Smith Reading Log<br />Part I – MLA Citation<br />Works Cited<br />Smith, Peter H. Talons of the Eagle: Dynamics of US-Lat...
During the 19th century, spreading democracy justified imperialism and dignified conquests.
The argument meant that Europe’s monarchical and un-republican rule should stay out of the Western Hemisphere.
During the 20th century, it was used to justify intervention of affairs of Latin America.
Overall, spreading democracy was to justify imperialism both territorial and commercial.
US main goals were economic and political expansion.</li></ul>---------------------------------Page 2---------------------...
Redefine the substance of conflict
Seize control of the agenda
Capture the terms of debate
Shape the outcome of the struggle itself.
 A ‘cognitive map’ of reality makes ideology more simple which provides an explanation and suggests a plan of action.
The US relations with Latin America, aimed at main three audiences
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Smith - Reading Log

  1. 1. Smith Reading Log<br />Part I – MLA Citation<br />Works Cited<br />Smith, Peter H. Talons of the Eagle: Dynamics of US-Latin American Relations, New York; Oxford University Press, 1996. p. 40-54 and 62-64. Print.<br />Part II – Major Thesis<br />Smith argues that the foreign policies in the United States were influenced by the nation’s social obligation of spreading democracy. <br />Part III – Supporting Information<br />---------------------------------Page 1---------------------------------<br /><ul><li>One central principle of the United States is the political mission of spreading democracy.
  2. 2. During the 19th century, spreading democracy justified imperialism and dignified conquests.
  3. 3. The argument meant that Europe’s monarchical and un-republican rule should stay out of the Western Hemisphere.
  4. 4. During the 20th century, it was used to justify intervention of affairs of Latin America.
  5. 5. Overall, spreading democracy was to justify imperialism both territorial and commercial.
  6. 6. US main goals were economic and political expansion.</li></ul>---------------------------------Page 2---------------------------------<br /><ul><li>Spreading democracy was not just an academic exercise but to
  7. 7. Redefine the substance of conflict
  8. 8. Seize control of the agenda
  9. 9. Capture the terms of debate
  10. 10. Shape the outcome of the struggle itself.
  11. 11. A ‘cognitive map’ of reality makes ideology more simple which provides an explanation and suggests a plan of action.
  12. 12. The US relations with Latin America, aimed at main three audiences
  13. 13. Domestic society
  14. 14. National leaders thought US policy could assist in mobilization of resources
  15. 15. Citizens preferred to believe that US efforts were to serve noble purpose than material self-interest
  16. 16. Provide leaders with weapons for weakening, silencing domestic opposition
  17. 17. Rival powers, especially in Europe
  18. 18. Emphasize importance and warned outside rivals to not interfere
  19. 19. Ideology underlined national purpose and will and presented others with intellectual challenge
  20. 20. Unless rival had ideological rationalization of their own, they would be discouraged from acting
  21. 21. Throughout history, imperialists justified actions over higher mission
  22. 22. Subjugated societies
  23. 23. Spreading ideology was to make local people accept new power arrangements
  24. 24. Colonized interprets situation not as social/national defeat but step towards higher truth
  25. 25. Emphasis on leadership groups that acted as go-betweens
  26. 26. Those would benefit largely
  27. 27. Voluntary help within subordinate societies was crucial to imperial power and control
  28. 28. Without help, the imperialist must rely on use of force
  29. 29. Costly, inefficient and counterproductive</li></ul>---------------------------------Page 3---------------------------------<br /><ul><li>United States wanted national greatest and the promotion of democracy.
  30. 30. Thomas Paine in Common Sense in 1776, “We have it in our power to begin the world all over again”
  31. 31. To British and Europe, this was not a modest claim
  32. 32. America’s ideology was different from that of Europe: New and Old World
  33. 33. Paine gave reasoning to the philosophy/credo
  34. 34. Immigrants from Europe
  35. 35. “this New World has been the asylum for the persecuted and the lovers of civil and religious liberty from every part of Europe”
  36. 36. Geography
  37. 37. Placing across Europe – Atlantic Ocean
  38. 38. “even the distance at which the Almighty has placed England and America is a strong and natural proof that the author of one over the other was never the design of heaven”
  39. 39. Combined historical with religious interpretation
  40. 40. The way the country was discovered
  41. 41. Central element in mythology: providential benediction
  42. 42. God gave the American society its virtues and purposes.
