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AIRPORT PLANNING AND DESIGN

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AIRPORT PLANNING AND DESIGN

  1. 1. 1 AIRPORT PLANNING AND DESIGN A PROJECT REPORT Submitted to AVANTHI’S RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGICAL ACADEMY By S Niranjan Varma – (11HQ1A0136) In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AVANTHI’S RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGICAL ACADEMY Basavapalem (V), Bhogapuram (M) Vijayanagaram Dist. ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA APRIL 2015
  2. 2. 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I express my deep sense of gratitude to my project guide Mr. Banki Ravi, Head of Department of Civil Engineering, Avanthi’s Research and Technological Academy, vizinagaram for his valuable suggestions, overall supervision, constructive support, constant encouragement and guidance for the completion of the project work. We are specially thankful to our principal Prof. CH.Diwakar for providing necessary departmental facilities. With immense pleasure and profound sense, I express my sincere and heartful gratitude to Assistant Prof. R Ramya (guide), for her expert guidance and support given in preparing the project successfully. I express my heartiest thanks to all the faculty and office staff of the civil engineering department, Avanthi’s research and technological academy for their guidance and encouragement in the fulfillment of the course of the study.
  3. 3. 3 CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the project report entitled AIRPORT PLANNING AND DESIGN submitted by S Niranjan Varma to the Avanthi’s Research and Technological Academy in partial fulfillment for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Technology in Civil Engineering is a bonafide record of the project work carried out by him under my supervision during the year 20114-2015 Internal’s sign Head Of Department’s sign External’s sign AVANTHI’S RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGICAL ACADEMY Basavapalem (V), Bhogapuram (M) Vijayanagaram Dist. ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA
  4. 4. 4 ABSTRACT An airport (airfield, airdrome) is a place where aircrafts are operated through paved runways, essentially consists of maintenance facilities, terminals and services. The specifications for designing, construction and maintenance are specified by governing bodies like FEDERAL AVIATION AUTHORITY (FAA), CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY (CAA) and NATIONAL AIRPORT AUTHORITY (NAA) etc. The majority of the world's airports are non-towered, with no air traffic control presence. Busy airports have air traffic control (ATC) system. All airports use a traffic pattern to assure smooth traffic flow between departing and arriving aircraft. There are a number of aids available to pilots, though not all airports are equipped with them. Many airports have lighting that help guide planes using the runways and taxiways at night or in rain, snow, or fog. In the US and Canada, the vast majority of airports, large and small, will either have some form of automated airport weather station, a human observer or a combination of the two. Air safety is an important concern in the operation of an airport, and airports often have their own safety services. The project mainly includes the alignment and design of runway which contains the design of rigid pavement and flexible pavement using software given by FAA (R805FAA.xls, F806FAA.xls), planning and design of terminal building using software like AUTO CAD, STAAD pro.V8i and ETABS and the alignment and design of parking lot manually.
  5. 5. 5 CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 2 ABSTRACT 4 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Airport Surveys 9 1.2 Objects of Surveys 9 1.3 Types of Surveys 10 1.3.1 Approach zone survey 10 1.3.2 Drainage survey 10 1.3.3 Meteorological survey 11 1.3.4 Natural resources survey 11 1.3.5 Soil survey 11 1.3.6 Topographical survey 13 1.3.7 Traffic survey 13 1.4 Runway orientation 13 1.4.1 Preliminary information required 13 1.4.2 Head wind & Tail wind 13 1.4.3 Cross wind 14 1.4.4 Wind Rose Diagram 14 1.4.5 Land side and Airside Areas 15 CHAPTER 2: PLANING AND DESIGNING OF AIRSIDE AREA 2.1.1 Run way 17 2.1.2 Taxi way 17 2.1.3 Apron 17 2.1.4 Demand considerations 17 2.3Runway Length 19 2.3.1 Basic runway length 19 2.3.2 Normal landing 19 2.3.3 Normal take off 19 2.3.4 Stopping in emergency 20 2.3.5 Corrections to basic runway length 20 2.3.6 Calculation 21 2.3.7 Airside plan 22 2.3.8 High speed exit taxiway 22 2.3.9 Stopping distance 23
  6. 6. 6 2.3.10 Radius of entry curve 24 2.4 Pavement 25 2.4.1 Flexible Pavement Screenshots 25 2.4.2 Rigid Pavement Screenshots 34 2.4.3 Visual Aids 36 2.4.4 Theory for reducing Runway Length 39 CHAPTER 3: PLANING AND DESIGNING OF TERMINAL BUILDING 3.1.1Requirements of the terminal building 41 3.1.2Ground floor plan 42 3.1.3 First floor plan 42 3.1.4 Archicad 43 3.2 Terminal Building Design 45 3.2.1 Loads 45 3.2.2 Load combinations 47 3.2.3 STAAD pro v8i 48 3.2.4 3D view of loads applied 50 3.2.5 Deflections and Stresses 53 3.2.6 Design Output of Terminal Building from STAAD Pro 54 3.3 Curved Roof 192 3.3.1 Bay 1 roof truss 192 3.3.2 Bay 2 roof truss 192 3.4 Foundation. 198 3.4.1 Introduction 198 3.4.2 STAAD foundation v8i 198 3.4.3 Screenshots from STAAD Foundation 198 3.4.4Foundation report summary 199 3.5 Manual Check 204 3.5.1 Slab design 204 3.5.2 Beam design 205 3.5.3 Column design 206 CHAPTER 4: PLANING AND DESIGNING OF LANDSIDE AREA 4.1.1 Land side area plan 209 4.1.2 Calculations 209 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND REFERENCES 5.1 CONCLUSION 215
  7. 7. 7 5.2 REFERENCES 216
  8. 8. 8 CHAPTER 1
  9. 9. 9 INTRODUCTION 1 INTRODUCTION: An airport isa locationwithfacilities forcommercial aviation flightstotake off andland. Airportsoften have facilitiestostore andmaintainaircraft,anda control tower.Anairportconsistsof a landingarea, whichcomprisesanaeriallyaccessible openspace includingatleastone operationallyactive surface such as a runway for a plane to take off or a helipad,andoftenincludesadjacentutilitybuildingssuch as control tower,hangarsand terminals.Largerairportsmayhave fixedbase operationservices, airport aprons,air trafficcontrol centres,passengerfacilitiessuchasrestaurantsand lounges,and emergency services. An airport with a helipad for rotorcraft but no runway is called a heliport. An airport for use by seaplanes and amphibious aircraft is called a Seaplane base. Such a base typically includes a stretch of open water for take-offs and landings, and seaplane docks for tying-up. An international airport has additional facilities for customs and immigration. In warfare, airports can become the focus of intense fighting, for example the Battle of Tripoli Airport or the Battle for Donetsk Airport, both taking place in 2014. An airport primarily for military use is called an airbase or air station. Most of the world's airports are owned by local, regional, or national government bodies. 1.1 AIRPORT SURVEYS: The airport project requires intensive study and careful considerations from various points of view. The data and details collected during preliminary surveys are properly analysed and the results of the detailed surveys are accommodated in the recommendation report of the proposed site of an airport. In this chapter, the usual detailed surveys which are carried out to ascertain the feasibility of an airport site are briefly described. 1.2 OBJECTS OF SURVEYS: The main objects or purposes for conducting the detailedsurveys are as follows:  To ascertain the characteristics of soil.  To collect details which are essential for the designof various components of an airport.  To demarcate the ground on plan and to initiate the land acquisition Proceedings.  To give an idea of the meteorological conditions prevailing at the proposed site.  To make provision for future extension of the airport.  To prepare suitable drawings.  To submit report for getting sanction of the concerned competent authority.  To suggest the measures, if any, to improve the existing site conditions.
  10. 10. 10  To suggest the use of locally available construction materials and labourers.  To work out the detailed estimate of the project, etc. 1.3 TYPES OF SURVEYS: The airport surveys can be grouped in the following seven categories:  Approach zone survey  Drainage survey  Meteorological survey  Natural resources survey  Soil survey  Topographical survey  Traffic survey. 1.3.1 Approach zone survey: The term approach zone is used to indicate the wide clearance area on either side of the runway along the direction of landing and take-off of an airport. The approach zones permit smooth functioning of an aircraft during landing and take- off operations. The glide path of an aircraft during landing varies from a steep slope to a flat slope. But the rate of climbing during take-off is controlled by its wing landing and engine power. The approach zone survey forms a part of the topographical survey extended beyond the proposed area of the airport in the direction of the approach zone. The main aim of this survey is to establish the elevations of the tops of the objects within the airport zone in general and within the approach zone in particular. It thus helps in the determination of the locations of the objects protruding above ground level and which may prove to be hazardous during landing and take-off of the aircrafts. The approach zone determines the ownership of such undesirable objects on the ground and suggests the measures to remove the existing such objects and to prevent the construction of such structures by implementation of suitable zoning regulations. If it is not possible to remove such objects, the survey should recommend the best way to make them prominent day and night by some suitable means. 1.3.2 Drainage survey: It is necessary to have complete data about the sources of water and the quantities of water to be handled near the airport site. The water reaching the airport has to be intercepted and diverted in proper way. The rainfall intensity of the locality and the study of contour maps will help in determining the quantity of storm water to be disposed off. It is also necessary to collect necessary information about every possible outlet in the form of natural streams or river near the airport site. The drainage survey also ascertains that the pavement of airport will not be submerged during floods or heavy rains. The details and information obtained during this survey prove to be very much useful in the design of the airport drainage facilities.
