Sanofi ProjectConcept Ideation and   Development      Tuesday, April 3, 2012    Some Thoughts from Andrea
Common Causes of         Limitations in the Use of the Hands:                   Age and Arthritis Loss of Strength and De...
Age – Loss of Strength and        Dexterity               In Hand Weakness due to                Age, the Lateral Pinch G...
Osteoarthritis (OA) – caused by wear and tearleading to deterioration of cartilage in the jointsCommonly Affected by OA:  ...
Osteoarthritis Friction (due to cartilage deterioration) results in:     Pain     Stiffness     Swelling     Reduced ...
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)         Unknown       Cause - Autoimmune Disease     Commonly Affects Wrist and Fingers         ...
Examples of Accommodations for OA & RA Distal Finger Joints are used in most  Pinch and Precision Grips.o A small pinch o...
Accommodation Examples - Continued: Rheumatoid Arthritis – Joint Deformation  o Joint Deformation affects the types of gr...
Lateral Key Pinch Gripie: Grip Used When Grasping and Turning a Key
Types of Hand Grasps There is no one standard classification of grasps. Names for specific grasps can vary. The followi...
Napier (1956)Prehensile – Where an object is held by the hand    Power Grasp – Where an object is held in the palm of the ...
The following Three Slides10 hand grasps Classified by Karl Kroemer                  (1986)    Coupling the Hand with the ...
Prehensile Grasps   Ayoub, MacKenaie, Deivanayagam, Smith, Kroemer, Napier,                         Ladsmeern Hand Grasp ...
Pinch Grasps (Smith, 1985) Pulp PinchPad of thumb opposes pad of another finger   Pulp Pinch = Compression   Example: P...
Tip Pinch – Tip of thumbopposes tip of another finger
Gripping Larger Contact Areas and          Applying Greater Force Lateral Pinch (Key Pinch) – Thumb  opposes the radial l...
Pinch or Precision Grasps Tools that Require Precision Movements   Surgical Instruments, Pens or Pencils     Small Forc...
Power Grasps Tools that Require More Muscular Force due to     Use     Weight     Size     Function   Need Larger Su...
Ideas for a Better Grip Shape with Bulges and Indents for a better grip   Avoid Cylindrical Grips Pinch Grips   Provid...
Better Grip Ideas continued: Eliminate Pressure Points - sharp edges and other  surface features that will cause local ti...
Texture or Non-Slip Materialcan be added to surfaces to minimize slippage.
Inspirational Forms - Orbs
Orbs
Orb Cluster
3 Orbs – Large on End
3 Orbs – Large in Middle
Orbs with Box #1
Orbs with Box #2
Stone #1
Stone #2
Andrea initial thoughts april 3
Andrea initial thoughts april 3
Andrea initial thoughts april 3
Andrea initial thoughts april 3
Andrea initial thoughts april 3
Andrea initial thoughts april 3
Andrea initial thoughts april 3
Andrea initial thoughts april 3
Andrea initial thoughts april 3
Andrea initial thoughts april 3
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Andrea initial thoughts april 3

  1. 1. Sanofi ProjectConcept Ideation and Development Tuesday, April 3, 2012 Some Thoughts from Andrea
  2. 2. Common Causes of Limitations in the Use of the Hands: Age and Arthritis Loss of Strength and Dexterity in the Hands is Common, beginning at Age 50 – 59, and increasing in severity with more advanced age.  With Age – Loss of strength in muscle tissue throughout body, including the hands. Prevalence of severe hand disability in the general population age 50 and older is 12%, with increased occurrence over the age of 70 and in the female gender. Arthritis – The leading cause of disability in the United States (Centers for Disease Control)
  3. 3. Age – Loss of Strength and Dexterity  In Hand Weakness due to Age, the Lateral Pinch Grip weakens less than other pinch grips.  Lateral Pinch Grip – Example: Grip Used when Grasping and Turning a Key.  Design to accommodate the Lateral Pinch Grip by making a larger contact area for the fingers.
  4. 4. Osteoarthritis (OA) – caused by wear and tearleading to deterioration of cartilage in the jointsCommonly Affected by OA: Finger Joints Less Commonly •Distal Finger Joints Affected by OA: •Base of Thumb  Middle Joints (Proximal Interphalangeal Joints) (35% of individuals with OA)  Base of Fingers – (Matacarpophalangeal Joints) (15% of individuals with OA)
  5. 5. Osteoarthritis Friction (due to cartilage deterioration) results in:  Pain  Stiffness  Swelling  Reduced Range of Motion  Pieces of Bone may break off and float within the joint and the joint lining (synovium) and cause further inflammation.