  43. 43. This meant national greatest was not a matter of choice but an obligation.
  44. 44. Similar to the Spanish crusades in 16th century, they were just performing God’s will in 18th century
  45. 45. They had to act how they did to avoid disrespect and treason
  46. 46. Sense of heavenly mission led to emphasis on national uniqueness, belief in exceptionalism of US
  47. 47. Different in democracy
  48. 48. Different from other nations as City on a Hill
  49. 49. This conviction encouraged contradictory impulses.
  50. 50. Isolationist idea: It gave the idea that the United States was superior.
  51. 51. A land whose political ideals wouldn’t flourish elsewhere.
  52. 52. Activist idea: Uniqueness defined the obligation to spread the gospel of democracy.
  53. 53. American leaders felt they needed to work more than in US but throughout the globe.</li></ul>---------------------------------Page 4---------------------------------<br /><ul><li>Territorial expansion in 19th century needed a justification for the US national purpose.
  54. 54. President James K Polk’s contested Britain’s claim to Oregon territory and prepared for war in Mexico during 1840s
  55. 55. Newspaper editor, John L O’Sullivan, New York Morning News invoked will
  56. 56. “….right of our manifest destiny to overspread and possess the whole continent… for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federated self-government entrusted to us”
  57. 57. From that, the idea of manifest destiny emerged
  58. 58. Became a concept which crystallized a sense of national purpose: explanation and rationalization for expansion
  59. 59. Heaven-sent fate</li></ul>---------------------------------Page 5---------------------------------<br /><ul><li>Expansion and democracy throughout continent represented God’s will which made it a national mission.
  60. 60. The issue was not acquisition of land, natural resources but fulfillment of a divine plan.
  61. 61. Uncertainty about precise boundaries of expansion
  62. 62. Some wanted to expand to Canada, Mexico
  63. 63. Daniel S. Dickinson of NY to Senate: there are more territory and races for them to civilize
  64. 64. Manifest destiny encompassed significant subthemes
  65. 65. America’s youth in contrast to Old World of Europe
  66. 66. Fresh, eager, innocent US was coming into its own power
  67. 67. Challenged European theme of international law
  68. 68. Codes to regulate interactions between nations
  69. 69. Sustain the post-Westphalian balance of power
  70. 70. US wouldn’t be constrained by classical rules of law
  71. 71. Applied only to Europe, not US
  72. 72. Another subtheme stressed quality of states’ rights
  73. 73. Governmental federation offered ideal formula of incorporating new states one at a time</li></ul>---------------------------------Page 6---------------------------------<br /><ul><li>New states joined without upsetting the structure of the government
  74. 74. Manifest destiny was ambigious
  75. 75. Inevitability versus agency, passivity versus activism
  76. 76. To what extent fate or require actions of leaders/citizens?
  77. 77. Issue had more debates over the need for military action
  78. 78. Didn’t have to fight
  79. 79. John C Calhoun: “Time is acting for us; and, if we shall have the wisdom to trust its operation, it will assert and maintain our right with resistless force, without costing a cent of money, or a drop of blood”
  80. 80. If it was manifest, why not await arrival
  81. 81. Fight
  82. 82. Destiny was something to be seized, not passively awaited
  83. 83. Hostility mounted with Mexico, national purpose broadened in scope
  84. 84. 1847 Polk declared that military conquest by US would bring untold benefits to Mexico</li></ul>---------------------------------Page 7---------------------------------<br /><ul><li>Moses Y. Beach, editor of NY Sun: “to liberate and ennoble – not to enslave and debase – is our mission”
  85. 85. The greater the military action, the more expansive the definition of national purpose.
  86. 86. At the beginning of the Mexican War, manifest destiny was to areas of Texas to California, incorporated into US.
  87. 87. As US troops entered Mexico City, intention of liberation and democratization emerged
  88. 88. US leaders recognized spreading democracy would not be easy.
  89. 89. Looking in 19th century perspective, Latin America looked like a challenge.