  11. 11. 11 1.3.3 Meteorological survey: The science of the atmosphere and its phenomenon is known as meteorology. Hence, in the meteorological survey, the study of weather and climate is made and if required, the help of an experienced meteorologist is also taken. The data to be collected in this survey can be enumerated as follows:  barometric pressure;  direction, duration and intensity of prevailing wind;  frost and fog;  periods of low visibility;  rainfall intensity and duration;  snow fall;  Temperature; etc. It is to be noted that the above details are to be collected for several years in the past and after proper scrutiny, they should be applied for the planning and design of the various components of an airport. Some of the applications of the details obtained in this survey can be mentioned as follows:  The accurate rainfall data will be of immense help in the design of pavement and airport drainage.  The barometric pressure measures the density of the earth's surface and it has direct impact on the length of runway.  The maximum depth of frost action can be determined for the frost affected areas.  The orientation of runway basically depends on the conditions of the prevailing winds. 1.3.4 Natural resources survey: This survey is aimed to collect complete information about the locally available construction materials, their varieties and quantities, the possible methods of transport to bring them to the site and the economy of their use. The availability of a natural stream as a source of water supply is also included under this survey. The information and details gathered in this survey prove very useful in the construction and maintenance aspects of the airport. 1.3.5 Soil survey: The sub grade soil supports the runway and other structures of the airport. Hence, the knowledge of soil is considered to be very important to an airfield engineer. From the geological point of view, the soil is defined as the relatively thin layer of disintegrated rock lying on or near the surface of the earth, mixed with organic matter which is the product of decaying vegetation and animal material. Thus, the soil is the result of the residual concentration of the alteration products of rock, which in turn, have been changed by the influences of chemical and physical processes as well as living and dead organisms. It is under laid by the subsoil fragments containing little organic matter. Objects of soil survey: The main objects of soil survey with respect to airport engineering can be mentioned as follows:  To carry out the design of pavement.  To decide the best location of various drainage structures.
  12. 12. 12  To decide whether or not the subsurface drainage for the airport will be necessary.  To determine the location and extent of areas from which desirable construction materials can be obtained.  To determine whether or not the subgrade soil requires to be improved so as to increase its bearing capacity.  To establish the top and the bottom elevations and lateral limits of all the natural formations to be encountered in cutting and embankment. Methods of soil sampling: Following are the methods which are commonly employed for obtaining information of the subsoil conditions: (1) Test pits: A square pit, known as a trial pit or a test pit, with side as about 1.50 m, is excavated up to a depth at which sufficient hard soil is available. Various strata of the soil can be inspected, studied and classified accordingly. This method is useful when hard soil is available with a maximum depth of 1.50 m. (2) Probing: It consists of driving a hollow tube or a steel rod or an iron rod into the ground. The material caught or stuck up is examined. This method is useful to examine the ground for a maximum depth of 3 m. (3) Auger boring: An auger may be post hole type or screw type or shell type. They all work in the same way. The samples are taken out in the augers and they are examined. When the auger is to be driven in loose sand, it becomes essential to prevent the collapse of the loose material, when the auger is being withdrawn. A casing is a thin metal tube having a slightly bigger diameter than the auger and it is driven ahead of the auger. The lengthening of the casing can be done by connecting one pipe to the other. With the help of this method, it is possible to inspect the ground for depth of 6 m to 8 m and in case of loose sand, the auger may be useful even up to a depth of 15 m or so. (4) Wash boring: The term wash boring is used to denote a method in which a casing is driven into the ground and the material inside the casing is washed out and brought to the surface for inspection. The results obtained by this process are reliable when depths are about 30 m to 45 m. (5) Test piles: Sometimes, the test piles are driven into the ground to obtain the information of the solid strata. With the help of this process, it is not possible to know definitely the kinds of strata through which test piles pass, as the material is not available for inspection. But the factors such as resistance of soil to driving of piles, load bearing data and any other available local information serves as useful guides. (6) Deep boring: For important works, the deep boring is done with the help of either percussion boring machine or core drilling machine. The information obtained is plotted in the form of a core chart. (7) Geophysical method: In favourable circumstances, geophysical method is adopted to know the nature of soil strata- The geophysical method may either be seismic or electrical. Soil testing: The soil mass possesses a number of physical characteristics from an engineering point of view and they have to be ascertained to provide as complete a description as possible.
  13. 13. 13 Following characteristics of soil are to be obtained:  centrifuge moisture content;  colour of soil;  field moisture content;  grain shape;  lineal shrinkage and volumetric change;  particle sizes and distribution;  plasticity including consistency limits or Atterberg limits;  presence of fines;  specific gravity; and  State of compaction. 1.3.6 Topographical survey: In this survey, the surface features like hills, rivers, levels, etc. of the region are measured and studied. The detailed topographical survey of the area provides sufficient data for the following:  To describe the nature of property to be acquired.  To estimate the excavation quantities.  To estimate the quantities of clearing the site, removing roots and stumps from ground, etc.  To prepare an accurate contour map having contour interval which will allow the selection of the best alignment for the runway and also for determining the drainage cost accurately.  To prepare an accurate map showing roads, hills, property lines, streams, buildings and all other important physical features of the airport site.  To provide information for the best locations of the outfall for the drainage system and for which the survey can be extended beyond the airport boundary. 1.3.7 Traffic survey: In this survey, the investigations are carried out to predict the probable amount of traffic including the expected future traffic. 1.4 Runway orientation: 1.4.1 Preliminary information required: It is necessary to collect the following data before deciding the orientation of the runway: (1) Maps of the area in the vicinity of the airport showing contours at suitable intervals and (2) Records of direction, force and duration of the wind in the vicinity and fog characteristics of the area for as long a period as possible. 1.4.2 Head wind& Tail wind: The runway is usually oriented in the direction of the prevailing winds. The head wind indicates the wind from the opposite-direction of the head or nose of the aircraft while it is
  14. 14. 14 landing or taking off. The orientation of runway along the head wind grants the following two advantages: (1) During landing: it provides a breaking effect and the aircraft comes to a stop in a short length of the runway' (2) During take-off: it provides greater lift on the wings of the aircraft. Thus, the landing and take-off operations take place in a shorter length of the runway due to the head wind than what it would have been, if the landing and take-off were in the direction of wind. The reduction in length of runway may be about 10% or so. When the wind acts in the direction of landing operation then the wind will be called as TAIL WIND. 1.4.3 Cross wind: A crosswind is any wind that has a perpendicular component to the line or direction of travel. In aviation, a crosswind is the component of wind that is blowing across the runway, making landings and take-offs more difficult than if the wind were blowing straight down the runway. If a crosswind is strong enough it may exceed an aircraft's crosswind limit, and an attempt to land under such conditions could cause structural damage to the aircraft's undercarriage. 1.4.4 Wind Rose Diagram: A wind rose is a graphic tool used by meteorologists to give a succinct view of how wind speed and direction are typically distributed at a particular location. Historically, wind roses were predecessors of the compass rose (found on maps), as there was no differentiation between a cardinal direction and the wind which blew from such a direction. Using a polar coordinate system of gridding, the frequency of winds over a long time period is plotted by wind direction, with color bands showing wind ranges. The directions of the rose with the longest spoke show the wind direction with the greatest frequency. The following is the example of wind rose diagram.
  15. 15. 15 EXAMPLE: 1.4.5 Land side and Airside Areas: Airports are divided into landside and airside areas. Landside areas include parking lots, public transport railway stations and access roads. Airside areas include all areas accessible to aircraft, including runways, taxiways and ramps. Access from landside areas to airside areas is tightly controlled at most airports. Most major airports provide commercial outlets for products and services. Airports may also contain premium and VIP services. The premium and VIP services may include express check-in and dedicated check-in counters. In addition to people, airports move cargo around the clock. Many large airports are located near railway trunk routes.