  6. 6. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Unknown Cause - Autoimmune Disease Commonly Affects Wrist and Fingers  Unlike OA, Finger Joints closest to the palm of the hand• Cartilage Deterioration (Metacarpophalangeal Joints) • Deformation of Joints are commonly affected.  Phasic o Severity Up and Down  Pain  Inflammation  Swelling  Stiffness  Reduced Range of Motion
  7. 7. Examples of Accommodations for OA & RA Distal Finger Joints are used in most Pinch and Precision Grips.o A small pinch or other precision grip will often cause pain in the distal finger joints with Osteoarthritis.  Make grip larger or change type of grip. The Thumb is used in All Grip Types.o A too wide grip will often cause pain in an arthritic joint at the base of the thumb  Maximum Grip Span for OA (Osteoarthritis) and RA (Rheumatoid Arthritis) of moderate severity is not more than 2.5 to 3 inches.
  8. 8. Accommodation Examples - Continued: Rheumatoid Arthritis – Joint Deformation o Joint Deformation affects the types of grips that can be made.  Example of Accommodation: Instead of using a pinch grip, a person with deformed finger joints may have to instead use a lateral key pinch grip.
  9. 9. Lateral Key Pinch Gripie: Grip Used When Grasping and Turning a Key
  10. 10. Types of Hand Grasps There is no one standard classification of grasps. Names for specific grasps can vary. The following slides show examples of grasp classifications.
  11. 11. Napier (1956)Prehensile – Where an object is held by the hand Power Grasp – Where an object is held in the palm of the hand The forces of the thumb are opposed by the forces of the fingers Muscular force is often high in the power grasp Precision Grasp – Where an object is held between the opposing fingers and thumb Muscular force is usually more limited in the Precision grasp than in the Power GraspNon-Prehensile – No seizing – The hand or finger applies pressure to anobject
  12. 12. The following Three Slides10 hand grasps Classified by Karl Kroemer (1986) Coupling the Hand with the Handle
  13. 13. Prehensile Grasps Ayoub, MacKenaie, Deivanayagam, Smith, Kroemer, Napier, Ladsmeern Hand Grasp / Power Grasp  Spherical Grasp – Spherical object in Hand  ie: Door Knob, Baseball  Cylindrical Grasp – Around circumference of a cylindrical object  ie: Hammer Handle  Disc Grasp – Used on a disc shaped object  ie: Lid of Jar  Hook Grasp – Handle is hooked by digits 2 – 5  ie: Carrying a Briefcase
  14. 14. Pinch Grasps (Smith, 1985) Pulp PinchPad of thumb opposes pad of another finger  Pulp Pinch = Compression  Example: Pulp Pinch 2 = Thumb Opposes Index finger  For Small Contact Areas and High Precision  Example: Threading a Needle
  15. 15. Tip Pinch – Tip of thumbopposes tip of another finger
  16. 16. Gripping Larger Contact Areas and Applying Greater Force Lateral Pinch (Key Pinch) – Thumb opposes the radial lateral aspect of the index finger in the clenched fist. Lateral Pinches  Aid Rotation Chuck Pinch – similar to pulp and tip pinches except the thumb opposes both the index and middle finger simultaneously.
  17. 17. Pinch or Precision Grasps Tools that Require Precision Movements  Surgical Instruments, Pens or Pencils  Small Force  Grip that Facilitates Precise Motions  Fingers and Wrist Play a Prominent Role
  18. 18. Power Grasps Tools that Require More Muscular Force due to  Use  Weight  Size  Function  Need Larger Surfaces for the Hand to Contact to Form More of a Power Grip
  19. 19. Ideas for a Better Grip Shape with Bulges and Indents for a better grip  Avoid Cylindrical Grips Pinch Grips  Provide Contact Surface Area that is as large as the entire surface of the pad of the thumb or fingertips to increase strength  A Pinch Grip is Five Times More Stressful than a Power Grip (National Institute for Safety and Health) Power Grips  Contact Surface Area large enough to allow contact with the entire palm of the hand
  20. 20. Better Grip Ideas continued: Eliminate Pressure Points - sharp edges and other surface features that will cause local tissue pressures. Padding can be added at Pressure Points of the palm and fingers Does the design work for left-handed people? Size and Shape Gripping Area to Allow Alternatives to the Standard Grip.
  21. 21. Texture or Non-Slip Materialcan be added to surfaces to minimize slippage.
  22. 22. Inspirational Forms - Orbs
  23. 23. Orbs
  24. 24. Orb Cluster
  25. 25. 3 Orbs – Large on End
  26. 26. 3 Orbs – Large in Middle
  27. 27. Orbs with Box #1
  28. 28. Orbs with Box #2
  29. 29. Stone #1
  30. 30. Stone #2

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