farmers-suicide

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farmers-suicide

  1. 1. Farmers Suicides in Vidarbha By Dr. Sangita Warade
  2. 2. Objectives 1. To study the socio- economic characteristics of the farmers suicided in Vidarbha 2. To study the income and expenditure pattern of the farmers suicided in Vidarbha 3. To identify the factors responsible for the suicide of the farmers.
  3. 3. Different Reports on Farmer’s Suicides Sr. No Report By 1 Welfare Subsystem for the Karnataka. Deshpande2002 2 Market Imperfections and Farmers’ Distress in Maharashtra-Oct 2003. Mohanty and Shroff Gokhale Institue of Politics and Economics Submitted to :- Agro-economic Research Centre, 3 Causes of Farmers Suicides in Maharashtra: An Enquiry March-2005 Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Osmanabad Submitted to:- Mumbai High Court 4 Suicide of Farmers in Maharashtra –Jan 2006 Shrijit Mishra, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research. Submitted to:- Maharashtra Government. 5 Circumstances in which Farmers Committed suicide in Buldhana district of Vidarbha Region.-Feb –2006(Seminar Report) H.R.Rajput Dr.PDKV, Akola 6 A Study on the Distressed Marginal Farmers in the Suicide affected villages of Western Vidarbha Zone -Feb-06 Savitri Jyotirao Samajikarya Mahavidyalaya , Yavatmal 7 National Commission on Farmers- Fourth Report M.S. Swaminathan
  4. 4. Causes and Recommendations of Different Reports 1. Welfare Subsystem for the Karnataka Recommendations: Creation of Farmers Welfare Fund and Security System for aged farmers and awareness of the harmful effects of alcohol consumption etc. 2. Market Imperfections and Farmers’ Distress in Maharashtra Causes: The macro as well as the micro level analysis indicates that market imperfection in process of causing loss of agricultural income for the farmers have created economic hardship for them. Such hardship pushes the farmers to distressful conditions when crop fails owing to bad weather or adverse agro-climatic conditions and consequenent indebtness to informal agencies . Recommendations: 1.Creation of Awareness among the farmers about their duties, obligations and responsibilities toward their family, community and society at large 2. Dissemination of the Insecticide Resistance Management (INM) strategies for Cotton. 3.Public and Private agencies must ensure the purity and distribution of seed to interior villages. 4.National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS) must be encouraged. 5. Private Sector must be allowed to develop agricultural markets as it will improve market infrastructure and reduce market imperfections 6. Cotton Federation should operate in competition with private traders regarding the cotton prices and should avoid delay in payment. .
  5. 5. Causes and Recommendations of Different Reports continue…. 3. Causes of Farmers Suicides in Maharashtra: An Enquiry Causes: 1.Heavy indebtedness 2.Mismatch of Cost of Cultivation and Minimum Support Prices 3. Overuse of Fertilizers and pesticides and use of Genetically Modified seeds(GM) 4. Increase in number of small farmers (land holdings problem) 5. Private moneylending 6.Rainfed Agriculture. 7. Lack to access the information 8. 80 % victims didn’t received any compensation from government 9. Absence of safety net Major three:- Repeated crop failure, rising cost of cultivation and indebtness . Recommendations: 1.Immediate recommendations are:- payment of 2.5 lakh to victim families, investigation of circumstances, creation of safety net covering the assurance of minimum life support system for the cultivator and their production system, provision of facility of e-network for getting information, 2. Long-term Solutions are :- Rehabilitation of the system, policies focusing farmers, policies to support the marginal and small farmers, polices supporting crop cultivation and price support policies. Minimum Support Prices should match up with cost of cultivation, creation of safety net for cultivators and their families. Setting up commission for taking decisions on issues of Genetically Modified Technology and its impact on agriculture. Commission for issue of irrigation schemes in terms of surface and groundwater irrigation.
  6. 6. Causes and Recommendations of Different Reports continue…. 4. Suicide of Farmers in Maharashtra Causes: 1. Indebtness 2. Higher Cost of Cultivation 3. Deterioration of economic status 4. Conflict with other family members 5. Crop failure. 6. Burden of marriages. 7. Addictions 8. Disputes with neighbours 9. Health problems Recommendations: Revitalize rural financial market, Regulation of private moneylenders, finance through Self Help Groups. Crop Insurance, Water management, Land management, diversification, revive of extension, improvement in input quality, organic farming, Integrated Pest Management should be encouraged, Increase in Import Tariff, Price Stabilization, Reduction in use of pesticides, Creation of Helplines, reduction in social expenditures
  7. 7. Causes and Recommendations of Different Reports continue…. 5. Circumstances in which Farmers Committed suicide in Buldhana district of Vidarbha Region Causes: Circumstances are interlinked and not a particular cause is responsible. Recommendations: 1.Farmer should adopt recommended cropping pattern. 2. Conservation of water and rainwater harvesting need to be done. 3. Diversification is must 4.Reduction in use of Chemicals (insecticides and fertilizer) 5. Cooperative Farming is recommended. 6.Federation and monopoly cotton procurement scheme should give advance payment for cotton cultivation. 7. Infrastructural development is need to be developed.
