PhD Confirmation

SAFEGUARDING TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE (TK)
IN HEALTH AND WELLBEING IN SRI LANKA
AS INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERI...
Contents
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

2/41

Introduction
Objectives
Research Questions
Where the Questions came from?
Why ...
3/41
4/41
5/41

Forceps with long handle

Scalpel with wooden
handle

Scissors with thick metal
handle
Health & Wellbeing:
The Scope of the Study

6/41

Health and
Wellbeing

Healing

Traditional

Indigenous

Rituals

Traditi...
Traditional Healing


Ayurveda



Siddha



Unani



Homeopathy



Acupuncture



Vedic Alchemy



Spiritual Healin...
Vedic Alchemy
of Rasa (‘ර ’)
ර
Medical System

8
Indigenous Healing


Physicians (Sarvanga)



Telepathic Healing



Orthopedics (Kadum Bidum)



Neuro-Psycho Immunity...
Keraminiya Sarwanga
(Physicians)

10/41
Kadum Bidum (Orthopedics)

11/41
12/41

Indigenous Healing of
the Vaddha Community
Traditional Rituals


Meditation



Pirith



Yoga



Perehera

13/41
Indigenous Rituals


Bodhi Pooja



Protection from Evil
Eyes and Evil
Mouth (Ass Vaha
Kata Vaha
Mathirima)



Vows


...
Indigenous Rituals


Tovil



Hethme Ritual



Kem Krama



Sound Therapy (Seth
Kavi, Beating of
Drums)



Exorcism

...
Video : Exorcism
16/41

Spirit healer in action, Tissawewa, Anuradhapura
Filmed by Nirekha, July 2013
Forecasting
• Astrology
• Power of Spirits

• Palm Reading
• Pancha Bello
Nimithi
• Biological
Indicators

17/41
2. Objectives
18/41

 Identify current situation of TK in health (mental and
physical) and wellbeing.
 Analyze the appli...
3. Research Questions
19/41

i.

What is the Current Situation of TK in Health
and Wellbeing?

ii.

What is the Role of In...
3. Research Questions
20/40

i.

What is the Current Situation of TK in Health
and Wellbeing?


The main types of TK and ...
3. Research Questions
ii.

21/40

What is the Role of Int’l and National
Instruments in Protecting TK in Health and
Wellbe...
3. Research Questions
iii.

22/40

How Can We Protect TK in Health and
Wellbeing?



Sri Lanka should use intellectual pr...
4. Where the Questions
Came from?

22/40



Threat of extinction of TK due to colonization,
globalization and homogenizat...
4. Where the Questions
Came from?


To improve the lives of TK holders
and communities who depend
on TK for their livelih...
How Could TK be Safeguarded?


Identification



Documentation



Research



Preservation



Protection



Promotio...
Role of International bodies in
safeguarding traditional knowledge
26/40

The Rights of
the Indigenous
People

• Internati...
Role of International bodies in
safeguarding traditional knowledge
27/40

Trade and
Development

• United Nations Conferen...
Government Indigenous Medical
System

27/40

Ayurveda Medical
Council

Department
of Ayurveda
Ministry of
Indigenous
Medic...
5. Why the Research
Questions are Important?

29/40

The Questions try to address the prevailing issues
in safeguarding tr...
5. Why the Research Questions
are Important?

30/40

International level


most of the programmes developed by Western
Po...
31/40

6. How the Research
Questions are Addressed?
1.

APPROACH

2.

METHODOLOGY

3.

DELIMITATIONS
Approach
Post-Colonial Theory

Theoretical

Historical, Current National Laws and
Policies, International laws

Legal

Ins...
Methodology Research Tools

32/40



Literature Review - Neuman, W. L.(2000) Chapter 16:
P. 440-480



Content Analysis ...
Methodology Research Tools


33/40

Case Studies
1.

Government Indigenous Medical System,

2.

Traditional and Indigenou...
Methodology -

34/40

Research Tools


Key Informant Interviews - Neuman (2000)



Semi- Structured Interviews – Babbie,...
Delimitations
Availability of Information
 Access
 Multiculturalism and Language
Barriers
 Consent and Information Shar...
7. Draft Table of Contents

36/40

Introduction
1.

Framework & Methodology

2.

