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BIOLOGY FORM 5 CHAPTER 1: 1.4 THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

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BIOLOGY FORM 5 CHAPTER 1: 1.4 THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

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BIOLOGY FORM 5 CHAPTER 1: 1.4 THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

  1. 1. 1.4 THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM BIOLOGY FORM 5 CHAPTER 1 TRANSPORT
  2. 2. Video on The Lymphatic System
  3. 3. TISSUE FLUID / INTERSTITIAL FLUID  bathes the cells and keeps them in the right condition  forms from the blood HOW?
  4. 4. Tissue fluid:  forms by filtration when blood passes through capillaries  is a watery liquid that resembles plasma minus its proteins Tissue cell Capillary Tissue fluid forms Tissue fluid returns Direction of blood flow Arterial end of capillary Venous end of capillary 15 µm
  5. 5. Tissue fluid forms at a capillary bed under high blood pressure Arterial flow Venous flow Lymphatic flow As blood flows into capillaries: 1. Tissue fluid forms. 2. Some tissue fluid returns to the blood.
  6. 6. EXCHANGE AT A CAPILLARY BED  capillaries form a dense network in such a way that every cell is close to a capillary lymphatic vessel
  7. 7. Formation of tissue fluid  some plasma flows through the capillaries into the tissues – become tissue fluid  tissue fluid is very similar to plasma but does not have large plasma protein molecules  Tissue fluid bathes every cell supplying them with glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, salts and oxygen Arterial end Venule end
  8. 8. Formation of tissue fluid  Hydrostatic pressure forces water through the capillary walls into the cells.  Other substances move out by diffusion or active transport  Tissue fluid also removes carbon dioxide and other waste material from cells
  9. 9. Formation of tissue fluid/Interstitial fluid & lymph
  10. 10. Exchange across the capillaries
  11. 11. What forces are involved in tissue fluid formation?  two opposing forces : Blood pressure forces water and small solutes out Osmotic pressure created by the large molecules that cannot leave Arterial end Venous end
  12. 12. Formation & drainage of tissue fluid
  13. 13. Formation of tissue fluid  As blood leaves the capillaries it has lost a lot of its water and so is far more concentrated  So water passes back into the capillary by osmosis at the venous end  Waste products leave the cells and enter the capillaries by diffusion
  14. 14. tissue fluid lymphatic vessel Tissue fluid forms from plasma. Lymph forms from………….. 10% tissue fluid enters lymphatic system lymph tissue fluid plasma 90%
  15. 15. Formation of interstitial fluid and lymphatic fluid (lymph) Blood capillary Interstitial fluid Plasma filtered Body cells Heart Reabsorb lymph
  16. 16. Two properties of the capillary network to allow efficient exchange between the bloodstream & the cells: 1. Large surface area of the capillary network 2. Being one cell thick
  17. 17. Question: Give a biological explanation for each of the following. Tissue fluid forms from blood. (4) Small molecules are forced out of the capillary at the arterial end under high blood pressure from the heart.
  18. 18. Kwashiorkor (protein deficiency) results in the swelling (oedema) of the belly an osmotic effect the ability of the blood to take up water from the body cavity by osmosis is reduced because of the deficiency of blood proteins (solutes)
  19. 19. What happens to the lymph that enters the lymphatic system? Lymph empties into subclavian veins.
  20. 20. The Lymphatic System
  21. 21. An extensive system of blind-ending tubes which carries lymph What is the Lymphatic System?
  22. 22. Lymph is: a clear, watery, sometimes faintly yellowish fluid derived from tissue fluid similar in composition to blood plasma 1. does not contain erythrocytes 2. contains a much lower concentration of protein
  23. 23. The Lymphatic System consists of:  Lymphatic vessels  Lymphoid tissues and organs [Lymphoid tissue: where lymphocytes develop e.g. lymph nodes]
  24. 24. FORMATION OF LYMPH
  25. 25. Lymph Not all the fluid returns to the blood capillary 10% enters a separate system of microscopic tubes called lymph capillaries These are part of the lymph system Lymph vessels have valves that let fluid enter but not leave them The lymph capillaries join to form lymph vessels