  8. 8. Causes and Recommendations of Different Reports continue…. 6. A Study on the Distressed Marginal Farmers in the Suicide affected villages of Western Vidarbha Zone Causes: 81 Reasons are given regarding to Lack of Land Management, Seed and sowing methods problems, adverse economic condition, Lack of Resources management, Social problems, lack of Human Resources Management, lack of Training and Incidental events. Recommendations: 1.Arrangement of trainings and demonstrations at village level 2. Give solutions/demonstrations directly on the farm of the marginal farmers 3.Encourage the supplementary farm enterprises 4. Major emphasis was given on soil and water conservation, watershed development, cropping pattern and diversification
  9. 9. Causes and Recommendations of Different Reports continue…. 7. National Commission on Farmers- Fourth Report Recommendations: Land Use, soil health enhancements, augmentation of area under irrigation coupled with efficiency in water use, credit and insurance reform, technology upgradation and dissemination, Market development with supporting infrastructure, health and livelihood security of farm population
  10. 10. • Area of Study : Out of total 11 districts the 7district(Buldhana, Akola, Washim, Amravati, Yeotmal, Wardha and Nagpur) of Vidarbha are selected for the study. The Bhandara, Gondia, Chandrapur and Gadchiroli have negligible cases of suicides and sample is not sufficient for analysis. So these four district are not included in analysis • Total Sample size:- 205 farmers suicide cases are considered (Male = 199 and Female=6) • Data Collection Period :2005-06 Methodology
  11. 11. Sr. No Districts Numbers of Farmer’s Suicide till sept 2006 Numbers of Farmer’s Suicide considered by govt for genuine reason 1 Buldhana 504 186 2 Akola 308 185 3 Washim 300 179 4 Amravati 570 231 5 Wardha 277 118 6 Yeotmal 815 400 Vidarbha 2774 1299 Actual Number of Farmers Suicide Cases Source: www.vnss-mission.gov.in , 6 districts of state govt package
  12. 12. Sr. No Annual period Actulal Farmers Suicide Considered Farmers Suicide Growth in number of actual suicide cases (6 districts) (6 districts) (percent) 1 1/1/2001 to 31/12/2001 49 29 100 2 1/1/2002 to 31/12/2002 105 72 214 3 1/1/2003 to 31/12/2003 143 89 291 4 1/1/2004 to 31/12/2004 441 249 900 5 1/1/2005 to 31/12/2005 429 273 879 6 1/1/2006 to 31/12/2006 1446 577 2957 1/1/2007 to 31/2/2007 159 10 Total Numbers of Farmers Suicide 2774 1299 Growth in number of Farmers Suicide during last six year
  13. 13. Growth in Farmers Suicides in Vidarbha 49 105 143 441 429 1446 159 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Yr. 2001 Yr. 2002 Yr. 2003 Yr. 2004 Yr. 2005 Yr. 2006 Upto FebYr. 2007 Year NumberofSuicides
  14. 14. Age Group of the suicided farmers in Vidarbha 1.46 35.12 51.71 11.71 0-20 yrs 20-39 yrs 40-59 yrs Above 60 yrs 1) Age Group of the farmers suicided in Vidarbha In the Vidarbha, the 51.71 percent suicided farmers were ranging between age group of 40 to 59 years, while the 35.12 percent suicided farmers were ranging between age group of 20 to 39 years. Among the districts, in Yeotmal, the 60.78 farmers were ranging between age of 40 to 59 years. The percentage revealed that the maximum farmers were belonging to the age group when the person usually has responsibility of family.
  15. 15. Educational Status of the suicided farmers in Vidarbha 11.71 19.51 19.02 41.95 7.80 Illiterate Prinmary School Middle School High School Collage 2) Educational Status of the farmers suicided in Vidarbha The highest percentage of the educational level of suicided farmers in Vidarbha was high school level i.e. 41.95 percent farmers were high school educated.. Among the districts, farmers in the Amravati were mostly high school educated (58 percent).