Traditional Notions of Health & Wellbeing...
8. Outputs to Date
38/40

Interviews - 93

Draft Chapters – Introduction, 1, 2, 3, 4
Conference Presentations
• Ananda Coo...
Expected Outputs


39/40

Publish six papers in International Journals 

Traditional Notions of Health and Wellbeing


...
9. Time Frame
Activity

39/40

Time Frame (Months)
1-6

Developing the Research Design

X

13-18 19-24

25-30

X

X

X

X
...
Special Thanks to My Supervisors

41/40

Prof. Fiona Kumari Campbell

Principal Supervisor
Associate Professor in Law, Gri...
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Safeguarding Traditional Knowledge in Health and Wellbeing in Sri Lanka as Intangible Cultural Heritage

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  • Photo – in Mandate to protect traditional wisdom in KM Gopakumar’s article dated 4-10-2009 http://www.d-sector.org/article-det.asp?id=493
  • Safeguarding Traditional Knowledge in Health and Wellbeing in Sri Lanka as Intangible Cultural Heritage

    1. 1. PhD Confirmation SAFEGUARDING TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE (TK) IN HEALTH AND WELLBEING IN SRI LANKA AS INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE Nirekha De Silva, PhD Candidate, Griffith Law School, Griffith University 1 November 2013
    2. 2. Contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 2/41 Introduction Objectives Research Questions Where the Questions came from? Why the Research Questions are important? How the Research Questions are Addressed? Table of Contents Outputs Time Frame
    3. 3. 3/41
    4. 4. 4/41
    5. 5. 5/41 Forceps with long handle Scalpel with wooden handle Scissors with thick metal handle
    6. 6. Health & Wellbeing: The Scope of the Study 6/41 Health and Wellbeing Healing Traditional Indigenous Rituals Traditional Forecasting Indigenous
    7. 7. Traditional Healing  Ayurveda  Siddha  Unani  Homeopathy  Acupuncture  Vedic Alchemy  Spiritual Healing 7/41
    8. 8. Vedic Alchemy of Rasa (‘ර ’) ර Medical System 8
    9. 9. Indigenous Healing  Physicians (Sarvanga)  Telepathic Healing  Orthopedics (Kadum Bidum)  Neuro-Psycho Immunity  Eyes  Accu Pressure (Nila) (Natural Therapy)  Cancer (Pilika)  Paralysis (Ansha Baga)  Poison (Visa)  Endocrine Therapy  Behavioral Therapy  Headache (Iru Rudawa)  Indigenous Healing of Vaddha Community  Diabetes (Diya Wadiya)  Cholesterol  Pressure 9/41
    10. 10. Keraminiya Sarwanga (Physicians) 10/41
    11. 11. Kadum Bidum (Orthopedics) 11/41
    12. 12. 12/41 Indigenous Healing of the Vaddha Community
    13. 13. Traditional Rituals  Meditation  Pirith  Yoga  Perehera 13/41
    14. 14. Indigenous Rituals  Bodhi Pooja  Protection from Evil Eyes and Evil Mouth (Ass Vaha Kata Vaha Mathirima)  Vows  Shanthi Karma  Charms and Amulets 14/41
    15. 15. Indigenous Rituals  Tovil  Hethme Ritual  Kem Krama  Sound Therapy (Seth Kavi, Beating of Drums)  Exorcism 15/41
    16. 16. Video : Exorcism 16/41 Spirit healer in action, Tissawewa, Anuradhapura Filmed by Nirekha, July 2013
    17. 17. Forecasting • Astrology • Power of Spirits • Palm Reading • Pancha Bello Nimithi • Biological Indicators 17/41
    18. 18. 2. Objectives 18/41  Identify current situation of TK in health (mental and physical) and wellbeing.  Analyze the applicability and impact of prevailing international and national instruments in protecting TK in health and wellbeing in Sri Lanka.  Examine the role and the impact of Government institutions and NGOs actions related to safeguarding TK.  Identify effective ways of safeguarding TK in health and wellbeing as ICH in Sri Lanka.
    19. 19. 3. Research Questions 19/41 i. What is the Current Situation of TK in Health and Wellbeing? ii. What is the Role of Int’l and National Instruments in Protecting TK in Health and Wellbeing? iii. How Can We Protect TK in Health and Wellbeing?
    20. 20. 3. Research Questions 20/40 i. What is the Current Situation of TK in Health and Wellbeing?  The main types of TK and TK Holders related to health and wellbeing in Sri Lanka  The role of TK in healing and wellbeing in the country;  How TK shared, transmitted inter-generationally?  What bodies of TK is facing the threat of extinction and what are the main underlying reasons?  Which TK are hegemonic knowledge?  In what ways are TK and based products being used commercially?  Whether it is currently being accessed by third parties?  What are the main TK-related concerns and objectives expressed by different groups of stakeholders?