  16. 16. 16 CHAPTER 2
  17. 17. 17 PALNING AND DESIGNING OF AIRSIDE AREA 2.1 AIRSIDE AREAS 2.1.1 Run way: According to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) a runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft". Runways may be a man-made surface (often asphalt, concrete, or a mixture of both) or a natural surface (grass, dirt, gravel, ice, or salt). 2.1.2 Taxi way: A taxiway is a path for aircraft in airport connecting runways with ramps, hangars, terminals and other facilities. They mostly have a hard surface such as asphalt or concrete, although smaller airports sometimes use gravel or grass. Busy airports typically construct high-speed or rapid-exit taxiways to allow aircraft to leave the runway at higher speeds. This allows the aircraft to vacate the runway quicker, permitting another to land or take off in a shorter space of time 2.1.3 Apron: The airport apron is the area of an airport where aircraft are parked, unloaded or loaded, refuelled, or boarded. Although the use of the apron is covered by regulations, such as lighting on vehicles, it is typically more accessible to users than the runway or taxiway. However, the apron is not usually open to the general public and a license may be required to gain access. The use of the apron may be controlled by the apron management service (apron control or apron advisory) to provide coordination between the users. The apron is designated by the ICAO as not being part of the maneuvering area. All vehicles, aircraft and people using the apron are referred to as apron traffic. 2.1.4 Demand considerations: The following are the weights and annual departures considered for the design of runway design and length calculations. Flights Weight(lbs.) Annual departures Boeing 737 115500 400
  18. 18. 18 Boeing 727 160000 182 McDonnell DC-9-50 121000 600 Fokker F-28 65000 1500 Learjet 40 21000 1100 Cessna Mustang 8645 900
  19. 19. 19 2.3 RUNWAY LENGTH 2.3.1 Basic runway length: The length of runway based on the following assumed conditions is known as the basic runway length: (1) No wind is blowing on the runway. (2) The aircraft is loaded to its full loading capacity. (3) The airport is situated at sea-level. (4) There is no wind blowing on the way to the destination (5) The runway is levelled in the longitudinal direction or in other words, it has zero effective gradient. (6) The standard temperature is maintained along the way. (7) The standard temperature of 150C exists at the airport. The manner in which an aircraft actually performs the landing and take-off wilt decide to a large extent the length of a runway. Following three cases will be considered:  Normal landing.  Normal take off.  Stopping in emergency. 2.3.2 Normal landing: As shown in fig. the aircraft should come to a stop within 60 per cent of the landing distance assuming that the pilot makes an approach at the proper speed and crosses the threshold of the runway at a height of 15 m. The beginning of the runway portion to be used as landing is known as the threshold. The runway of full strength pavement is provided for the entire landing distance. 2.3.3 Normal take off: The take-off distance (TOD) must be, for a specific weight of aircraft, 1 15 per cent of the actual distance the aircraft uses to reach a height of 10.5 m, as shown in fig. The distance to reach the height of 10.5 m should be equal to 115 per cent of the lift-off distance (LOD). The normal take off requires a clearway which is defined as an area beyond the runway not less than 150 m wide, centrally located about the extended centre-line of the runway
  20. 20. 20 and under the control of the airport authorities. It is expressed in terms of a clearway plane extending from the end of the runway with an upward slope not exceeding 1.25 per cent. It is to be seen that the clearway is free from any obstruction. The clearway should not be more than one-half the difference between 115 per cent of the LOD and TOD. 2.3.4 Stopping in emergency: For the engine failure case, the TOD is the actual distance required to reach a height of 10.5 m with no percentage applied. It also incidentally recognizes the infrequency of occurrence of the engine failure. In case of an engine failure, suffici1ent distance should be available to stop the airplane rather than continue the take off. This distance is known as the accelerate-stop distance, as shown in fig. It is required to provide a clearway or a stop way or both in this case. The stop way is defined as a rectangular area at the end of runway and in the direction of take-off. It is a paved area in which an aircraft can be stopped after an interrupted take off due to engine failure. Its width is at least equal to the width of runway and the thickness of pavement less than that of the runway, but yet sufficient to take the load of aircraft without failure. The clearway should not be more than one-half the difference between TOD and LOD. 2.3.5 Corrections to basic runway length: To get actual length of the runway, the following three corrections are to be applied to the calculated basic runway length:  Correction for elevation.  Correction for gradient.  Correction for temperature. Correction for elevation: As per the recommendation of ICAO, the basic runway length should be increased at the rate of 1% per 300 m rise in elevation of airport above the mean sea level. This correction is required because the air density reduces as the elevation increases which in turn
  21. 21. 21 reduces the lift on the wings of the aircraft. Thus, the aircraft will require more ground speed to rise to the air and for achieving more speed, the longer length of runway will be required. Correction for gradient: As the gradient becomes steep, more consumption of energy takes place and longer length of the runway will be required to attain the desired ground speed. The ICAO does not give any specific recommendation for the increase in length due to the effective gradient. The maximum difference in elevation between the highest and the lowest points of runway divided by the total length of runway is known as the effective gradient. According to FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) of U.S.A., the runway length after being corrected for elevation and temperature should further be increased at the rate of 2O% for every 1% of the effective gradient. Correction for temperature: The rise in airport reference temperature has the same effect as that of the increase in its elevation above mean sea-level. After the basic length is corrected for the elevation of airport, it is further increased at the rate of l% for every 1"C rise in airport reference temperature above the standard atmospheric temperature at that elevation. The airport reference temperature is worked out by the following expression: Airport reference temperature = 𝑇1 + 𝑇2−𝑇1 3 Where T1 = monthly mean of the average daily temperature for the hottest month of the Year. T 2 = monthly mean of the maximum daily temperature for the same month. The standard temperature at the airport site can be determined by reducing the standard mean sea-level temperature of 150C at the rate of 6.50C per thousand metre rise in elevation. 2.3.6 Calculation: The Boeing 727 is the biggest flight under design consideration with a maximum take-off weight of about 160000 pounds. The take-off distance of the Boeing 727 at the maximum take-off weight varies from 8,300ft to 10,000ft (given by manufacturer). The landing distance required for the Boeing 727 is 920m.as the take-off distance is higher than the landing distance take-off distance is only considered for the calculations. Basic length = 3050m. Correction due to elevation: The elevation of the city Visakhapatnam above mean sea level is 54m. The basic length is to be increased at the rate of 7% per every 300m elevation above mean sea level. = 7 100 ∗ 54 300 ∗ 3050 = 0.07 ∗ 0.18 ∗ 3050 = 38.43m = 39m Corrected length = 3089m
  22. 22. 22 Correction due to temperature: The maximum temperature recorded in the city Visakhapatnam is 450C and the standard temperature is 150C. Difference in temperatures 450 – 150 = 300 = 3089 100 ∗ 30 = 926.7m = 927m Total length correction = 966m Corrected runway length = 4016m We are going to provide a runway length of 4020m in total 2.3.7 Airside plan: The following is the plan of airside drawn using AutoCAD. 2.3.8 High speedexit taxiway: The following is the plan of high speed exit taxiway.
  23. 23. 23 The exit way curve transition mainly consists of two curves an entrance curve and a central curve The angle of turn of the exit taxiway should in between 300 to 600.so we are providing an angle of 350 for the angle of turn of high speed exit taxiway and designing for a design speed of 80kmph.we are providing the standard dimensions for the runway width and taxiway width of an international airport of 45m and 22.5m respectively. Angle of turn = 350 Design speed = 80kmph Runway width = 45m Taxiway width = 22.5m The radius of entrance curve will be given by International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) based on the design speed and for 80kmph it will be 731m. Radius of entry curve R1 = 731m. The radius of central curve is given by the following formula. R2 = 𝑽 𝟐 𝟏𝟐𝟓𝒇 R2= 802/125(0.13) R2 = 394m Radius of central curve R2 = 394m. The length of entrance curve is given by the following formula. L1 = 𝐕 𝟑 𝟒𝟓.𝟓𝐂𝐑𝟐 L1= 803/(45.5)(0.39)(394) L1 = 73.23m Length of entry curve L1 = 74m. The deflection angle of entrance curve is given by the following formula. D1= 𝟏𝟖𝟎𝑳𝟏 𝝅𝑹𝟏 D1 = 180(74)/π(731) D1 = 5.750 or50451 Deflection angle of entrance curve D1 = 5.750 or50451 The deflection angle of central curve is given by the following formula. D2 = 350 - 50451 D2 = 290151 Deflection angle of central curve D2 = 290151 The length of entrance curve is given by the following formula. L2= 𝝅𝑹𝟐𝑫𝟐 𝟏𝟖𝟎 L2= π(394)(29.25)/180 L2 = 201.14m Length of entry curve L2 = 201.14m. 2.3.9 Stopping distance:
  24. 24. 24 The stopping distance SD = 𝑉2 25.5 SD = 802 25.5 SD = 251m The stopping distance is 251m.This is to be measured from the edge of the runway pavement along the central line of the exit taxiway. 2.3. 10 Radius of entry curve: The entry curve radius will be given by following formula. Radius R = 𝒗𝟐 𝟏𝟐𝟓𝒇 Where, V = velocity in kmph. F = coefficient of friction. We had designed the entryway to a design speed of 40kmph (V = 40). The coefficient of friction for any airfield design is to be taken as 0.13 as per the specifications given by International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Radius R = 402/125(0.13) R = 1600/16.25 R = 98.46m. Therefore, the radius of curvature of the entry curve obtained is 98.46m at a design speed of 40kmph.