  90. 90. One line of reasoning: focus on route on Latin America’s history – forces that shape the political culture
  91. 91. Prominent among this was character of Spain, influence of Catholicism, effects of climate, question of race
  92. 92. Thomas Jefferson quote; skeptical view of Latin America’s capacity from democracy
  93. 93. Take at least a generation to uproot legacies of monarchism and Catholicism
  94. 94. Jefferson harsh on impact of Catholic Church, 1813 “…priest-ridden people maintaining a free civil government. This marks the lowest grace of ignorance, of which their civil as well as religious leaders will always avail themselves for their own purposes”
  95. 95. John Quincy Adams (eventual author of Monroe Doctrine): constructive but cautious stance toward Spanish American independence, doubted US influence would have much positive effect</li></ul>---------------------------------Page 8---------------------------------<br /><ul><li>Less contact, better for the US – intercourse would bring contamination
  96. 96. Henry Clay of Kentucky (more optimistic): promoted granting of diplomatic recognition to newly independent countries of the region
  97. 97. International arena, new governments throughout region “would be animated by American feeling, guided by American policy”
  98. 98. Provide bulwark against European influence
  99. 99. Domestic political processes
  100. 100. Cooperation would lead to democratization in Spanish America, demonstration effect
  101. 101. Territorial expansion, especially with Mexican war and anticipations of Cuba required activist doctrine</li></ul>---------------------------------Page 10---------------------------------<br /><ul><li>1854, one legislator justified potential in military takeover of Cuba, quote
  102. 102. Acquisition was act of liberation for “misgoverned and oppressed”
  103. 103. One incorporated in US they would free to a “higher scale of humanity”
  104. 104. Others saw problems with pearl of Antilles
  105. 105. One congressman, different religion, different language, “our people have regarded them as aliens and outlaws from the pale of humanity and civilization”
  106. 106. Late 1890s, imminence of Spanish-American War prompted criticism of Spain’s historical record
  107. 107. Cruelty to native populations
  108. 108. Condemnation was a double edge
  109. 109. Rationalization for war against Spain
  110. 110. Legacy of perfidious rule would severely impede installation of democracy
  111. 111. US leaders had dilemma, worse qualities of the opponent, greater the need for military intervention, less chance for democratic rule.
  112. 112. Climate was another obstacle – some argued tropics were unfit for democracy
  113. 113. Favorable to laziness, licentiousness and irresponsibility
  114. 114. Debates over Puerto Rice, Representative James Slayden of Texas – pseudoscientific principles “Tropics seems to heat blood while enervating the people who inhabit them”
  115. 115. Race was a big concern and obstacle
  116. 116. Racial composition was interpreted as a central feature of national character</li></ul>---------------------------------Page 11---------------------------------<br /><ul><li>Unshakable belief that nonwhites were incapable of responsible self-government and were therefore unsuited to democracy
  117. 117. Not only racial prejudice but hierarchical notion that reflected God’s manifest will
  118. 118. Anglo-Saxons were hardiest and strongest of all whites
  119. 119. Asians fell in the middle of scheme with Spaniards and other southern Europeans
  120. 120. Bottom was blacks and Indians
  121. 121. Widely regarded as hopelessly beyond redemption
  122. 122. Mixed-bloods had undecided positions
  123. 123. Some thought mixture of races was means of uplifting character and quality over generations
  124. 124. Others thought it was degradation and perdition
  125. 125. The war with Mexico raised the problem of racial assimilation
  126. 126. James Buchanan denounced “the imbecile and indolent Mexican race”
  127. 127. However long, European and Spanish influence was insignificant
  128. 128. Indians and Mexicans were beyond redemption and only suitable for conquest and servitude </li></ul>---------------------------------Page 13---------------------------------<br /><ul><li>Racist formulations provided arguments for opposition to war
  129. 129. John C Calhoun saw nothing but trouble in the capture of Mexico
  130. 130. “we have never dreamt of incorporating into our Union any but the Caucasian race – the free white race… I protest against such a union as that! Ours, sir, is the Government of white race”
  131. 131. Only the free white race was capable of democratic government
  132. 132. Others were willing to compromise by taking as much land as possible with few people
  133. 133. Purpose of Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was acquisition of territory not incorporation of citizens
  134. 134. Long run, US would await alteration of ethnic composition of Mexican society
  135. 135. With this, country would fall into control of the US
  136. 136. Racial rearrangement would be key to imperial expansion
  137. 137. The issue came up again with the annexation of the Philippines
  138. 138. Racism argument was used to the US advantage
  139. 139. Filipinos were a “decadent race” according to Senator Albert Beveridge but it defined the nature of the imperialist challenge
  140. 140. Empires around the world were engaged in uplifting inferior races
  141. 141. Roosevelt conceded the US was just like any other imperial power</li></ul>---------------------------------Page 15---------------------------------<br /><ul><li>Fulfillment of divine obligation raised the question of how to incorporate newly subjugated peoples
  142. 142. Eventual citizenship ran directly into the problem of race
  143. 143. Senator Henry M. Teller of Colorado... would rather make the Philippine Islands a colony rather their inhabitants citizens of the US…
  144. 144. For Cuba, with its large black population was an even bigger problem as Southerners were quick to express opinions
  145. 145. Benjamin F Tillman opposed Spanish-American War and warned North that burden may be bigger than expected
  146. 146. Other Senators agreed
  147. 147. Orville H Platt… people of Cuba because of race and characteristic “cannot be easily assimilated by us…”
  148. 148. John W Foster “negro problem in our Southern states pressing upon us for solution… do we desire to aggravate the situation by adding a million more of the despised race to our voting population?”
