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BIOLOGY FORM 4 
CHAPTER 4 PART 2 
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE 
CELL 
ENZYMES
The compound on which an enzyme acts 
is the substrate.
Enzymes Speed up chemical reactions 
Activation Energy 
with enzyme 
Activation 
Energy without 
enzyme 
Substrate 
Produc...
Explain why life cannot exist 
without enzymes. 
Reactions would be too slow to 
sustain life
Synthesized by 
ribosomes & 
modified by the 
Golgi Apparatus
DNA – 
contains codes 
to make protein 
mRNA is 
synthesised 
according to the 
instruction of DNA 
mRNA leaves 
the nucle...
The production of extracellular 
enzymes 
DNA carries 
the 
information 
for the 
synthesis of 
enzymes 
Proteins that are...
Proteins are 
modified during 
their transport in 
the golgi 
apparatus 
Secretory vesicle 
containing proteins 
bud off f...
Labelling Exercise
1 Substrate enters active site 2 An enzyme-substrate complex forms 
Products form and leave active site 
Reaction occurs 
...
BOND FORMATION
BOND BREAKING
REVERSIBLE REACTION
ACTIVE SITE OF AN ENZYME 
• Enzymes have a specific site called an active site. 
• The active site has a specific shape & ...
Active site: 
very small 
(3-12 amino acids) 
Active 
Sites 
• It only allows substrates with a 
COMPLEMENTARY shape and c...
4. Not destroyed by the reactions they catalyse. 
5. Needed in small quantities.
Enzymes are highly specific 
Amylase 
Starch Maltose 
Maltose Maltase 
Glucose + Glucose 
• Each chemical reaction is cata...
Enzymes are required in minute amounts 
Chemically unchanged 
Sucrase 
Sucrose Glucose + Fructose 
• They remain chemicall...
6 Factors affecting enzyme activity 
1) Temperature 
2) pH 
3) Substrate Concentration 
4) Enzyme Concentration 
5) Cofact...
1. 
Factors which affect enzyme action:
Enzyme activity is affected by temperature 
• Enzymes can function 
over a range of 
temperatures. 
• But all enzymes have...
Optimum temperature 
• The optimum temperature is the temperature at which 
the enzyme is most active, catalysing the larg...
How enzyme activity is affected by temperature 
Increasing temp up to optimum temp. 
• At low temperature, enzymes are INA...
How enzyme activity is affected by temperature 
Increasing temp beyond optimum temp. 
• Beyond the optimum temperature, ra...
At Temperatures above the Optimum: 
 molecules vibrate and twist so rapidly that 
some of their hydrogen bonds and 
hydro...
Functional 
protein 
Denatured 
protein
Over a range of 0-40°C, 
the rate of an enzyme 
controlled reaction is 
doubled for every rise of 
10°C 
More collisions =...
Question: 
A decrease in temperature decreases 
the kinetic energy of molecules in a 
solution. Explain how a decrease in ...
2. 
Factors which affect enzyme action:
Most enzymes work at 
pH values from 6 to 8. 
Narrow pH 
optimum 
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
What happens to the enzyme 
structure if pH changes? 
Disruption of ionic bonds: 
Tertiary Structure of enzyme changes
How enzyme activity is affected by pH 
At extreme pH conditions 
• Enzymes are DENATURED 
• Extreme changes in the pH caus...
Factors which affect enzyme action: 
3. Substrate Concentration 
Vmax
Explain the part of the graph 
indicated:
Explain the part of 
the graph indicated:
Explain the part of the graph 
indicated:
Explain the part of 
the graph indicated:
Point 
X
• Independent Variable: Substrate concentration 
From 0 to Point X 
Description Explanation 
As the [substrate] increases,...
• Independent Variable: Substrate concentration 
Beyond Point X 
Description Explanation 
Graph remains constant 
/ become...
Factors which affect enzyme action: 
4. Enzyme Concentration 
Rate of 
reaction 
Enzyme concentration 
[unlimited substrat...
2. Enzyme Concentration
THE EFFECT OF ENZYME 
CONCENTRATION ON ENZYME ACTION 
 Assuming that the 
amount of substrate is 
not limiting, an 
incre...