  25. 25. 25 2.4 PAVEMENT DESIGN: Pavement (American English) is the durable surface material laid down on an area intended to sustain vehicular or foot traffic, such as a road or walkway. In the past, gravel road surfaces, cobblestone and granite sets were extensively used, but these surfaces have mostly been replaced by asphalt or concrete laid on a compacted base course. Road surfaces are frequently marked to guide traffic. Today, permeable paving methods are beginning to be used for low-impact roadways and walkways. We should provide pavement for RUNWAY, TAXIWAY and APRON. So we are providing flexible pavements for RUNWAY and TAXIWAY and rigid pavement for APRON. The thickness and strength of the pavement depends upon the factors like subgrade strength, wheel load, tire pressure, number of reputation of wheel load, design live etc. Federal Aviation Administration had provided the MS EXCEL sheets for the determination thickness of pavements both flexible and rigid. We are using this sheets for the determination of thickness as there are accurate. The following are the design considerations considered while working with EXCEL sheets given by FAA. Subgrade CBR = 5% Number of sub-bases = 2 No frost condition The screen shorts of the flexible and rigid pavement design using EXCEL sheets are provided bellow. 2.4.1 FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT SCREENSHORTS
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  35. 35. 35 2.4.2 RIGID PAVEMENT OUTPUTS
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  38. 38. 38 2.4.3VISUAL AIDS Runway marking:
  39. 39. 39
  40. 40. 40 Airport lightning: Runway lighting is used at airports that allow night landings. Seen from the air, runway lights form an outline of the runway. A particular runway may have some or all of the following:  Runway end identifier lights (REIL) – unidirectional (facing approach direction) or omnidirectional pair of synchronized flashing lights installed at the runway threshold, one on each side.  Runway end lights – a pair of four lights on each side of the runway on precision instrument runways, these lights extend along the full width of the runway. These lights show green when viewed by approaching aircraft and red when seen from the runway.  Runway edge lights – white elevated lights that run the length of the runway on either side. On precision instrument runways, the edge-lighting becomes yellow in the last 2,000 ft. (610 m) of the runway, or last third of the runway, whichever is less. Taxiways are differentiated by being bordered by blue lights, or by having green center lights, depending on the width of the taxiway, and the complexity of the taxi pattern.  Runway centerline lighting system (RCLS) – lights embedded into the surface of the runway at 50 ft. (15 m) intervals along the runway centerline on some precision instrument runways. White except the last 900 m (3,000 ft.): alternate white and red for next 600 m (1,969 ft.) and red for last 300 m (984 ft.).  Touchdown zone lights (TDZL) – rows of white light bars (with three in each row) at 30 or 60 m (98 or 197 ft.) intervals on either side of the centerline for 900 m (3,000 ft.).
  41. 41. 41  Taxiway centerline lead-off lights – installed along lead-off markings, alternate green and yellow lights embedded into the runway pavement. It starts with green light at about the runway centerline to the position of first centerline light beyond the Hold-Short markings on the taxiway.  Taxiway centerline lead-on lights – installed the same way as taxiway centerline lead-off Lights, but directing airplane traffic in the opposite direction.  Land and hold short lights – a row of white pulsating lights installed across the runway to indicate hold short position on some runways that are facilitating land and hold short operations (LAHSO).  Approach lighting system (ALS) – a lighting system installed on the approach end of an airport runway and consists of a series of lightbars, strobe lights, or a combination of the two that extends outward from the runway end. According to Transport Canada's regulations, the runway-edge lighting must be visible for at least 2 mi (3 km). Additionally, a new system of advisory lighting, runway status lights, is currently being tested in the United States. The edge lights must be arranged such that:  the minimum distance between lines is 75 ft. (23 m), and maximum is 200 ft. (61 m);  the maximum distance between lights within each line is 200 ft. (61 m);  the minimum length of parallel lines is 1,400 ft. (427 m);  The minimum number of lights in the line is 8. Control of lighting system Typically the lights are controlled by a control tower, a flight service station or another designated authority. Some airports/airfields (particularly uncontrolled ones) are equipped with pilot-controlled lighting, so that pilots can temporarily turn on the lights when the relevant authority is not available. This avoids the need for automatic systems or staff to turn the lights on at night or in other low visibility situations. This also avoids the cost of having the lighting system on for extended periods. Smaller airports may not have lighted runways or runway markings. Particularly at private airfields for light planes, there may be nothing more than a windsock beside a landing strip.
  42. 42. 42 2.4.4 THEORY FOR REDUCING RUNWAY LENGTH Landing larger and faster aircraft on a flight deck was made possible through the use of arresting cables installed on the flight deck and a tail hook installed on the aircraft. Early carriers had a very large number of arrestor cables or "wires". Current U.S. Navy carriers have three or four steel cables stretched across the deck at 20 ft (6.1 m) intervals which bring a plane, travelling at 150 mph (240 km/h), to a complete stop in about 320 ft (98 m). The cables are set to stop each aircraft at the same place on the deck, regardless of the size or weight of the plane. During World War II, large net barriers would be erected across the flight deck so aircraft could be parked on the forward part of the deck and recovered on the after part. This allowed increased complements but resulted in a lengthened launch and recovery cycle as aircraft were shuffled around the carrier to allow take-off or landing operations. Richard Phillips Feynman an American theoretical physicist used to tell a story about a simple lawn-sprinkler physics problem. The same theory can be applied for the reduction of runway length. let us Imagine a 747 is sitting on a conveyor belt, as wide and long as a runway. The conveyor belt is designed to exactly match the speed of the wheels, moving in the opposite direction. Practically, A 747’s engines produce a quarter of a million pounds of thrust. That is, each engine is powerful enough to launch a brachiosaurus straight up. With that kind of force, no matter what’s happening to the treadmill and wheels, the plane is going to move forward and take off. This principle can also be worked out in case of emergency landings due to any technical failure by providing conveyor belts at the end of the runway as a safety measure. The above theory can also be used for take-off of the flights with low power engines if the conveyors are moved in the opposite direction and by creating wind resistance onto the wings to provide aerodynamic lift. This method is not yet developed completely. Creating wind resistance is not economical way hence this method can be used in when area is not sufficient. Scientists are working on this to takeoff the flight with conveyor belt.
  43. 43. 43 CHAPTER 3
  44. 44. 44 PLANING AND DESIGNING OF TERMINAL BUILDING 3.1TERMINAL BUILDING An airport terminal is a building at an airport where passengers transfer between ground transportation and the facilities that allow them to board and disembark from aircraft. Within the terminal, passengers purchase tickets, transfer their luggage, and go through security. The buildings that provide access to the airplanes (via gates) are typically called concourses. However, the terms "terminal" and "concourse" are sometimes used interchangeably, depending on the configuration of the airport. Smaller airports have one terminal while larger airports have several terminals and/or concourses. At small airports, the single terminal building typically serves all of the functions of a terminal and a concourse. Some larger airports have one terminal that is connected to multiple concourses via walkways, sky-bridges, or underground tunnels (such as Denver International Airport). Some larger airports have more than one terminal, each with one or more concourses (such as New York's JFK Airport). Still other larger airports have multiple terminals each of which incorporate the functions of a concourse (such as Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport). 3.1.1 Requirements of the terminal building:  Airline counters  Area for customs  Area for managerial activities  Waiting hall  Washrooms  Food stalls  VIP waiting hall  Clinic  Check-In area  Baggage counters  Control room  Area for crew
  45. 45. 45 3.1.2 Ground floor plan: 3.1.3 First floor plan:
  46. 46. 46 The waters tanks are placed above the toilets in the first floor with a depth of 5ft each. Dimensions: The terminal building planed consists lateral dimension of 58m and longitudinal dimension of 105m. Total area of the ground floor is 3690sq.m and that of first floor is 3315sq.m Ground floor plan first floor plan s.no. Room No. Of units Length× Breath (m) Area (sq.m.) Room No. Of units Length× Breath (m) Area (sq.m.) 1 Manager 2 8×4 32 Clinic 1 8×4 32 2 Office 2 8×4 32 VIP 1 8×4 32 3 Toilets 2 10×8 80 Toilet 2 10×8 80 4 Crew 2 10×8 80 Customs 2 9×6.5 58.5 5 Customs 2 12×10 120 Control 1 15×15 225 3.1.4 Archicad: ArchiCAD is an architectural BIM CAD software for Macintosh and Windows developed by the Hungarian company GRAPHISOFT. ArchiCAD offers computer aided solutions for handling all common aspects of aesthetics and engineering during the whole design process of the built environment — buildings, interiors, urban areas, etc. Development of ArchiCAD started in 1982 for the original Apple Macintosh. ArchiCAD is recognized as the first CAD product on a personal computer able to create both 2D drawings and parametric 3D geometry. In its debut in 1987, with GRAPHISOFT's "Virtual Building" concept, ArchiCAD also became the first BIM CAD software in the world. Today more than 100,000 architects are using it in the building design industry. The following are the screenshots of the terminal building drawn in ArchiCAD.