  26. 26. Lymph Fluid in the Blood is called plasma Surrounding the cells is called tissue fluid In the lymphatic system is called lymph There is very little difference between these three!
  27. 27. Lymph nodes occur all over the body 600-700 lymph nodes Lymph contains white blood cells Lymphocytes in lymph node
  28. 28. Lymph Nodes • The lymph nodes swell up at times of infection
  29. 29. Three functions of the lymphatic system: 1. Removes excess tissue fluid from tissues
  30. 30. 2. Absorbs and transports fats from the digestive system Blood capillary Thin epithelium Lacteal (lymphatic vessel)
  31. 31. 3. Plays a role in immunity. A lymph node filters microbes.
  32. 32. 4. Transportation
  33. 33. How does lymph return to the blood? Via the: right lymphatic duct left thoracic duct
  34. 34. LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
  35. 35. Unidirectional or bidirectional flow of lymph?
  36. 36. How is lymph moved through lymph vessels? By contraction of the muscles surrounding them By semi-lunar valves present in the major vessels How is backflow prevented?
  37. 37. Both the circulatory & the lymphatic system possess:
  38. 38. Lymph Flow of liquid through the lymph system is very slow It depends on movement of our muscles, the valves in the vessels and the negative pressure in chest when we breath in. Flow is in one direction only, from tissues towards the heart.
  39. 39. What happens if the lymphatic vessels become blocked as by parasitic worms? A nematode worm infects the lymph nodes and blocks the flow of lymph throughout the body. Elephantiasis Disease or Filariasis: transmitted by a mosquito bite [over 130 million people are infected] Wuchereria bancrofti Female worms: 8 -10 cm long Males: 4 cm
  40. 40. Elephantiasis – blockage of the lymphatic system by parasitic worms Wuchereria bancrofti - Spread by mosquito
  41. 41. Comparison of blood plasma, tissue fluid and lymph Blood plasma Tissue fluid Lymph LOCATION Inside blood vessels Bathing living cells Inside lymph vessels Arterial flow Lymphatic flow Venous flow
  42. 42. Blood plasma Tissue fluid Lymph COMPOSITION Water, proteins, glucose, salts, hormones , amino acids Oxygen present Very little protein, otherwise similar Oxygen present More protein than tissue fluid but less than plasma. More lipids, otherwise similar. No oxygen CELLS RBC, WBC, platelets WBC WBC TRANSPORT Blood pressure forces fluid through capillary at the arterial end. Osmosis returns fluid at the venous end of the capillary From capillary under pressure and return by osmosis to capillary (90%) and 10% to lymph From tissue fluid by drainage under pressure
  43. 43. This question is concerned with the lymphatic system. a. What is lymph? (2) Lymph, a colorless to yellowish fluid whose composition is similar to that of blood except that it does not contain red blood cells or platelets, and contains considerably less protein. Question:
  44. 44. b. What are the main functions of the lymphatic system? (2) - collects fats from the ileum via lacteals - plays a role in immunity. Fluid is filtered in lymph nodes which contain lymphocytes that kill microbes - drains tissue fluid and returns it to the bloodstream.
  45. 45. c. Briefly describe how fluid enters and leaves the lymphatic system. (3) Tissue fluid enters the lymphatic system located at the venous end of a capillary. Lymph is drained into the subclavian vein by the right or thoracic lymph ducts.
  46. 46. d. Compare the composition of lymph with that of blood plasma in the following two situations: i) Lymph that has just left a lymph node; (1) Lymph is richer in lymphocytes than plasma as it leaves the lymph nodes. ii) Lymph formed in the vicinity of the small intestine. Is rich in fats as lacteals absorb triglycerides. (1) e. How is lymph propelled through the lymphatic system? (2) By contractions of skeletal muscles. Valves inside the lymphatic vessels prevent backflow.
  47. 47. - blind ended vessels - permeable to proteins even cells
  48. 48. Lymph Nodes lymphoid organs - Macrophages and lymphocytes attack microorganisms Swollen lymph nodes is caused by expansion in the number of lymphocytes

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