Substrate Concentration Versus Rate of 
0.4moldm-3 Enzyme 
0.2moldm-3 Enzyme 
Rate of Reaction 
(B) 
(A) 
X Y 
Reaction 
S...
• Independent Variable: Substrate concentration 
From 0 to Point Y 
Description Explanation 
Rate of reaction 
increases a...
• Independent Variable: Enzyme concentration 
Beyond Point Y 
Description Explanation 
Graph remains 
constant / 
becomes ...
Factors which affect enzyme action: 
5. COFACTORS 
 essential to the catalytic activity of some enzymes. 
may alter the ...
Question: 
Suggest an explanation for the following 
observation: 
a)Some vitamins are required for efficient 
enzyme acti...
Factors which affect enzyme action: 
6. Enzyme activity is slowed/stopped by 
inhibitors eg. heavy metals like lead, mercu...
SUMMARY: ENZYMES 
1. Enzymes work very rapidly and help to speed up 
biological reactions. 
2. Enzymes can be used multipl...
ENZYMES IN DAILY LIFE 
State the use of enzyme in: 
 Food production 
 Dairy industry 
 Biological detergent 
 Textil...
ENZYMES IN CLOTHES/DISHWASHER DETERGENTS 
 People use biological detergents to remove stains. 
 Biological washing powde...
ENZYMES IN BABY FOOD 
Proteases are used to make baby food. 
 Proteases ‘pre-digest’ some of the protein in 
the food. 
...
USE OF ENZYMES 
Pineapple (Ananas comosus, 
right) contains the enzyme 
papain which is used in meat 
tenderization proces...
Meat Tenderizer 
Papain 
Protease found in papaya 
as meat tenderizer
STARCH(HFCS) 
Carbohydrases are used to convert starch 
into sugar (glucose) syrup. 
Did You Know? 
HFC stands for High 
...
Rennet - 
• Produced from stomach of cows 
enzyme rennin obtained either from calf stomach or 
microorganism. 
• Cut casei...
Protease Usage in Dairy 
Products 
• Make creamier yogurt products 
• Hydrolyze whey proteins -- dairy products less 
alle...
Lactose intolerance 
Lactose intolerance people 
No digestion of lactose 
Remain in digestive system 
Fermented by bacteri...
Reaction 
Substrate: Lactose 
Lactose + H2O 
-galactosidase 
Glucose + Galactose 
hydrolysis 
Enzymes 
Lactase=β- Galacto...
Lipases 
Source- 
Animal --kid, calf, lamb 
Plant– mucor meiheri 
Milk fat 
Lipase 
Free fatty acids (flavour production) ...
Fruit juices are extracted using an 
enzyme called pectinase. 
• Pectin is a substance which helps to stick plant cells 
t...
Cellulase 
• Hydrolysis (breaking down) of 
cellulose 
• Breaks down the surface 
cellulose fibers of jeans. Thus 
the dye...
Leather Industry 
• Proteases are used in 
removing hair from animal 
hides. 
• Lipases are used in the to 
hydrolyze fat ...
ENZYMES IN SLIMMING AIDS 
 The enzyme, isomerase, is used to change glucose 
syrup to fructose syrup. Glucose and fructos...
To Investigate the Effect of pH on the 
activity of Pepsin
BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2
BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2
BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2
BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2
BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2
BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2
BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2
BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2
BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2
BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2
BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2
BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2
BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2
BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2
BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2
BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2
BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2
BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2
BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2
BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2
BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2
BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2
BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2
BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2
BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2
BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2
BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2
BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2
BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2
BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2
BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2
BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2
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BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2

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BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART2

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BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 - CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL PART 2

  1. 1. BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 4 PART 2 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL ENZYMES
  2. 2. The compound on which an enzyme acts is the substrate.
  3. 3. Enzymes Speed up chemical reactions Activation Energy with enzyme Activation Energy without enzyme Substrate Products: Energy Time • By lowering the activation energy needed to start the reaction.