  47. 47. 47
  48. 48. 48 3.2 TERMINAL BUILDING DESIGN 3.2.1 Loads: The loads considered for the design of terminal building are live load, dead load, Roof load, seismic load, wind load and hydrostatic load for water tanks. Live load: The live load is considered for the design from Indian standard code IS: 875 (part2). The airport building falls under the building classification-assembly building. For assembly the imposed given by the code are as follows: a) Assembly areas: 1) With fixed seats – 4 KN/m2 2) Without fixed seats – 5 KN/m2 b) Restaurant (subject to assembly), museums and art galleries and gymnasia – 4 KN/m2 c) Office rooms, kitchens and laundries – 3 KN/m2 d) Toilets and bathrooms – 2 KN/m2 e) Corridors, passages, staircases including fire escapes – 4 KN/m2 Dead load: The dead loads are considered as that are given by the Indian standard code IS: 875(part1). Unit weight of reinforced concrete = 25 KN/m2 Unit weight of brick wall = 18.85 KN/m2
  49. 49. 49 Roof load: The roof load is nothing but the imposed load on the roof given by IS: 875(part2) The uniformly distributed load on the curved roof is given by the following formula. UDL = (0.75 – 0.52 y2) KN/m2 Y = ℎ 𝑙 Where, h = rise of the curve and l = width of the curved span. For bay1(roof span parallel to lateral direction of building): Y = 3.5 28 = 0.125 UDL = 4.945 KN/m2 For bay2 (roof span parallel to longitudinal direction): Y = 5 25 = 0.2 UDL = 4.22 KN/m2 Minimum imposed load on the curved roof is 0.4 KN/m2 Seismic load: The seismic load is calculated using the code IS: 1893-2002.the STAAD pro software will generate the seismic load automatically by using the entered code. However, we has to calculate the maximum duration of seismic load acting on each member. This is given by the formula T = 0.09ℎ √𝑑 Where, h = height of the building and d = length of the building in the direction of earthquake. The seismic load duration on every member in the longitudinal direction and lateral direction is 0.14sec and 0.27sec respectively. Wind load: Wind load cannot be assigned directly by applying code on staad pro we has to calculate wind intensities with respect to height of the building. Design wind speed Vz = VbK1K2K3. Where, Vb = basic wind speed K1 = risk co-efficient K2 = size factor K3 = topography factor Vb for vizag is 50kmph. We consider the design life of 100 years then from table given in code we get K1 = 1.08
  50. 50. 50 K2: s.no. height K2 1 Upto 10m 0.99 2 10m – 15m 1.03 3 15m- 20m 1.06 Design wind pressure Pz = 0.6Vz 2 s.no. Height (m) Design wind speed (Vz) Design wind pressure (Pz) in KN/m2 1 Upto 10 53.46 1.71478296 2 10-20 55.62 1.85615064 3 15-20 57.24 1.96585056 Hydrostatic load: The hydrostatic load acts in the form of triangular loading on all the side walls of the water tank and as a uniform pressure at the bottom surface. Bottom pressure(p) = g×h g = 9.81 and h = 5ft = 1.524m p = 14.95 KN/m2 The triangular load will vary from 0KN/m2 to 14.95 KN/m2 on all the side walls 3.2.2 Load combinations: The load combinations are given by the code IS: 875(part5) and are as follows. 1. DL+IL = 1.5DL + 1.5IL 2. DL+WL = 1.5DL + 1.5WL 3. DL+EL = 1.5DL + 1.5EL 4. DL+ IL+WL(or)EL = 1.2DL + 1.2IL + 1.2EL The superstructure design is done using STAAD pro v8i and the foundation design is done by using STAAD foundation v8i.
  51. 51. 51 3.2.3 STAAD pro v8i: STAAD or (STAAD.Pro) is a structural analysis and design computer program originally developed by Research Engineers International in Yorba Linda, CA. In late 2005, Research Engineers International was bought by Bentley Systems. An older version called STAAD-III for windows is used by Iowa State University for educational purposes for civil and structural engineers. The commercial version STAAD.Pro is one of the most widely used structural analysis and design software. It supports several steel, concrete and timber design codes. It can make use of various forms of analysis from the traditional 1st order static analysis, 2nd order p-delta analysis, geometric nonlinear analysis or a buckling analysis. It can also make use of various forms of dynamic analysis from modal extraction to time history and response spectrum analysis. In recent years it has become part of integrated structural analysis and design solutions mainly using an exposed API called OpenSTAAD to access and drive the program using an VB macro system included in the application or other by including Open STAAD functionality in applications that themselves include suitable programmable macro systems. Additionally STAAD.Pro has added direct links to applications such as RAM Connection and STAAD.Foundation to provide engineers working with those applications which handle design post processing not handled by STAAD.Pro itself. Another form of integration supported by STAAD.Pro is the analysis schema of the CIMsteel Integration Standard, version 2 commonly known as CIS/2 and used by a number modelling and analysis applications. The modelling view of the terminal:
  52. 52. 52 The 3D rendering view of the terminal: Loads given in STAAD pro: The floor load of 4 KN/m2 is used for design purpose as the building contains fixed seats. The roof load of 5 KN/m2 is applied on bay1 and 4.5 KN/m2 is applied on bay2. The seismic load is applied in both X and Z directions with the durations of 0.14sec and 0.27sec respectively. Dead load is applied on the whole structure. The following are the load cases given in the STAAD pro for the design purpose. Load case 1 – seismic X Load case 2 – seismic Z Load case 3 – dead load Load case 4 – live load Load case 5 – roof load Load case 6 – wind load
  53. 53. 53 3.2.4 3D view of loads applied: Seismic X: Seismic Z:
  54. 54. 54 Deadload: Live load:
  55. 55. 55 Roof load: Wind load:
  56. 56. 56 3.2.5 Deflectionsand Stresses: Deflection of member in +ve Z view: Stress acting on the slabs:
  57. 57. 57 3.2.6 DESIGN OUTPUT OF TERMINAL BUILDING FROM STAAD PRO B E A M N O. 73 D ES I G N R E S U L T S M30 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.) LENGTH: 12000.0mm SIZE: 700.0 mm X 500.0 mm COVER: 25.0mm SUMMARY OFREINF. AREA (Sq.mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 3000.0 mm 6000.0 mm 9000.0 mm 12000 mm ------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 1092.95 0.00 0.00 672.42 2224.46 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) BOTTOM 663.10 964.82 663.10 663.10 0.00 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) ------------------------------------------------------------- SUMMARY OFPROVIDED REINF. AREA ------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 3000.0 mm 6000.0 mm 9000.0 mm 12000.0mm ------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 10-12í 2-12í 2-12í 6-12í 20-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 2 layer(s) BOTTOM 5-25í 5-25í 5-25í 5-25í 2-25í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) SHEAR 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í REINF. @ 120 mm c/c @ 120mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c --------------------------------------------------------------------------- SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS ATDISTANCEd (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROMFACEOFTHE SUPPORT SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1215.0 mm AWAY FROM STARTSUPPORT VY = 66.21 MX= -2.22 LD= 4 Provide 2 Legged 8í @ 120mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 965.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT VY = -96.88MX= -7.35 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 8í @ 120mm c/c =============================================== ============================= B E A M N O. 74 D ES I G N R E S U L T S M30 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.) LENGTH: 10000.0mm SIZE: 700.0 mm X 500.0 mm COVER: 25.0mm STAAD SPACE -- PAGENO. 27 SUMMARY OFREINF. AREA (Sq.mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 2500.0 mm 5000.0 mm 7500.0 mm 10000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 673.86 0.00 0.00 673.86 1792.17 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) BOTTOM 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 0.00 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUMMARY OFPROVIDED REINF. AREA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 2500.0 mm 5000.0 mm 7500.0 mm 10000.0mm ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  58. 58. 58 TOP 9-10í 2-10í 2-10í 9-10í 23-10í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 2 layer(s) BOTTOM 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 2-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) SHEAR 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í REINF. @ 120 mm c/c @ 120mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS ATDISTANCEd (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROMFACEOFTHE SUPPORT SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 965.0 mm AWAY FROM STARTSUPPORT VY = 48.73 MX= 0.28 LD= 4 Provide 2 Legged 8í @ 120mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1065.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT VY = -82.49MX= 3.61 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 8í @ 120mm c/c =============================================== ============================= B E A M N O. 75 D ES I G N R E S U L T S M30 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.) LENGTH: 10000.0mm SIZE: 700.0 mm X 500.0 mm COVER: 25.0mm SUMMARY OFREINF. AREA (Sq.mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 2500.0 mm 5000.0 mm 7500.0 mm 10000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 673.86 0.00 673.86 673.86 1734.27 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) BOTTOM 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 0.00 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- STAAD SPACE -- PAGENO. 272 SUMMARY OFPROVIDED REINF. AREA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 2500.0 mm 5000.0 mm 7500.0 mm 10000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 9-10í 2-10í 9-10í 9-10í 23-10í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 2 layer(s) BOTTOM 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 2-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) SHEAR 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í REINF. @ 120 mm c/c @ 120mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS ATDISTANCEd (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROMFACEOFTHE SUPPORT SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1065.0 mm AWAY FROM STARTSUPPORT VY = 47.77 MX= 0.28 LD= 4 Provide 2 Legged 8í @ 120mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1065.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT VY = -82.34MX= 0.72 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 8í @ 120mm c/c =============================================== ============================= B E A M N O. 76 D ES I G N R E S U L T S M30 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.) LENGTH: 8000.0 mm SIZE: 700.0 mm X 500.0mm COVER: 25.0mm
  59. 59. 59 SUMMARY OFREINF. AREA (Sq.mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 2000.0 mm 4000.0 mm 6000.0 mm 8000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 1580.18 669.55 0.00 0.00 669.55 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) BOTTOM 0.00 669.55 669.55 682.03 792.03 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUMMARY OFPROVIDED REINF. AREA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 2000.0 mm 4000.0 mm 6000.0 mm 8000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 14-12í 6-12í 2-12í 2-12í 6-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) BOTTOM 2-16í 5-16í 5-16í 5-16í 5-16í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) SHEAR 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í REINF. @ 120 mm c/c @ 120mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS ATDISTANCEd (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROMFACEOFTHE SUPPORT SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 965.0 mm AWAY FROM STARTSUPPORT VY = 83.34 MX= 5.45 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 8í @ 120mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1065.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT VY = -29.55MX= 1.96 LD= 4 Provide 2 Legged 8í @ 120mm c/c =============================================== ============================= B E A M N O. 77 D ES I G N R E S U L T S M30 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.) LENGTH: 5000.0 mm SIZE: 700.0 mm X 500.0mm COVER: 25.0mm SUMMARY OFREINF. AREA (Sq.mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1250.0 mm 2500.0 mm 3750.0 mm 5000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 672.42 0.00 0.00 672.42 672.42 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) BOTTOM 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUMMARY OFPROVIDED REINF. AREA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1250.0 mm 2500.0 mm 3750.0 mm 5000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 6-12í 2-12í 2-12í 6-12í 6-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) BOTTOM 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) SHEAR 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í REINF. @ 120 mm c/c @ 120mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS ATDISTANCEd (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROMFACEOFTHE SUPPORT
