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code switching


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code switching

  1. 1. Code Switching and Code Mixing Nina Setyaningsih
  2. 2. <ul><li>J. A. Fishman  who speaks (or write) what language (or what language variety), to whom and when, and to what end? </li></ul><ul><li> People interact with each other and any particular languages or codes will be used on the basis of who they are communicating with in a certain situation and what objective or purpose they expect by speaking in such certain languages or codes. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Bilingualism <ul><li>It is the practice of using two languages interchangeably </li></ul><ul><li>It is closely related to the cultural aspects of the community </li></ul><ul><li>Example: different speech levels used by Javanese people </li></ul><ul><li>People have to speak different codes (i.e. languages)  code switching/mixing occurs </li></ul>
  4. 4. The term “code” <ul><li>A neutral term that refer to language, dialect, sosiolect, or language variety (Sumarsono & Partana, 2002). </li></ul><ul><li>Tanner (in Pride & Holmes eds., 1972) </li></ul><ul><li>It includes language and intra-language distinctions called varieties (speech levels, dialects, and style). </li></ul>
  5. 5. Code <ul><li>includes not only a language people use, but also the varieties of the language, including dialect, speech level, and style. In other words, code is a system that is used by at least two people to communicate with each other. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Code switching <ul><li>Crystal  code, or language switching occurs when an individual who is bilingual alternates between two languages during his/her speech with another bilingual person. </li></ul><ul><li>code switching entails that the language codes are used intersententially </li></ul><ul><li> code switching is the alternation of the use of at least two languages or their varieties or styles in the same conversation in a bilingual community, and structurally it is inter-sentential. It is also functional (done on purpose) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Example <ul><li>A: Yanis, tu veux du &quot;gado-gado&quot;? (1) (Yanis, would you like gado-gado?) </li></ul><ul><li>B: Mais oui, je veux aussi du &quot;es dawet&quot;. Quand on travaille dur, on a toujours faim. (2) (Yes, I’d like es dawet too. When we work hard, we are always hungry.) </li></ul><ul><li>A: Pak Mar, tolong pesen gado-gado kalih, es dawet kalih . (3) (Pak Mar, please bring us two gado-gado and es dawet .) </li></ul><ul><li>C: Inggih, inggih . (4) (Alright.) </li></ul><ul><li>(Cited from </li></ul>
  8. 8. Code mixing <ul><li>the change of codes within a simple utterance without any associated topic change </li></ul><ul><li>occurs when you incorporate small units (words or short phrases) from one language to another one. It is often unintentional and is often in word level. </li></ul><ul><li>the language codes are used intrasententially </li></ul><ul><li>in code mixing there is a base code that is used and has its own function and autonomy, whereas the other codes involved are not more than pieces without having function or autonomy as a code. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Example <ul><li>Awas. Hati-hati! Dalam meng- cover berita itu terutama headline, kamu harus correct, balance, jernih, lugas. Jangan memihak, jangan memvonis . Hal ini penting, jangan terjadi trial by the press. </li></ul><ul><li>(Cited from </li></ul>
  10. 10. Grosjean’s List of Factors Influencing the Code Choice
  11. 11. The kinds of code switching <ul><li>Metaphorical  topic change (formal to informal, official to personal, serious to humorous, and politeness to solidarity) </li></ul><ul><li>Situational  based on the situations where the speakers find that they speak one language in one situation and another in different one, no topic change </li></ul><ul><li>Internal  ngoko-krama or vice versa </li></ul><ul><li>External  Indonesian-English or vice versa </li></ul>
  12. 12. In sum… <ul><li>When you change language intentionally and you do it because of specific purposes (e.g. the presence of third person that does not share the same language, or the change of topic or situation), in other word the switch is functional , that means you code-switch. When you insert a piece of word other than that of your language, and you have no specific purpose or intention when doing that, that means you code-mix. </li></ul>