  4. 4. Explain why life cannot exist without enzymes. Reactions would be too slow to sustain life
  5. 5. Synthesized by ribosomes & modified by the Golgi Apparatus
  6. 6. DNA – contains codes to make protein mRNA is synthesised according to the instruction of DNA mRNA leaves the nucleus and moves to ribosome Ribosomes acts as a workbench for mRNA PRODUCTION OF INTRACELLULAR ENZYMES Specific protein is synthesised using this information Protein is release into the cytoplasm
  7. 7. The production of extracellular enzymes DNA carries the information for the synthesis of enzymes Proteins that are synthesised at the ribosomes are transported through the space within the rough ER Proteins are wrapped in vesicles that are bud off from the membranes of the rough ER Vesicles fuse with the membrane of the golgi apparatus which empty their contents into the membranous space
  8. 8. Proteins are modified during their transport in the golgi apparatus Secretory vesicle containing proteins bud off from the golgi apparatus and travel to the plasma membrane Vesicle then fuse with the plasma membrane before releasing the proteins outside the cell as enzymes
  9. 9. Labelling Exercise
  10. 10. 1 Substrate enters active site 2 An enzyme-substrate complex forms Products form and leave active site Reaction occurs 4 3
  11. 11. BOND FORMATION
  12. 12. BOND BREAKING
  13. 13. REVERSIBLE REACTION
  14. 14. ACTIVE SITE OF AN ENZYME • Enzymes have a specific site called an active site. • The active site has a specific shape & charges to which only a specific substrate will fit.
  15. 15. Active site: very small (3-12 amino acids) Active Sites • It only allows substrates with a COMPLEMENTARY shape and charge to bind with it to form an Enzyme-Substrate Complex
  16. 16. 4. Not destroyed by the reactions they catalyse. 5. Needed in small quantities.
  17. 17. Enzymes are highly specific Amylase Starch Maltose Maltose Maltase Glucose + Glucose • Each chemical reaction is catalysed by its own specific, unique enzyme. • This is due to every enzyme’s specific 3-d configuration. • How the shape of an enzyme affects its function can be explained by the “LOCK & KEY HYPOTHESIS”.
  18. 18. Enzymes are required in minute amounts Chemically unchanged Sucrase Sucrose Glucose + Fructose • They remain chemically unchanged after catalysing the reactions. • The same enzyme molecules can be reused over again. • Therefore, only a small amount of enzyme is required to catalyse a large number of reactions
  19. 19. 6 Factors affecting enzyme activity 1) Temperature 2) pH 3) Substrate Concentration 4) Enzyme Concentration 5) Cofactors 6) Inhibitors
  20. 20. 1. Factors which affect enzyme action:
  21. 21. Enzyme activity is affected by temperature • Enzymes can function over a range of temperatures. • But all enzymes have their own optimum temperature.
  22. 22. Optimum temperature • The optimum temperature is the temperature at which the enzyme is most active, catalysing the largest number of reactions per second. • Different enzymes have different optimum temperature • Example: most enzymes in the human body functions best at about 37- 40oC, near body temperature. Enzymes of thermophilic bacteria that live in hotsprings will have very high optimum temperatures.
  23. 23. How enzyme activity is affected by temperature Increasing temp up to optimum temp. • At low temperature, enzymes are INACTIVE. • As temperature rises, the rate of enzyme activity increases (usually 2x as active for every 10oC rise). • Enzyme reaching maximum rate of activity at OT NOTE: Describe the enzyme activity with respect to the Rate- Temperature Graph • Raising the temperature increases the kinetic energy supplied to the substrate and enzyme molecules. • This increases the no. of collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules. • Increasing the rate of formation of enzyme-substrate complex. • Rate of formation of the products increases up till the optimum temperature
  24. 24. How enzyme activity is affected by temperature Increasing temp beyond optimum temp. • Beyond the optimum temperature, rate of enzyme activity deceases. • Until it is completely denatured by the extreme heat NOTE: Describe the enzyme activity with respect to the Rate- Temperature Graph • Increase in temperature increases the vibrations of the atoms in the enzymes. • Beyond the OT, the vibrations are so violent that they break the hydrogen bonds that hold the 3-D structrure in place. • The enzyme loses its shape and active site • The enzyme is DENATURED.
