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Seed production of cool season vegetables

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Quality seed is the basic input for vegetable production

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Seed production of cool season vegetables

  1. 1. Ningappa kirasur 2014-12-129 Dept. of Olericulture COH, Vellanikkara
  2. 2. Cabbage  Is a biennial crop for seed production  Requires chilling temperature of 4-8 °C for 40-60 days to initiate flowering  Highly cross pollinated crop .because protogyny  Isolation distance 1600m for foundation and 1000m for certified seeds  Had a strongest self incompatibility
  3. 3. Contd….  The plants remain vegetative at a temperature range of 14-23°C  Cabbage produce seeds in temperate areas only, but not in the central plains  Growing of cabbage during summer result in excessive stem elongation due to high temperature  High atmospheric humidity and heavy rainfall during seed ripening, causes heavy loss of crop
  4. 4. Pest incidence Cabbage butterfly: Pieris brassicae Aphids : Brevicoryne brassicae Management : Spraying of 0.1% pyrethrins Spraying of 0.2% malathion at 10-15 days intervals
  5. 5. Diseases Sclerotinia rot: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Is most serious in the seed crop in the hills Alternaria spot: Alternaria sp. Management :  Foliar spray of 0.2% Dithane M-45 at an intervals of 10-15 days  At pre-bolting to seed maturity stage
  6. 6. Methods of seed production 1. Seed - seed method (Certified seed production) 2. Head - seed method (Breeder seed production)
  7. 7. Seed to seed method  The crop is allowed to over-winter  Produces seed in their original position  Where planted in the seedling stage  The crop is rouged out. based on leaf colour , head shape Advantages:  More seed yield but less quality  Reduce cost of seed production
  8. 8. Head - seed method  Matured plants after head formation are uprooted, based on foliage and head characters  The outer whorls of leaves are removed and,  Immediately planted in well prepared main field Advantages:  Low seed yield but  Higher quality seeds
  9. 9. Stump method Advantages:  It gave extra income to farmers  Crop matures 10-12 days earlier than head intact method  Seed yield slightly higher Dis-advantages:  Flowering shoots are decumbent  Requires heavy staking
  10. 10. Stump with central core intact method Advantages:  Shoot is not decumbent  Heavy staking not required  Seed yield is slightly higher Dis-advantages:  Chopped heads cannot be marketed
  11. 11. Head intact method Advantages:  Chopping of head on all sides not required  Save time and labour cost  Heavy staking is not required Dis-advantages:  Lower seed yield as compared to other methods
  12. 12. Carrot  Is a biennial crop for seed production  It requires chilling temperature of 4.8 -10°C for 40- 60 days to initiate flowering  Very high inbreeding depression on selfing  Highly cross pollinated crop, because protandrous nature of flower
  13. 13. Contd…  Pollen viable for 3-4 days before stigma receptivity  Isolation distance 1000m  Male sterility is also noticed in carrot  Seeds produced only in hilly areas of HP, J&K  High labor cost for emasculation and pollination  Incidence of pest and diseases
  14. 14. Seed - seed method  The annual carrot crop is sown during Sept - Oct in the plains  Temperate carrot sown during Aug. - Sept. in the hills  The crop is allowed to grow and produce seeds in their original position  Vigorous roguing should be practiced
  15. 15. Root - seed method  When the roots are fully matured the crop is harvested  True to type roots are selected for next planting  To cut 1/4th of root and 1/3rd of top  To obtain higher yield and quality seeds  Harvested roots are carefully rogued out for colour and over sized roots were discarded
  16. 16. Contd…  Selected roots are replanted with a spacing of 60cm × 30cm in well prepared field  Fertilizer should be applied 50kg nitrogen and potash  Irrigation is given immediately after planting  Subsequent roguing for off-types and other weeds  At full bloom stage
  17. 17. Contd…  Early and late bolters are to be removed Advantages:  Low seed yield but  high quality seeds
  18. 18. Radish  Is a biennial crop for seed production  It requires chilling temperature of 4-8 °C for 40-60 days to initiate flowering  It is highly cross pollinated crop, because protogynous nature of flower  Stigma receptive 2-3 days before anthesis
  19. 19. Contd… Isolation distance 1000m  Temperature above 32°C results in dry stigma  Pollens might fails to germinate
  20. 20. Seed - seed method  Crop is sown during October in the plains  And in the hills during mid Sept. – Oct.  The crop is allowed to grow and produce seeds in their original position  Vigorous roguing should be practiced
  21. 21. Root - seed method  When the roots are fully matured the crop is harvested  True to type roots are selected for replanting  To cut 1/4th of root and 1/3rd of top  To obtain higher yield and quality seeds  Harvested roots are carefully rogued out  Based on colour and over sized roots are discarded
  22. 22. Contd…  The selected roots are replanted at a spacing of 60cm x 30cm for Asiatic varieties  Fertilizer were applied with N 80 kg/ha and K 15kg/ha  Irrigate the field immediately after planting of carrot
  23. 23. Potato  Is a biennial crop for seed production  Do not flower under short day condition  Flowers were comparatively less at low temperature  Self incompatibility is also noticed in potato  Requires extra light of 4 hours during winter for flower production in the plains
  24. 24. Contd…  Male sterility with few viable pollens for pollination  High labour requirement for emasculation and pollination  Less number of seeds per fruit  Is a self pollinated crop, but Some degree of cross pollination due to protruded stigma  Higher aphid infestation on seed crop
  25. 25. Pollination in potato Emasculation and pollination in potato
  26. 26. True Potato Seed (TPS) True potato seed: means matured ovule developed in potato as a result of sexual reproduction Advantages:  Requires 100-150g seeds/ha  Traditional method with 2.5-3t/ha of seed tuber  Low cost of planting material  Easy transportation and no need of cold storage of seeds
  27. 27. Contd…  Reduce the spread of diseases from one place to other places  Uniform germination of seeds  Uniformity in the maturation of crop  Seed tuber of 2.5-3 t/ha is used for human consumption  High yield than crop grown from seed tuber
  28. 28. Onion  Is a biennial crop for seed production  Highly cross pollinated crop, due to protandry  Do not produce flowers under short day conditions  Isolation distance 1000m for foundation seed  And for certified seeds 400m  Roguing is done based on foliage colour, size of bulb and colour of bulb
  29. 29. Seed - seed method  The first season bulb crop is left over winter in the field  To produce seed in the following season  The seed should not be used again for seed production. Wide variation in bulb size  Roguing can not be practice in this method
  30. 30. Advantages  Higher seed yield  Production of seed  Less cost of seed production due to,  Eliminating of expenses for bulb harvesting and storage
  31. 31. Bulb - seed method  Rabi season harvested bulbs were selected and stored till Oct. – Nov.  Storage temp. ranged from 4.5-14 °C for 4-6 months  Bulb selected for replanting should be free from diseases  Double and long thick neck bulbs are discarded  Select true to type bulbs for planting
  32. 32. Contd…  Select medium size bulb of 4-5 cm diameter with 40g weight  The 1/3rd portion of bulb is cut for easy and quick sprouting  Bulb should be disc like stem and root intact  Roguing is done based on foliage, bulb shape and neck characters

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