  16. 16. Distribution of Farmers as per size of holding 16.59 32.68 30.73 16.59 3.41 0 to 0.99 1 to 1.99 2 to 3.99 4 to 9.99 above 10 3) A) Average Size of land holding of the farmers suicided in Vidarbha. The average size of land holding is farms of the suicided farmers in Vidarbha was 2.68 ha per farm. The average land holding per farm were highest in Washim i.e. 4.15 hectares. The number of farmers in havening land between 1 to 1.99 and between 2 to 3.99 were highest i.e. 32.68 and 30.73 percent respectively.
  17. 17. Share of Irrigated land in total land of the farmers suicided in Vidarbha 2.54 0.00 8.84 2.51 22.61 7.98 11.59 6.17 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 Yeotm al Buldhana Am ravati W ashim N agpur Akola W ardha Vidarbha District Percent
  18. 18. Cropping Pattern of the farms of the suicided farmers in Vidarbha 35.78 33.16 8.11 8.71 3.94 2.39 0.39 0.77 0.04 1.75 4.48 0.49 Cotton Soybean Tur Kh. Jowar Mung Udid Sunflower Groundnut Wheat Gram Safflower Other Crop 3) B) Cropping Pattern of the farm of the suicided farmers in Vidarbha
  19. 19. Cropping Pattern of the farm of the suicided farmers in Vidarbha
  20. 20. 4) Family size of the farmers suicided in Vidarbha The family size of Vidarbha family indicates the number of female per family was 2.59 and number of male was 3.15 Familysize of farmers suicided in Vidarbha 3.18 3.38 3.26 2.91 2.87 3.45 3.00 3.15 2.45 1.96 2.78 2.57 2.53 2.59 3.25 2.59 5.63 5.33 6.04 5.48 5.40 6.05 6.25 5.74 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 Yeotm al Buldhana Am ravati W ashim Nagpur Akola W ardha Vidarbha district familysize Male Female fimily size
  21. 21. 5) Fix Capital Investment of the farmers suicided in Vidarbha. The per farm fix capital investment was Rs. 281350.03 in Vidaarbha. Out of this the value of land was Rs. 273360.00 and value of other assets was Rs. 7990.03. The value of other assets was very low and reveals the holding of others assets than land is less, which make difficulties in operating farm practices. Fixed Capital of the familyof the suicided farmers in Vidarbha 251940.00 141780.00 358020.00 423300.00 182580.00 279480.00 277440.00 273360.00 6805.00 7345.71 10718.00 9130.43 3780.33 8854.77 8276.00 7990.03 0.00 50000.00 100000.00 150000.00 200000.00 250000.00 300000.00 350000.00 400000.00 450000.00 Yeotm al Bulbhana Am ravati W ashim Nagpur Akola W ardha Vidarbha District FixCapital Value Of Land Value of other assets
  22. 22. Per annumregular expenditure of the familyof the suicided farmers in Vidarbha 10946.41 2664.19 3718.28 2026.45 857.23 595.49 20808.06 0.00 5000.00 10000.00 15000.00 20000.00 25000.00 Annualgrocery Education ClothesElectricityBillsLuxuriousitems Other Total Items Expenditure 6) Regular Expenditure of the families of the Farmers Suicided in Vidarbha. The annual regular expenditure on grocery, bills, clothes, luxurious items was Rs. 20808.06 in Vidarbha. The expenditure on grocery, clothes and education was Rs.10946.41(52.61 percent), 3718.28(17.87 percent) and 2664.19(12.80 percent) respectively.
  23. 23. Last 10 years expenditure on major events 20553.30 43256.56 8126.52 5068.13 1874.83 78879.33 0.00 10000.00 20000.00 30000.00 40000.00 50000.00 60000.00 70000.00 80000.00 90000.00 House construction Marriage Illness Social ceromanies Other Total ExpeditureEvents/Incidence Expenditure per annum expenditure =7887.93 7) Last 10 years expenditure on major events/incidences of the families of the Farmers Suicided in Vidarbha Per family the expenditure on major events like marriage, house construction, social ceremonies and illness or the 10 years is considered other than regular expenditure. The estimates indicate that in Vidarbha region the major expenditure was made on marriage during the last 10 years i.e. Rs. 43256.56(54.84 percent), it is followed by house construction (Rs. 20553.30). The total expenditure during last 10 years was Rs. 78879.33. and per annum it comes Rs 7887.93. It indicate the saving of the each family should be at least Rs7887.93 to cover the expenditure on major events the major events. The saving need to be highest in Akola (Rs 13725.45 )
  24. 24. Income and Expenditure of the family of the suicided farmers in Vidarbha 3627.84 20808.06 7887.93 -25068.15 -30000 -20000 -10000 0 10000 20000 30000 Net Income Peryear regular family expenditure Per year expenditure on Events Gap between Net Return and Annual expenditure Particulars Incomeand Expenditure 8) Costs and Returns of different enterprises of the families of the suicided farmers in Vidarbha. The net income from all enterprises was Rs. 3627.84 per annum . While the per annum regular expenditure was Rs.20808.06 and expenditure on events was Rs.7887.93. (total Rs.28695.99). It indicates the expenditure per annum is more by Rs. 25068.15 over the net income per annum.. If farmers uses recommended expenditure i.e. Rs 37140 per family, the gap between income and expenditure will be Rs.33512.16.