  25. 25. At Temperatures above the Optimum:  molecules vibrate and twist so rapidly that some of their hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions BREAK molecule loses the secondary & tertiary structure
  26. 26. Functional protein Denatured protein
  27. 27. Over a range of 0-40°C, the rate of an enzyme controlled reaction is doubled for every rise of 10°C More collisions = More ES complexes and thus more product
  28. 28. Question: A decrease in temperature decreases the kinetic energy of molecules in a solution. Explain how a decrease in temperature decreases the rate of an enzyme-controlled reaction. (2) Less collisions = fewer ES complexes and thus less product
  29. 29. 2. Factors which affect enzyme action:
  30. 30. Most enzymes work at pH values from 6 to 8. Narrow pH optimum 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
  31. 31. What happens to the enzyme structure if pH changes? Disruption of ionic bonds: Tertiary Structure of enzyme changes
  32. 32. How enzyme activity is affected by pH At extreme pH conditions • Enzymes are DENATURED • Extreme changes in the pH causes:  A change in the charges at the active sites which repels the substrate molecules, preventing them from binding.  The irreversible alteration to the bonds that holds the shape of the enzyme. Enzyme thus loses its original 3-D structure. The active site loses its shape.
  33. 33. Factors which affect enzyme action: 3. Substrate Concentration Vmax
  34. 34. Explain the part of the graph indicated:
  35. 35. Explain the part of the graph indicated:
  36. 36. Explain the part of the graph indicated:
  37. 37. Explain the part of the graph indicated:
  38. 38. Point X
  39. 39. • Independent Variable: Substrate concentration From 0 to Point X Description Explanation As the [substrate] increases, the rate of reaction increases until Point X when rate of reaction reaches its maximum. At any [substrate] before Point X, there are more enzyme molecules than substrate molecules At Point X, all the enzyme active sites are occupied by substrate molecules • LIMITING FACTOR IS  Substrate concentration
  40. 40. • Independent Variable: Substrate concentration Beyond Point X Description Explanation Graph remains constant / becomes a plateau after Point X. Maximum rate of reaction After point X, the rate of reaction does not increase even when [substrate] increases. This is because all the enzyme molecule’s active sites are being occupied at any one time. That is, all the enzyme molecules are saturated. Amount of products formed per unit time remains constant • LIMITING FACTOR IS  Enzyme concentration
  41. 41. Factors which affect enzyme action: 4. Enzyme Concentration Rate of reaction Enzyme concentration [unlimited substrate]
  42. 42. 2. Enzyme Concentration
  43. 43. THE EFFECT OF ENZYME CONCENTRATION ON ENZYME ACTION  Assuming that the amount of substrate is not limiting, an increase in enzyme concentration causes an increase in the reaction rate.
  44. 44. Substrate Concentration Versus Rate of 0.4moldm-3 Enzyme 0.2moldm-3 Enzyme Rate of Reaction (B) (A) X Y Reaction Substrate Concentration / Arbitrary Units
  45. 45. • Independent Variable: Substrate concentration From 0 to Point Y Description Explanation Rate of reaction increases as [Substrate] increases for both Graphs A and B. At any [Substrate] before Point Y, there are more enzymes than substrate molecules. At Point X, all the enzyme active sites are occupied by substrate molecules Rate of reaction of (B) is double that of (A) There are double the number of enzyme molecules in (B). Double the frequency of collision between Enzyme and Substrate molecules in (B) LIMITING FACTOR  Substrate Concentration
  46. 46. • Independent Variable: Enzyme concentration Beyond Point Y Description Explanation Graph remains constant / becomes a plateau after Point X. Maximum rate of reaction After point X, the rate of reaction does not increase even when [substrate] increases. This is because all the enzyme molecule’s active sites are being occupied at any one time. That is, all the enzyme molecules are saturated. Amount of products formed per unit time remains constant Rate of reaction of (B) is double that of (A) Double the number of enzyme molecules in (B). Double the number of E-S complex formed per unit time. Therefore, double the amount of products formed LIMITING FACTOR  Enzyme Concentration
  47. 47. Factors which affect enzyme action: 5. COFACTORS  essential to the catalytic activity of some enzymes. may alter the shape of enzymes slightly to make the active sites functional or to complete the reactive site.  Eg. coenzymes (organic molecules) or activating ions (eg. Na+, K+..)  Eg Vitamins eg. Vit B1, Vit B6 NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)
  48. 48. Question: Suggest an explanation for the following observation: a)Some vitamins are required for efficient enzyme action. (2) To form coenzymes that help enzymes function.
