explain what happen during: Structure of chloroplast Light reaction Dark reaction REMINDER Do not memorized the number of molecules, ions and electron. i. light reaction .............................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................. ii. dark reaction .............................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................. 2. What is the role of sunlight in photolysis (light reaction)? ......................................................................................................................................... 3. Does the dark reaction occurs at night? Why? ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................................
  41. 41. 40 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Min2009 + 4. Label the flow chart above to shows the summary of photosynthesis. 5. Based on flow chart in page 39, summarized the chemical equation of photosynthesis. ......................................................................................................................................... 6. (a) What is the end product of photosynthesis that useful to the plant? ................................................................................................................................... (b) State the two roles of substance stated in 5 (a). i. .............................................................................................................................. ii. .............................................................................................................................. 7. Compare the light reaction and dark reaction based on: i. Substrate (substance used in reaction) ii. Site of reaction iii. End product iv. Time of reaction • Note : use complete sentences. Light reaction Dark reaction Occurred in grana. Light intensity Rate of photosynthesis Rate of photosynthesis Factor affecting photosynthesis 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 (oC)
  42. 42. i) light intensity and rate of photosynthesis. ..................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................... ii) temperature and rate of photosynthesis ..................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................... 3. Explain how the concentration of carbon dioxide become a limiting factor to the rate of photosynthesis. .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... • Explain how methods listed below increase the quality and quantity of food production. ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... 41 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 1. Plot the graph in page 40. 2. Explain the relation of; i. Hydrophonics ii. Aerophonics. iii. Breeding. iv. Tissue culture. v. Genetic engineering. Min2009 Technology in Food Production Group discussion
  43. 43. Technology of Food Processing 42 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Purpose 1 ............................................................... ............................................................... ............................................................... 2 ............................................................... ............................................................... 3 ............................................................... ............................................................... 4 ............................................................... ............................................................... Min2009 Canning Purpose To kill microorganisms and its spore (survive up to 120 oC). Method (temperature) Packed in cans and steamed with high temperature and high pressure. Advantages Keep food sterile (free from microorganisms) for a long period. Sample of food Sardines and pineapple Pasteuraization Purpose To destroy bacteria and keeping the flavour and nutrient Method (temperature) 63 oC in 30 minutes or 72 oC in 15 seconds Advantages Bacteria are destroyed but the nutrient (eg. protein) undamaged. Sample of food Milk and fruits juice. Drying (dehydrat ion) Purpose ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. Method ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. Advantages ................................................................. ................................................................. Sample of food ................................................................. Refrigeration Purpose ................................................................. ................................................................. Method ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. Advantages ................................................................. ................................................................. Sample of food ................................................................. Vaccum packaging Purpose ................................................................. ................................................................. Method ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. Advantages ................................................................. ................................................................. Sample of food .................................................................
  44. 44. RESPIRATION 1. What is the substance act as source of energy in living things? ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... 3. How to get energy from substance in 1 so that it can be use by living things? ......................................................................................................................................... 4. State three the role of energy to living things. i. ................................................................................................................................... ii. ................................................................................................................................... iii. ................................................................................................................................... 5. State two cells/tissues in human body which used a lot of energy. Explain why? ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... Aerobic & Anaerobic Respiration 43 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 2. Why substance in 1 contain energy? Min2009 Glycolysis Break down of glucose Creb Cycle The process which produce a lot of energy. Note : do not memorized both terms. 1. If you’re not breathing for a certain period of time, you will be weak, then unconscious and finally die. Based on biology fact, explain why does it happen? ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... 2. Sprinter athlete (such as 100m) hold their breathe while running. Can energy be produce in that condition (without air/oxygen)? Explain how? ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... 3. After reaching finishing line, the athlete will be puffing (breathing in a fast rate) and exhausted. After a while, he/she will be recovered and back into normal condition. Explain these phenomena based on biology fact. ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................................
  45. 45. Chemical Equation of Respiration Questions 1 a. Why does the glucose solution need to be boiled? ................................................................ ................................................................ b. Which apparatus acts as control? Explain the purpose of using control. ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ c. What the purpose of using paraffin oil? ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ d. What gas being produced? Give your reason. ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ 44 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Min2009 e. Name the other substance being produce. ................................................................ ................................................................ f. If paraffin layer is removed, what will you expect? ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ g. How to increase the gas production? ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ h. If yeast is replaced with bacteria, what is the expected result? ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration In Animal & Yeast Apparatus A Practice Apparatus B
  46. 46. 2. Why does the unicellular organism such as yeast and bacteria are able to survive only by performing anaerobic respiration? [only produce small amount of energy] ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... 3. During flood, most of plant will die. Explain why? [based on respiration] ...................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... 4. Compare between aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration based on: i) Substrate used ii) Product of reaction iii) The amount ATP produced iv) Site of reaction. Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration Substrate used is glucose Substrate used is glucose Respiratory Structure—Human 45 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 • Role of cartilage rings? ................................................ ................................................ ................................................ • Function of epiglottis? ................................................ ................................................ ................................................ • Function of diaphragm? ................................................ ................................................ ................................................ Min2009 epiglottis larynx lung
  47. 47. Explain the adaptations of alveolus to increase the efficiency of gaseous exchange. i. ............................................................................ ............................................................................ ............................................................................ ii. ............................................................................ ............................................................................ ............................................................................ iii. ............................................................................ ............................................................................ ............................................................................ Respiratory Structure—Animals Draw the cross sectional of alveolus Explain the adaptations of respiration structure (way to increase the TSA/V) to facilitate the gaseous exchange. Explain how the gaseous exchange. 46 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 Min2009 Unicellular organism—Amoeba ................................................................................................. ................................................................................................. ................................................................................................. ................................................................................................. Earth worm ................................................................................................. ................................................................................................. ................................................................................................. ................................................................................................. spiracle trachea Insect-Cockroaches .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
  48. 48. 1 2 gill arch Practice 47 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 gill arch operculum 1 2 Min2009 Frog ........................................................................... ........................................................................... ........................................................................... ........................................................................... ........................................................................... ........................................................................... Fish gill Gill raker draw gill filament ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... 1. Why does the unicellular organism do not require a respiratory structure? ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... 2. Crocodile is able to chase its prey for a limited distance/time only, continue chasing will cause death. Explain why? ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... 3. Whale use lungs for breathing. What happens if whale using gill for breathing? ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................................
  49. 49. Gaseous Exchange in Human Alveolus • Oxygen transported in form of .................................................... while carbon dioxide transported in form of .................................................., .................................................., and .................................................. • Haemoglobin is a ................................... which contain ............................... • The gaseous exchange between respiratory structure and blood involving ......................... • Diffusion occurred due to the ............................................................................................. • For example in alveolus, the partial pressure of oxygen is .............. then the blood inside the blood capillary. As a result, oxygen ............................. into the blood and combine with hemoglobin to form ........................................... • In tissue, partial pressure oxygen is ................... compare to blood inside blood capillary. As a result, ........................................... releases its oxygen. Oxygen then ....................... into the tissue. • Same condition is occur to the carbon dioxide. 48 LEARNING MODULE - BIOLOGY FORM 4 ........................................ Min2009 Partial pressure O2 CO2 Partial pressure O2 CO2 Tissue O2 O2 CO2 CO2 1. Label the diagram above.

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