  25. 25. Gap between recommended expenditure and present net income of the family of the suicided farmers in Vidarbha 3627.84 37140 -33512.16-40000 -20000 0 20000 40000 60000 Net Income Per annum recommended expenditue Gap between Net Return and Annual expenditure particular Expenditureand Income
  26. 26. 9) Loan Status of the Farmers Suicided in Vidarbha. Out of total loan cases, the 42.81 percent loan cases were from cooperative bank, 18.96 percent were from relatives and 18.68 percent were from nationalized banks in Vidarbha. On average debt per head in Vidarbha is Rs. 50730.25. The percentage of debted farmers in Vidarbha is 97.07. Among the districts, the debt per head was highest in Akola i.e. Rs 65710.28, it is followed by Washim Rs.52483.17. Regular family expenditure like grocery, bills, clothes etc as well as expenditure on events likes marriage, house construction, social ceremonies and illness is significantly correlated with loan in Vidarbha. Sources of the loan taken by the farmers suicided in Vidarbha (Percent) 18.65 42.81 15.60 18.96 3.98 Nationalised Bank Cooperative Bank Private Moneylender Relatives Other
  27. 27. Debt per head of the suicided farmers family in Vidarbha (Rs.) 37487.18 45961.11 50098.4352483.1751685.13 65710.28 51686.46 50730.25 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 Yeotm al Bulbhana Am ravati W ashim Nagpur Akola W ardha Vidarbha District Debt Debt per head
  28. 28. 10) Reasons of farmers suicide: The 25 reasons forcing the farmers to commit suicides are identified. Out of 25 reasons, 1)Deterioration of economic condition 58 % 2)Continuous crop failure 57 % 3)Improper and unstable price 53 % 4)Bank loan 48 % 5)High cost technology 41 % 6)Family expenditure. 35 % 7)Marriage expenditure 25 %
  29. 29. 11) Measure suggested to stop the farmers suicides The farmers suggested some measure to improve the economic condition and to stop the suicides 1) Proper and stable price to their produce 93% 2) Exempted from loan 87% 3) Creation of irrigation infrastructure 49 % 4) Employment generation 42 % 5) Low cost of input chemicals. 42 %
  30. 30. Conclusion • The indebted farmers were 97 percent. • The net income from all recourses was negligible i.e.Rs 3627.84 per annum per family • The family expenditure was Rs.28695.99 per annum per family. • The price received per quintal was not stable and not covering the cost of cultivation. Policy Implications • The farmer may be exempted from loan. • The efforts are needed to get proper and stable price for his produce . • The basic infrastructure can be created to increase income from different sources. • Income from subsidiary enterprises can be increased for the upliftment of the economic condition of farmers to cover the recommended expenditure per family.
  31. 31. Income Group Sr. No District Costs Returns Costs Returns Costs Returns Costs Returns 1 Yeotmal 7265.77 12351.85 28250.00 26705.56 45000.00 40000.00 91500.00 80300.00 2 Bulbhana 8289.20 11715.25 25931.00 27314.00 44000.00 46620.00 70000.00 110100.00 3 Amravati 10265.24 13655.83 26430.00 28913.24 48000.00 47166.67 112250.00 113810.00 4 Washim 10380.00 11280.00 26550.00 27975.00 48175.00 46150.00 67000.00 86333.33 5 Nagpur 7260.71 10663.89 24225.00 26586.40 NA NA NA NA 6 Akola 8536.07 13420.00 28637.50 28861.36 49500.00 55800.00 66000.00 68370.00 7 Wardha 10290.91 12575.00 24400.00 29700.00 NA NA NA NA Vidarbha 8898.27 12237.40 26346.21 28007.94 46935.00 47147.33 81350.00 91782.67 Sample Size 20000 to 399990 to 19999 40001 to 59999 60000 above 86(41.95) 79(38.54) 16(7.80) 24(11.71) Returnwise Costs and Returns of different enterprises per family

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