  60. 60. 60 SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1065.0 mm AWAY FROM STARTSUPPORT VY = -6.60 MX= -10.15LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 8í @ 120mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1065.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT VY = -42.11MX= -10.15 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 8í @ 120mm c/c =============================================== ============================ B E A M N O. 78 D ES I G N R E S U L T S M30 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.) LENGTH: 5000.0 mm SIZE: 700.0 mm X 500.0mm COVER: 25.0mm SUMMARY OFREINF. AREA (Sq.mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1250.0 mm 2500.0 mm 3750.0 mm 5000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 672.42 672.42 0.00 672.42 672.42 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) BOTTOM 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) --------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUMMARY OFPROVIDED REINF. AREA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1250.0 mm 2500.0 mm 3750.0 mm 5000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 6-12í 6-12í 2-12í 6-12í 6-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) BOTTOM 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) SHEAR 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í REINF. @ 120 mm c/c @ 120mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS ATDISTANCEd (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROMFACEOFTHE SUPPORT SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1065.0 mm AWAY FROM STARTSUPPORT VY = 9.43 MX= 4.07 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 8í @ 120mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1065.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT VY = -26.07MX= 4.07 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 8í @ 120mm c/c =============================================== ============================= B E A M N O. 79 D ES I G N R E S U L T S M30 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.) LENGTH: 5000.0 mm SIZE: 700.0 mm X 500.0mm COVER: 25.0mm SUMMARY OFREINF. AREA (Sq.mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1250.0 mm 2500.0 mm 3750.0 mm 5000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) BOTTOM 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUMMARY OFPROVIDED REINF. AREA
  61. 61. 61 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1250.0 mm 2500.0 mm 3750.0 mm 5000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) BOTTOM 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) SHEAR 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í REINF. @ 120 mm c/c @ 120mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c -------------------------------------------------------------------------- SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS ATDISTANCEd (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROMFACEOFTHE SUPPORT SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1065.0 mm AWAY FROM STARTSUPPORT VY = 12.20 MX= 20.49 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 8í @ 120mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1065.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT VY = -23.30MX= 20.49 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 8í @ 120mm c/c =============================================== ============================= B E A M N O. 80 D ES I G N R E S U L T S M30 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.) LENGTH: 4000.0 mm SIZE: 700.0 mm X 500.0mm COVER: 25.0mm SUMMARY OFREINF. AREA (Sq.mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1000.0 mm 2000.0 mm 3000.0 mm 4000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 672.42 672.42 672.42 1026.18 2228.62 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) BOTTOM 2005.57 1080.03 672.42 672.42 0.00 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) SUMMARY OFPROVIDED REINF. AREA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1000.0 mm 2000.0 mm 3000.0 mm 4000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 10-12í 20-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 2 layer(s) BOTTOM 10-16í 6-16í 5-16í 5-16í 2-16í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) SHEAR 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í REINF. @ 200 mm c/c @ 200mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS ATDISTANCEd (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROMFACEOFTHE SUPPORT SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 965.0 mm AWAY FROM STARTSUPPORT VY = -141.92 MX= 15.42 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1065.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT VY = -166.29 MX= 15.42 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c =============================================== ============================= B E A M N O. 81 D ES I G N R E S U L T S M30 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.)
  62. 62. 62 LENGTH: 4000.0 mm SIZE: 700.0 mm X 500.0mm COVER: 25.0mm SUMMARY OFREINF. AREA (Sq.mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1000.0 mm 2000.0 mm 3000.0 mm 4000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 2380.54 1134.24 672.42 0.00 672.42 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) BOTTOM 0.00 0.00 672.42 1052.33 2013.28 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUMMARY OFPROVIDED REINF. AREA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1000.0 mm 2000.0 mm 3000.0 mm 4000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 12-16í 6-16í 5-16í 2-16í 5-16í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) BOTTOM 2-12í 2-12í 6-12í 10-12í 18-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) SHEAR 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í REINF. @ 200 mm c/c @ 200mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c --------------------------------------------------------------------------- SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS ATDISTANCEd (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROMFACEOFTHE SUPPORT SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1065.0 mm AWAY FROM STARTSUPPORT VY = 171.64MX= 15.84 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1065.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT VY = 148.51MX= 15.84 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c =============================================== ============================= B E A M N O. 82 D ES I G N R E S U L T S M30 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.) LENGTH: 9000.0 mm SIZE: 700.0 mm X 500.0mm COVER: 25.0mm SUMMARY OFREINF. AREA (Sq.mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 2250.0 mm 4500.0 mm 6750.0 mm 9000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 801.49 0.00 672.42 672.42 1442.85 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) BOTTOM 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 0.00 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) --------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUMMARY OFPROVIDED REINF. AREA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 2250.0 mm 4500.0 mm 6750.0 mm 9000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 8-12í 2-12í 6-12í 6-12í 13-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) BOTTOM 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 2-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s)
  63. 63. 63 SHEAR 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í REINF. @ 120 mm c/c @ 120mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS ATDISTANCEd (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROMFACEOFTHE SUPPORT SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1065.0 mm AWAY FROM STARTSUPPORT VY = 67.87 MX= 0.00 LD= 4 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1065.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT VY = -75.54MX= 1.63 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c =============================================== ============================= B E A M N O. 83 D ES I G N R E S U L T S M30 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.) LENGTH: 4000.0 mm SIZE: 700.0 mm X 500.0mm COVER: 25.0mm SUMMARY OFREINF. AREA (Sq.mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1000.0 mm 2000.0 mm 3000.0 mm 4000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 672.42 672.42 672.42 1000.83 2160.75 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) BOTTOM 1892.83 1008.74 672.42 672.42 0.00 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUMMARY OFPROVIDED REINF. AREA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1000.0 mm 2000.0 mm 3000.0 mm 4000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 5-20í 5-20í 5-20í 5-20í 7-20í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) BOTTOM 17-12í 9-12í 6-12í 6-12í 2-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) SHEAR 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í REINF. @ 200 mm c/c @ 200mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS ATDISTANCEd (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROMFACEOFTHE SUPPORT SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1065.0 mm AWAY FROM STARTSUPPORT VY = -138.23 MX= -12.20 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1065.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT VY = -161.36 MX= -12.20 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c =============================================== ============================= B E A M N O. 84 D ES I G N R E S U L T S M30 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.) LENGTH: 4000.0 mm SIZE: 700.0 mm X 500.0mm COVER: 25.0mm SUMMARY OFREINF. AREA (Sq.mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1000.0 mm 2000.0 mm 3000.0 mm 4000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 672.42 0.00 673.86 1821.78 3765.87
  64. 64. 64 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) BOTTOM 2588.15 1137.67 673.86 673.86 0.00 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUMMARY OFPROVIDED REINF. AREA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1000.0 mm 2000.0 mm 3000.0 mm 4000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 5-20í 2-20í 5-20í 6-20í 12-20í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) BOTTOM 33-10í 15-10í 9-10í 9-10í 2-10í REINF. 2 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) SHEAR 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í REINF. @ 200 mm c/c @ 200mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS ATDISTANCEd (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROMFACEOFTHE SUPPORT SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1065.0 mm AWAY FROM STARTSUPPORT VY = -204.35 MX= -18.04 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1215.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT VY = -225.63 MX= -18.04 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c =============================================== ============================= B E A M N O. 85 D ES I G N R E S U L T S M30 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.) LENGTH: 5000.0 mm SIZE: 700.0 mm X 500.0mm COVER: 25.0mm SUMMARY OFREINF. AREA (Sq.mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1250.0 mm 2500.0 mm 3750.0 mm 5000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 673.86 673.86 673.86 673.86 712.11 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) BOTTOM 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) --------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUMMARY OFPROVIDED REINF. AREA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1250.0 mm 2500.0 mm 3750.0 mm 5000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 9-10í 9-10í 9-10í 9-10í 10-10í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) BOTTOM 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) SHEAR 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í REINF. @ 200 mm c/c @ 200mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS ATDISTANCEd (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROMFACEOFTHE SUPPORT SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1465.0 mm AWAY FROM STARTSUPPORT
