Detection of Environmental Pollutants UsingBiosensors: Future Trends and Applications Zenaida F. Mergal PhD Biology Education
Objectives Define and describe biosensors Enumerate the different parts and types of biosensors List down and describe the first animal sensors Discuss a brief history of biosensors and the latter compares of currently used chemistry analysis Outline the current and potential application/s of biosensors
Introduction Biosensors is a device that detects, transmits and records information regarding a physiological or biochemical change (D’Souza, 2001) Discovered by Leland C. Clark in 1962 Has three parts: (1) biological detector (2) transducer (3) processing unit (Maddalena, 2010)
Classification of Biosensors Classification based on three schemes: As to the receptor type An immunosensor, an antibody As to the physics of transduction process Amphoteric sensor As to application Medical Biosensor
First Animal Biosensors Canary yellow old time ‘Coal Miners’ Biosensor African clawed frog Detects earthquakes (as far as 74 km) Has melanophores, which allow them to change color in the presence of bacterial pathogens Chinook Salmon Also has melanophores which rapidly detects human pathogens
Brief History of Biosensors1962 – Leland C. Clark first described a biosensor as an amphoteric enzyme electrode for glucose1969 – first potentiometric biosensor1970s– Ion Selective Field Effect Transistor, Fiber Optic Sensor1980s–first1980s– Surface Plasmon Resonance Immunosensor (SPR)1990s – SPR based and handheld biosensorsCurrent – quantum dots, nanoparticles
Current Applications of BiosensorsEnvironmental Monitoring Genotoxic compounds Soil Contaminants (pesticides, heavy metals, explosives) Water Pollutants BioremediationOther Important Applications and Trends Biomedical Applications (Diagnosis of Diseases) Food Analysis
Current Applications of BiosensorsEnvironmental Monitoring Detection of Ecotoxicological substances (Eggen, 2003) Monitoring of organic and inorganic pollutants (Mazaz, 2006) In Situ Monitoring of environmental pollutants (Shin, 2010) Wireless biosensor (Endo, 2010)
Current Applications of Biosensors Environmental Monitoring (cont’n) Microbiological/Bacterial Biosensors (Belchor, 2001 and Jantra, 2005) Luminiscent Emitting Bacteria (Aveni, 2000) Cyanobacteria, Yeast and Fungi (Belkin, 2003)
Current Applications of Biosensors Environmental Monitoring (cont’n)1. Genotoxic compounds detection Detection of DNA damaging or genotoxic compounds using DNA biosensor (Bagni, 2005)3. Soil Contaminants identification Heavy Metals (Solanki, 2009) Usually released thru industrial wastes Includes Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper, Lead, Mercury Detected using Plasmon Resonance-based DNA biosensor
Current Applications of Biosensors2. Soil Contaminants identification (cont’n) Toxic pesticides and heavy metals (Rao, 2007) Heavy metals mobility and bioavailability (Almendras, 2009) Included Arsenic, Copper, Iron, Lead and Zinc Compared chemical sequential extraction against biomet sensors Pesticides detection (Förster, 2008) Employed high affinity biosensors and antibodes (recognition) Can detect and discriminate different explosives
Current Applications of Biosensors3. Water Pollutants Analysis of Mineral water (Deryabin, 2008) Used bioluminiscent detection system Determination of Iron Loading (Poiata, 2005) Employed Pseudomonas aeruginosa Principle of testing involved uptake of iron by bacteria and emission of lumniscence Bioactive Organic Compounds Detection (Tschmelak, 2005) Tested water for presence of certain hormones such as testosterone, progesterone, estrogen, propanil, etc.
Current Applications of Biosensors3. Water Pollutants Freshwater Toxicity (Durrieu, 2004) Tested water for presence of certain hormones such as testosterone, progesterone, estrogen, propanil, etc. Made use of two algal biosensors Biological Oxygen Demand Determination (Ponomarevaa, 2011) Used microbial biosensors Oil Spills (Houlton, 2011) Made use of new antibody-based biosensor
Current Applications of Biosensors4. Bioremediation Toxicity monitoring (Souxsie, 2005) Prevent toxic shock Marine pollutants (Houlton, 2011) Track and detect oil spills to arrest spread
Current Applications of Biosensors Other Important Applications and Trends 1. Biomedical Applications Diagnosis of Diseases (Endo, 2010) Monitoring of Blood Glucose Multi-signal digital biosensors (Wang, 2010) Tested glucose, lactate, norepinephrine Malarial Screening (Potipitak, 2011) Can diagnose malaria due to P. falciparum Can determine genotype of malarial species
Current Applications of Biosensors Other Important Applications and Trends 1. Food Analysis Detection of Environmental and Food Contaminants (Baeumner, 2003) Whole Cell biosensors (Michelini, 2006) Detects genotoxic compounds, xenobiotics, endocrine disrupting compounds Mycotoxin detection and other contaminants (Tudorache, 2007) Also detected lactic acid, ethanol, etc.
Biosensor TrendsConclusions: Areas of improvement New materials for biosensor production (Wiles, 2005) DNA (Potipak, 2011) and nucleic acid biosensors (Fe, 2011) Factors affecting Biosensors Sensitivity, Efficiency, and Reliability (Deryabin & Alexshina, 2008)
Biosensor TrendsConclusion (cont’n) Factors affecting Biosensors (cont’n) Presence of salt, cations and anions (Hassibi, 2007) Enhance of Biosensor Performance Acridine Orange for TYR-immobilized CF-based flow biosensor (Wang, 2011)
Final ThoughtsWith these technological advancements,the only hindrance towards developmentlies on current policies and financialrestrictions. World Health Organization aswell as Environmental Protection Agenciesof various countries should take fulladvantage of these biosensors inenvironmental monitoring, detection ofvarious kinds of pollutants, bioremediationand other medical applications.
Final ThoughtsHowever, the use of such devices may besubjected to abuse, therefore appropriatelaws, policies, rules and regulationsshould be in place prior to full launching ofresearches associated with clinical trialsand ecosystem element participation. Inthe end, disposal of used or consumedbiosensors may also pose significantecological and health risk if not properlydone.