Recalling and Forgetting Dreams

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  • Non REM sleep is stages 1-4
  • How dreams are encoded in memory while we sleep is unknownRely on the analysis of mental activity after spontaneous or provoked awakenings
  • Based on past research, the researchers of the current study speculate that dream recall is part of episodic memory, that is encoded in declarative memory during sleep
  • Recalling and Forgetting Dreams

    1. 1. Recalling and Forgetting Dreams: Theta and Alpha Oscillations during Sleep Predict Subsequent Dream Recall BY: Cristina Marzano, Michele Ferrara, Federica Mauro, Fabio Moroni, Maurizio Gorgoni, Daniela Tempesta, Carlo Cipolli, and Luigi De GennaroPowerPoint By: Nirav Patel
    2. 2. BACKGROUND• Journal of Neuroscience• May 4, 2011
    3. 3. BACKGROUND
    4. 4. BACKGROUND• Beta: 15-30 Hz• Alpha: 9-14 Hz• Theta: 4-8 Hz• Delta: 1-3 Hz
    5. 5. BACKGROUND• Electroencephalography (EEG): Records electrical activity on the scalp• Polysomnography (PSG): records eye movements and other bodily functions during sleep• brain mechanisms underlying dreaming unknown• how dreams are encoded is unknown – Dreams not directly accessible • Rely on spontaneous or provoked awakenings
    6. 6. BACKGROUND• Speculate episodic memory (memory for episodes in life) – Encoded in declarative memory (memories that can be consciously recalled) during sleep
    7. 7. BACKGROUND• In learning task, successful memory formation = spike in theta wave (4-8 Hz) oscillation• Frontal theta oscillations during encoding predict recall• Theta waves mediate interactions between prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe in memory encoding
    8. 8. HYPOTHESIS• 1) A higher frontal theta activity should be associated with the awakening from REM sleep followed by successful dream recall compared to those with recall failure• 2) A successful recall after awakening from NREM stage 2 should be associated with a lower alpha power compared with awakening with no dream recall
    9. 9. METHODS• 65 university students (35 males, 30 females)• Criteria – no other sleep, medical, or psychiatric disorder (as assessed by a 1 week sleep log and a clinical interview) – a habitual sleep time between 12:00 A.M. and 8:00 A.M. – normal sleep duration and schedule • 7.5 hours of sleep every night
    10. 10. PROCEDURE• Spend 2 nights in sleep lab – 1st night is used for adaptation – 2nd night actual recording of data• PSG indicates what stage of sleep they’re in – start sleeping at 12:00AM and are awakened 7.5 hours later • awakened from NREM stage 2 sleep (n=35) • awakened from REM sleep (n= 30) – After 5 minutes without stage shift
    11. 11. PROCEDURE• 20/35 awoken from NREM stage 2 recalled dreams• 20/30 awoken from REM sleep recalled dreams – NREC = non recallers – REC = recallers
    12. 12. PROCEDURE• One way ANOVAs on REC and NREC groups for PSG variables after awoken from REM and stage 2 sleep – TST: total sleep time – WASO: Wakefulness after sleep onset – SEI: Sleep efficiency index
    13. 13. RESULTS• No significant difference in PSG measures of sleep stage at awakening (REM/stage 2) and dream recall (success/failure). – stage of awakening did not affect success or failure of dream recall
    14. 14. RESULTS• Last 5 minutes of sleep before awakening from REM sleep is dominated by theta wave (4-8 Hz) oscillations
    15. 15. RESULTS• EEG power values for REC and NREC, through the course of REM sleep, are similar except in the range of theta waves (4-8 Hz)
    16. 16. RESULTS• Topographic distribution of EEG power shows a significant difference only for the theta power: REC showed higher power values than NREC subjects
    17. 17. RESULTS
    18. 18. RESULTS• EEG power values for REC and NREC, through the course of NREM stage 2 sleep, are similar except in the range of alpha waves (9-14 Hz)
    19. 19. RESULTS• Looking across all electrodes number of dreams recalled after morning awakening was associated positively with the amount of theta activity in REM sleep (top) and negatively with alpha activity in stage 2 (bottom) – Rho Values: correlation values btw/ # of dreams recalled and, theta activity (top), and alpha activity on bottom • positive rho values indicate the presence of a positive correlation, and vise versa
    20. 20. RESULTS
    21. 21. Discussion• Results provide clear EEG evidence that stage-specific cortical brain oscillations in the 5 min of sleep before morning awakening are predictive of a successful dream recall.• A higher frontal theta activity, after awakening from REM sleep, as well as a lower alpha activity of the right temporal area after awakening from stage 2 NREM sleep predicts successful dream recall
    22. 22. THE END

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