  65. 65. 65 VY = 0.28 MX= 57.24 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1065.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT VY = -30.28MX= 57.24 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c =============================================== ============================= B E A M N O. 86 D ES I G N R E S U L T S M30 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.) LENGTH: 5000.0 mm SIZE: 700.0 mm X 500.0mm COVER: 25.0mm SUMMARY OFREINF. AREA (Sq.mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1250.0 mm 2500.0 mm 3750.0 mm 5000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) BOTTOM 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUMMARY OFPROVIDED REINF. AREA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1250.0 mm 2500.0 mm 3750.0 mm 5000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) BOTTOM 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) SHEAR 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í REINF. @ 120 mm c/c @ 120mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS ATDISTANCEd (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROMFACEOFTHE SUPPORT SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1065.0 mm AWAY FROM STARTSUPPORT VY = 6.27 MX= 5.17 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1065.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT VY = -29.24MX= 5.17 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c =============================================== ============================= B E A M N O. 87 D ES I G N R E S U L T S M30 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.) LENGTH: 5000.0 mm SIZE: 700.0 mm X 500.0mm COVER: 25.0mm SUMMARY OFREINF. AREA (Sq.mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1250.0 mm 2500.0 mm 3750.0 mm 5000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) BOTTOM 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUMMARY OFPROVIDED REINF. AREA
  66. 66. 66 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1250.0 mm 2500.0 mm 3750.0 mm 5000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s BOTTOM 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) SHEAR 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í REINF. @ 120 mm c/c @ 120mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/ SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS ATDISTANCEd (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROMFACEOFTHE SUPPORT SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1065.0 mm AWAY FROM STARTSUPPORT VY = 25.28 MX= -10.26 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1065.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT VY = -10.22MX= -10.26 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c =============================================== ============================= B E A M N O. 88 D ES I G N R E S U L T S M30 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.) LENGTH: 4000.0 mm SIZE: 700.0 mm X 500.0mm COVER: 25.0mm SUMMARY OFREINF. AREA (Sq.mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1000.0 mm 2000.0 mm 3000.0 mm 4000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 1358.50 673.86 673.86 673.86 673.86 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) BOTTOM 673.86 673.86 673.86 673.86 1158.21 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUMMARY OFPROVIDED REINF. AREA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1000.0 mm 2000.0 mm 3000.0 mm 4000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 7-16í 5-16í 5-16í 5-16í 5-16í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) BOTTOM 9-10í 9-10í 9-10í 9-10í 15-10í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) SHEAR 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í REINF. @ 200 mm c/c @ 200mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS ATDISTANCEd (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROMFACEOFTHE SUPPORT SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1065.0 mm AWAY FROM STARTSUPPORT VY = 107.91MX= 8.51 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 965.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT VY = 83.54 MX= 8.51 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c =============================================== ============================= B E A M N O. 89 D ES I G N R E S U L T S M30 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.)
  67. 67. 67 LENGTH: 4000.0 mm SIZE: 700.0 mm X 500.0mm COVER: 25.0mm SUMMARY OFREINF. AREA (Sq.mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1000.0 mm 2000.0 mm 3000.0 mm 4000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 672.42 0.00 672.42 715.09 1503.34 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) BOTTOM 1220.20 689.06 672.42 0.00 0.00 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUMMARY OFPROVIDED REINF. AREA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1000.0 mm 2000.0 mm 3000.0 mm 4000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 5-20í 2-20í 5-20í 5-20í 5-20í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) BOTTOM 11-12í 7-12í 6-12í 2-12í 2-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) SHEAR 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í REINF. @ 200 mm c/c @ 200mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS ATDISTANCEd (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROMFACEOFTHE SUPPORT SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1065.0 mm AWAY FROM STARTSUPPORT VY = -89.61MX= -13.48 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1065.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT VY = -112.75 MX= -13.48 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c =============================================== ============================= B E A M N O. 90 D ES I G N R E S U L T S M30 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.) LENGTH: 9000.0 mm SIZE: 700.0 mm X 500.0mm COVER: 25.0mm SUMMARY OFREINF. AREA (Sq.mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 2250.0 mm 4500.0 mm 6750.0 mm 9000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 673.86 0.00 673.86 673.86 1137.19 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) BOTTOM 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) SUMMARY OFPROVIDED REINF. AREA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 2250.0 mm 4500.0 mm 6750.0 mm 9000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 9-10í 2-10í 9-10í 9-10í 15-10í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) BOTTOM 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) SHEAR 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í REINF. @ 120 mm c/c @ 120mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c
  68. 68. 68 SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS ATDISTANCEd (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROMFACEOFTHE SUPPORT SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1065.0 mm AWAY FROM STARTSUPPORT VY = 37.84 MX= 0.28 LD= 4 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1065.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT VY = -63.94MX= 5.30 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c =============================================== ============================= B E A M N O. 91 D ES I G N R E S U L T S M30 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.) LENGTH: 4000.0 mm SIZE: 700.0 mm X 500.0mm COVER: 25.0mm SUMMARY OFREINF. AREA (Sq.mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1000.0 mm 2000.0 mm 3000.0 mm 4000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 673.86 673.86 673.86 695.88 1494.03 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) BOTTOM 1241.93 700.50 673.86 673.86 673.86 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUMMARY OFPROVIDED REINF. AREA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1000.0 mm 2000.0 mm 3000.0 mm 4000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 5-20í 5-20í 5-20í 5-20í 5-20í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) BOTTOM 11-12í 7-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) SHEAR 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í REINF. @ 200 mm c/c @ 200mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS ATDISTANCEd (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROMFACEOFTHE SUPPORT SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1065.0 mm AWAY FROM STARTSUPPORT VY = -91.28MX= 11.35 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1065.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT VY = -114.41 MX= 11.35 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c =============================================== ============================= B E A M N O. 92 D ES I G N R E S U L T S M30 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.) LENGTH: 4000.0 mm SIZE: 700.0 mm X 500.0mm COVER: 25.0mm SUMMARY OFREINF. AREA (Sq.mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1000.0 mm 2000.0 mm 3000.0 mm 4000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 1451.91 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) BOTTOM 1221.93 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm)
  69. 69. 69 SUMMARY OFPROVIDED REINF. AREA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1000.0 mm 2000.0 mm 3000.0 mm 4000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 13-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) BOTTOM 11-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) SHEAR 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í REINF. @ 200 mm c/c @ 200mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS ATDISTANCEd (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROMFACEOFTHE SUPPORT SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1065.0 mm AWAY FROM STARTSUPPORT VY = -93.77MX= 2.67 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 965.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT VY = -118.14 MX= 2.67 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c =============================================== ============================= B E A M N O. 93 D ES I G N R E S U L T S M30 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.) LENGTH: 15000.0mm SIZE: 700.0 mm X 500.0 mm COVER: 25.0mm SUMMARY OFREINF. AREA (Sq.mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 3750.0 mm 7500.0 mm 11250.0 mm 15000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 1861.26 666.69 666.69 666.69 1835.79 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) BOTTOM 663.10 663.10 960.47 663.10 0.00 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUMMARY OFPROVIDED REINF. AREA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 3750.0 mm 7500.0 mm 11250.0 mm 15000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 6-20í 5-20í 5-20í 5-20í 6-20í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) BOTTOM 5-25í 5-25í 5-25í 5-25í 2-25í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) SHEAR 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í REINF. @ 120 mm c/c @ 120mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS ATDISTANCEd (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROMFACEOFTHE SUPPORT SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 965.0 mm AWAY FROM STARTSUPPORT VY = 99.41 MX= 0.02 LD= 4 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 965.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT VY = -101.56 MX= 0.02 LD= 4 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c =============================================== ============================= B E A M N O. 94 D ES I G N R E S U L T S