    21. 21. 3. Research Questions ii. 21/40 What is the Role of Int’l and National Instruments in Protecting TK in Health and Wellbeing?  Why should we legally protect TK?  What are the applicable International laws?  What are the measures taken in applying the laws in protecting TK in health and wellbeing in Sri Lanka?  What role do customary laws play with regard to traditional knowledge and how effective is it?  How might Sri Lanka overcome the limitation with national sui generis systems to protect traditional knowledge.
    22. 22. 3. Research Questions iii. 22/40 How Can We Protect TK in Health and Wellbeing?  Sri Lanka should use intellectual property tools, which is largely a western form of protection, to advance the development strategy?  Who are the main stakeholders?  What are Government, NGO and Individual initiatives?  How proactive are the national and local governments in preserving TK related to health and wellbeing?  To what extent is there debate in the country?  How do interested stakeholders currently network?  What efforts have been made to document traditional knowledge?  What is the effectiveness of existing systems of protection?  What are the interactions between traditional practitioners & modern scientists?
    23. 23. 4. Where the Questions Came from? 22/40  Threat of extinction of TK due to colonization, globalization and homogenization  The very process of legitimizing Western knowledge in South Asia has resulted in de-legitimizing the rich heritage of traditional knowledge.  Loss of TK due to colonial policies of administration
    24. 24. 4. Where the Questions Came from?  To improve the lives of TK holders and communities who depend on TK for their livelihoods, health and wellbeing.  To increase performance by enabling greater commercial use  To increase exports of TK-related products  To ensure cultural diversity and wellbeing of communities 23/40
    25. 25. How Could TK be Safeguarded?  Identification  Documentation  Research  Preservation  Protection  Promotion  Enhancement  Transmission  Revitalization 24/40
    26. 26. Role of International bodies in safeguarding traditional knowledge 26/40 The Rights of the Indigenous People • International Labour Organization (ILO) • United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) • UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues Bio-Diversity • Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) • International Treaty on Plant and Genetic Resources on Food and Agriculture Intellectual Property • Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore (IGC) of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
    27. 27. Role of International bodies in safeguarding traditional knowledge 27/40 Trade and Development • United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) • UN World Summit on Sustainable Development 2002 Resource Management and Development • United Nations Economic Social Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Local and Indigenous Knowledge Systems (LINKS) Research, Teaching, Policy Development • United Nations University (UNU), Institute of Advanced Studies, Traditional Knowledge Initiative
    28. 28. Government Indigenous Medical System 27/40 Ayurveda Medical Council Department of Ayurveda Ministry of Indigenous Medicine Ayurveda Drug Corporation National Institute of Traditional Medicine Bandaranaike Ayurveda Research Institute Herbal Gardens Hospitals and Dispensaries
    29. 29. 5. Why the Research Questions are Important? 29/40 The Questions try to address the prevailing issues in safeguarding traditional knowledge. Country level        Defining Traditional and Indigenous healing systems Recognizing diverse healing methods Regulation of healing methods Systematic researching, documenting and training on indigenous healing Implementing proper assessing systems Accreditation of the indigenous healers Unearth any debates or disagreements about TK
    30. 30. 5. Why the Research Questions are Important? 30/40 International level  most of the programmes developed by Western Policy Makers  little consultation with the traditional knowledge bearers and policy makers in the developing countries.  the views and issues of Sri Lankans are not adequately represented at international level and are not properly reflected in policy making.
    31. 31. 31/40 6. How the Research Questions are Addressed? 1. APPROACH 2. METHODOLOGY 3. DELIMITATIONS
    32. 32. Approach Post-Colonial Theory Theoretical Historical, Current National Laws and Policies, International laws Legal Institutional Ethical 32/40 Int’l, Government, Non-Government, Private Companies, Individual Griffith University Ethics Approval from Ministry of Indigenous Medicine