  49. 49. Factors which affect enzyme action: 6. Enzyme activity is slowed/stopped by inhibitors eg. heavy metals like lead, mercury
  50. 50. SUMMARY: ENZYMES 1. Enzymes work very rapidly and help to speed up biological reactions. 2. Enzymes can be used multiple times (however they do degrade eventually). 3. Enzymes can work in both directions of a chemical reaction. 4. Enzymes have optimal temperatures and pH that they will operate. Beyond these optimum ranges they will either not work or become denatured (unfolded/breakdown). 5. Enzymes are usually specific to one particular substrate.
  51. 51. ENZYMES IN DAILY LIFE State the use of enzyme in:  Food production  Dairy industry  Biological detergent  Textile industry  Leather industry  Paper industry
  52. 52. ENZYMES IN CLOTHES/DISHWASHER DETERGENTS  People use biological detergents to remove stains.  Biological washing powders contain proteases and lipases.  These enzymes break down proteins and fats in the stain. Advantages Enzymes give you a cleaner wash. Work at lower temperatures-this means you use less electricity. Disadvantages If water too hot, enzymes become denatured.
  53. 53. ENZYMES IN BABY FOOD Proteases are used to make baby food.  Proteases ‘pre-digest’ some of the protein in the food. Advantages Make it easier for a baby’s digestive system to cope with.
  54. 54. USE OF ENZYMES Pineapple (Ananas comosus, right) contains the enzyme papain which is used in meat tenderization processes and also medically as an anti-inflammatory agent.
  55. 55. Meat Tenderizer Papain Protease found in papaya as meat tenderizer
  56. 56. STARCH(HFCS) Carbohydrases are used to convert starch into sugar (glucose) syrup. Did You Know? HFC stands for High Fructose Corn Syrup.
  57. 57. Rennet - • Produced from stomach of cows enzyme rennin obtained either from calf stomach or microorganism. • Cut casein proteins in milk into smaller pieces • solidify milk
  58. 58. Protease Usage in Dairy Products • Make creamier yogurt products • Hydrolyze whey proteins -- dairy products less allergic
  59. 59. Lactose intolerance Lactose intolerance people No digestion of lactose Remain in digestive system Fermented by bacteria GI symptoms Tablet of lactase nausea, cramps, bloating, gas,& diarrhea -- within 4h
  60. 60. Reaction Substrate: Lactose Lactose + H2O -galactosidase Glucose + Galactose hydrolysis Enzymes Lactase=β- Galactosidase Application :- Production of low-lactose dairy product Lactose-intolerant people Ice-cream -- creamier, minimize crystallinization & sweeter-tasting
  61. 61. Lipases Source- Animal --kid, calf, lamb Plant– mucor meiheri Milk fat Lipase Free fatty acids (flavour production) hydrolyse Enhancement of cheese flavor
  62. 62. Fruit juices are extracted using an enzyme called pectinase. • Pectin is a substance which helps to stick plant cells together. Fruits like apple or orange contain a lot of pectin. The breaking down of pectin makes it much easier to squeeze juice from the fruit.
  63. 63. Cellulase • Hydrolysis (breaking down) of cellulose • Breaks down the surface cellulose fibers of jeans. Thus the dye particles are released from the surface of the jeans, producing this “faded” affect. • cellulase helps in the processing of coffee beans
  64. 64. Leather Industry • Proteases are used in removing hair from animal hides. • Lipases are used in the to hydrolyze fat particles in the skin • Amylases are used to soften skin.
  65. 65. ENZYMES IN SLIMMING AIDS  The enzyme, isomerase, is used to change glucose syrup to fructose syrup. Glucose and fructose contain exactly the same amount of energy. Fortunately fructose is sweeter than glucose . Much smaller amounts are needed to make food taste sweet.  Fructose is widely used in slimming foods. This is because the food tastes sweet but contains fewer calories.
  66. 66. To Investigate the Effect of pH on the activity of Pepsin

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