  70. 70. 70 M30 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.) LENGTH: 10000.0mm SIZE: 700.0 mm X 500.0 mm COVER: 25.0m SUMMARY OFREINF. AREA (Sq.mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 2500.0 mm 5000.0 mm 7500.0 mm 10000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 4387.15 1214.59 666.69 666.69 666.69 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) BOTTOM 666.69 666.69 1080.07 2875.25 4368.46 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUMMARY OFPROVIDED REINF. AREA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 2500.0 mm 5000.0 mm 7500.0 mm 10000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 14-20í 5-20í 5-20í 5-20í 5-20í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) BOTTOM 5-20í 5-20í 5-20í 10-20í 14-20í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) SHEAR 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í REINF. @ 200 mm c/c @ 200mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS ATDISTANCEd (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROMFACEOFTHE SUPPORT SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 965.0 mm AWAY FROM STARTSUPPORT VY = 165.51MX= 19.07 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c =============================================== ============================= B E A M N O. 95 D ES I G N R E S U L T S M30 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.) LENGTH: 10000.0mm SIZE: 700.0 mm X 500.0 mm COVER: 25.0mm SUMMARY OFREINF. AREA (Sq.mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 2500.0 mm 5000.0 mm 7500.0 mm 10000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 4816.91 1423.44 669.55 0.00 669.55 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) BOTTOM 666.69 666.69 1161.33 3053.18 4673.89 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) SUMMARY OFPROVIDED REINF. AREA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 2500.0 mm 5000.0 mm 7500.0 mm 10000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 24-16í 8-16í 5-16í 2-16í 5-16í REINF. 2 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) BOTTOM 5-20í 5-20í 5-20í 10-20í 15-20í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) SHEAR 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í REINF. @ 200 mm c/c @ 200mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS ATDISTANCEd (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROMFACEOFTHE SUPPORT SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 965.0 mm AWAY FROM STARTSUPPORT
  71. 71. 71 VY = 169.49MX= -36.17 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 190 mm c/c =============================================== ============================= B E A M N O. 96 D ES I G N R E S U L T S M30 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.) LENGTH: 15000.0mm SIZE: 700.0 mm X 500.0 mm COVER: 25.0mm SUMMARY OFREINF. AREA (Sq.mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 3750.0 mm 7500.0 mm 11250.0 mm 15000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 1869.04 666.69 666.69 666.69 1831.64 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) BOTTOM 663.10 663.10 958.62 663.10 663.10 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUMMARY OFPROVIDED REINF. AREA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 3750.0 mm 7500.0 mm 11250.0 mm 15000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 6-20í 5-20í 5-20í 5-20í 6-20í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) BOTTOM 5-25í 5-25í 5-25í 5-25í 5-25í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) SHEAR 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í REINF. @ 120 mm c/c @ 120mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS ATDISTANCEd (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROMFACEOFTHE SUPPORT SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 965.0 mm AWAY FROM STARTSUPPORT VY = 99.53 MX= 0.01 LD= 4 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 965.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT VY = -101.44 MX= 0.01 LD= 4 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c =============================================== ============================= B E A M N O. 97 D ES I G N R E S U L T S M30 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.) LENGTH: 5000.0 mm SIZE: 700.0 mm X 500.0mm COVER: 25.0mm SUMMARY OFREINF. AREA (Sq.mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1250.0 mm 2500.0 mm 3750.0 mm 5000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) BOTTOM 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUMMARY OFPROVIDED REINF. AREA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1250.0 mm 2500.0 mm 3750.0 mm 5000.0mm
  72. 72. 72 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) BOTTOM 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) SHEAR 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í REINF. @ 120 mm c/c @ 120mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS ATDISTANCEd (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROMFACEOFTHE SUPPORT SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1465.0 mm AWAY FROM STARTSUPPORT VY = 8.03 MX= 26.67 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1465.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT VY = -17.58MX= 26.67 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c =============================================== ============================= B E A M N O. 98 D ES I G N R E S U L T S M30 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.) LENGTH: 5000.0 mm SIZE: 700.0 mm X 500.0mm COVER: 25.0mm SUMMARY OFREINF. AREA (Sq.mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1250.0 mm 2500.0 mm 3750.0 mm 5000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) BOTTOM 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUMMARY OFPROVIDED REINF. AREA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1250.0 mm 2500.0 mm 3750.0 mm 5000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) BOTTOM 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) SHEAR 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í REINF. @ 200 mm c/c @ 200mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS ATDISTANCEd (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROMFACEOFTHE SUPPORT SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1465.0 mm AWAY FROM STARTSUPPORT VY = 11.25 MX= -39.90 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1465.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT VY = -14.35MX= -39.90 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c =============================================== ============================= B E A M N O. 99 D ES I G N R E S U L T S M30 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.) LENGTH: 5000.0 mm SIZE: 700.0 mm X 500.0mm COVER: 25.0mm SUMMARY OFREINF. AREA (Sq.mm)
  73. 73. 73 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1250.0 mm 2500.0 mm 3750.0 mm 5000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) BOTTOM 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) --------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUMMARY OFPROVIDED REINF. AREA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1250.0 mm 2500.0 mm 3750.0 mm 5000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) BOTTOM 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) SHEAR 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í REINF. @ 200 mm c/c @ 200mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS ATDISTANCEd (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROMFACEOFTHE SUPPORT SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1715.0 mm AWAY FROM STARTSUPPORT VY = 12.89 MX= 61.85 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1465.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT VY = -9.63 MX= 61.85 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c =============================================== ============================= B E A M N O. 100 D ES I G N R E S U L T S M30 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.) LENGTH: 5000.0 mm SIZE: 700.0 mm X 500.0mm COVER: 25.0mm SUMMARY OFREINF. AREA (Sq.mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1250.0 mm 2500.0 mm 3750.0 mm 5000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) BOTTOM 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUMMARY OFPROVIDED REINF. AREA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 1250.0 mm 2500.0 mm 3750.0 mm 5000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) BOTTOM 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) SHEAR 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í 2 legged 10í REINF. @ 200 mm c/c @ 200mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c @ 200 mm c/c
  74. 74. 74 SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS ATDISTANCEd (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROMFACEOFTHE SUPPORT SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1715.0 mm AWAY FROM STARTSUPPORT VY = 10.84 MX= -53.90 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1465.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT VY = -11.67MX= -53.90 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c =============================================== ============================= B E A M N O. 101 D ES I G N R E S U L TS M30 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.) LENGTH: 8000.0 mm SIZE: 700.0 mm X 500.0mm COVER: 25.0mm SUMMARY OFREINF. AREA (Sq.mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 2000.0 mm 4000.0 mm 6000.0 mm 8000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) BOTTOM 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) SUMMARY OFPROVIDED REINF. AREA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 2000.0 mm 4000.0 mm 6000.0 mm 8000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) BOTTOM 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) SHEAR 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í REINF. @ 120 mm c/c @ 120mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS ATDISTANCEd (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FRO MFACEOFTHE SUPPORT SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1465.0 mm AWAY FROM STARTSUPPORT VY = 31.75 MX= 10.37 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1465.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT VY = -30.97MX= 10.37 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c =============================================== ============================= B E A M N O. 102 D ES I G N R E S U L T S M30 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.) LENGTH: 12000.0mm SIZE: 700.0 mm X 500.0 mm COVER: 25.0mm SUMMARY OFREINF. AREA (Sq.mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 3000.0 mm 6000.0 mm 9000.0 mm 12000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 960.59 673.86 673.86 673.86 2330.91 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) BOTTOM 669.55 995.66 669.55 669.55 669.55 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) SUMMARY OFPROVIDED REINF. AREA
  75. 75. 75 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 3000.0 mm 6000.0 mm 9000.0 mm 12000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 13-10í 9-10í 9-10í 9-10í 30-10í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 2 layer(s) BOTTOM 5-16í 5-16í 5-16í 5-16í 5-16í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) SHEAR 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í REINF. @ 120 mm c/c @ 120mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS ATDISTANCEd (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROMFACEOFTHE SUPPORT SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1215.0 mm AWAY FROM STARTSUPPORT VY = 60.75 MX= 0.32 LD= 4 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 965.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT VY = -100.28 MX= -0.20 LD= 3 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c =============================================== ============================= B E A M N O. 103 D ES I G N R E S U L TS M30 Fe415 (Main) Fe415 (Sec.) LENGTH: 8000.0 mm SIZE: 700.0 mm X 500.0mm COVER: 25.0mm SUMMARY OFREINF. AREA (Sq.mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 2000.0 mm 4000.0 mm 6000.0 mm 8000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 673.86 673.86 673.86 673.86 722.37 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) BOTTOM 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 672.42 REINF. (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq. mm) (Sq.mm) (Sq. mm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUMMARY OFPROVIDED REINF. AREA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECTION 0.0 mm 2000.0 mm 4000.0 mm 6000.0 mm 8000.0mm ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- TOP 9-10í 9-10í 9-10í 9-10í 10-10í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) BOTTOM 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í 6-12í REINF. 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) SHEAR 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í 2 legged 8í REINF. @ 120 mm c/c @ 120mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c @ 120 mm c/c SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS ATDISTANCEd (EFFECTIVE DEPTH) FROMFACEOFTHE SUPPORT SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1215.0 mm AWAY FROM STARTSUPPORT VY = 54.23 MX= 0.94 LD= 4 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/ SHEAR DESIGN RESULTS AT 1215.0 mm AWAY FROM END SUPPORT VY = -58.44MX= 0.94 LD= 4 Provide 2 Legged 10í @ 200 mm c/c =============================================== ============================= B E A M N O. 104 D ES I G N R E S U L T S

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