    33. 33. Methodology Research Tools 32/40  Literature Review - Neuman, W. L.(2000) Chapter 16: P. 440-480  Content Analysis - Neuman (2000) P. 292-294; Holsti, Ole R. (1968); Stone, Phillip et al. (1966)  Discourse Analysis - Cutting J. (2002)  Participant Observation - Lofland, John. (1974); Lofland, John and Lyn H. Lofland (1995); Neuman W. L. (2000): Ch 14; Smith, L. W. (1978)
    34. 34. Methodology Research Tools  33/40 Case Studies 1. Government Indigenous Medical System, 2. Traditional and Indigenous Healing Practices and Medicine 3. Traditional and Indigenous Healing Rituals and Mental Health Care Practices. (Abramson, P. R. (1992), Smith, L. W. (1978), Stake, R. E. (1994))
    35. 35. Methodology - 34/40 Research Tools  Key Informant Interviews - Neuman (2000)  Semi- Structured Interviews – Babbie, E. R. (2010)  Dialogue over Research Findings (Workshop)
    36. 36. Delimitations Availability of Information  Access  Multiculturalism and Language Barriers  Consent and Information Sharing  Not an Anthropological Study  Not specifically an Intellectual Property thesis  36/40
    37. 37. 7. Draft Table of Contents 36/40 Introduction 1. Framework & Methodology 2. Traditional Notions of Health & Wellbeing 3. TK of Health & Wellbeing as Cultural Heritage: PostColonial Interpretation 4. The Impact of the Int’l Laws, Regulations, Policies & Mechanisms in Protecting TK in Health & Wellbeing 5. Does the Sri Lankan Government Framework Protect TK in Health and Wellbeing Effectively? 6. Traditional Healing Practices: Struggle for Survival 7. Vanishing Philosophy and Art of Mental Health Care Conlusion: Issues in Safeguarding TK in Health and Wellbeing
    38. 38. 8. Outputs to Date 38/40 Interviews - 93 Draft Chapters – Introduction, 1, 2, 3, 4 Conference Presentations • Ananda Coomaraswamy Memorial Conference on Asian Art and Culture, University of Kelaniya (8-10 September 2012) on Revival of Oriental Traditional Knowledge in Arts and Crafts: Role of Ananda Coomaraswamy • South Asian Association for Regional Corporation (SAARC) Regional Seminar on Traditional Knowledge and Traditional Cultural Expressions of South Asia, Sigiriya (29-30 April 2013) on Sri Lanka's Traditional Knowledge and Traditional Cultural Expressions of Health and Wellbeing: History, Present Status and the Need for Safeguarding • Early Candidature Milestone (February 2013) Griffith University Publications Sri Lanka's Traditional Knowledge and Traditional Cultural Expressions of Health and Wellbeing: History, Present Status and the Need for Safeguarding . SAARC Monograph on Traditional Knowledge and Traditional Cultural Expressions of South Asia. SAARC Cultural Centre
    39. 39. Expected Outputs  39/40 Publish six papers in International Journals  Traditional Notions of Health and Wellbeing  Traditional Knowledge of Health and Wellbeing as Cultural Heritage: Post-Colonial Interpretation  The Impact of the International Laws, Regulations, Policies and Mechanisms in Protecting Traditional Knowledge in Health and Wellbeing  Does the Sri Lankan Government Framework Protect Traditional Knowledge in Health and Wellbeing Effectively? Analysis of the Role and the Impact of the National Laws and Structure in Place  Traditional Healing Practices: Struggle for Survival  Vanishing Philosophy and Art of Mental Health Care  Present at two International Conferences  Publish a book on ‘Healers and Healing’ (International Publisher)
    40. 40. 9. Time Frame Activity 39/40 Time Frame (Months) 1-6 Developing the Research Design X 13-18 19-24 25-30 X X X X 31- 36 X X Literature Review , Content Analysis, Discourse Analysis Developing Tools- Interview/ Case Study/ Focus Group Discussions/ Survey Fieldwork in Sri Lanka (Interviews, Case Studies) 7-12 X X Confirmation of the PhD X Fieldwork in Sri Lanka (Workshop) X Analyzing the Findings Writing the Thesis X X X X X X X X
    41. 41. Special Thanks to My Supervisors 41/40 Prof. Fiona Kumari Campbell Principal Supervisor Associate Professor in Law, Griffith Law School, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia. Dr. Jay Sanderson Associate Supervisor Lecturer, Griffith Law School, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia Dr. Sinharaja Tammita-Delgoda External Supervisor Historian & Art Historian. Authority on the History, Culture, Traditions of Sri Lanka

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