  149. 149. Cuba was granted independence (partly a response to concerns) in 1902
  150. 150. Continued to be talk to annexation due to process of ‘Americanization’ but too much racial barrier</li></ul>---------------------------------Page 17---------------------------------<br /><ul><li>Racism bore a paradoxical relation to US imperialism
  151. 151. Prejudicial disdain to colored people was justification for forceful acquisition of influence and territory
  152. 152. Nonwhite population unsuited to develop, it was an obligation
  153. 153. Presence of nonwhite peoples in newly dominated lands, unwelcomed possibility of incorporating them into society
  154. 154. Altering racial composition and lowering quality
  155. 155. Racism promoted as well as restricted imperialist expansion
  156. 156. Largely due to ideological contradictions that US leaders turned away from annexation of territory
  157. 157. Toward construction of colonies at end of century.
  158. 158. Offered permanent source of influence
  159. 159. Toward period military intervention
  160. 160. Provided regular source of influence
  161. 161. However, invasions and protectorates would prove cost-effective
  162. 162. Between 1898 and 1934, US launched more than 30 military interventions on Latin America
  163. 163. Dispatch of armed troops from one country to another
  164. 164. Varied motivations for these actions
  165. 165. Protection of US economic interests (especially private loans to local governments)
  166. 166. Assertion of geopolitical hegemony
  167. 167. Assuring European powers not to meddle in western hemisphere
  168. 168. WWI, protection of Panama Canal
  169. 169. Perpetual rationalization was that the judicious application of military force by the US would lead to promotion of democracy throughout the region.
  170. 170. This policy focused exclusively on greater Caribbean Basin + Mexico and Central America
  171. 171. Some were short, others led to military occupations of several years
  172. 172. Examples given…</li></ul>---------------------------------Page 19---------------------------------<br /><ul><li>Washington insisted that it was fulfilling high-minded political mission
  173. 173. Woodrow Wilson (eventually defined purpose of WWI as making world safe for democracy)
  174. 174. Viewed democracy as a universal possibility
  175. 175. Wilson rejected prejudicial theories about historical, religious and geographical limitations
  176. 176. Clear limits in Latin American democracy
  177. 177. During this time, there were constraints on US democracy; women wanting to vote in 1919, organized labor was struggling, racial segregation meant exclusion of blacks from political life
  178. 178. View of popular skepticism; Us had little interest in promoting politics throughout region
  179. 179. Instead, maintaining law and order
  180. 180. Avoid mass-based social revolution
  181. 181. Most intervention had consistent patterns</li></ul>---------------------------------Page 21---------------------------------<br /><ul><li>Political key was to hold elections
  182. 182. Justified intervention and decision to lift the occupation
  183. 183. US supervision of elections were overbearing – sometimes to point of pre-selection of winner
  184. 184. But actual election was an essential step in the process
  185. 185. US ambassador to British counterparts stated make them vote, if they rebel they can vote again
  186. 186. Pattern clear in 1906, T Roosevelt used Platt Amendment to justify dispatch troops to Cuba and install William Howard Taft as provisional governor
  187. 187. US undertook annul election of 1905, enact electoral legislation and monitor a vote in 1909
  188. 188. TR: “establish peace and order on satisfactory basis, start the new government, and then leave the island”
  189. 189. Similar course in Panama, Nicaragua, etc.
  190. 190. Efforts to enshrine promotion of democracy as hemispheric principle
  191. 191. 1907: Ecuadorean diplomat named Carlos Tobar proposed Tobar Doctrine
  192. 192. American nations would refuse recognition to de facto regimes that had entered the office by deposing constitutional governments
  193. 193. 1913, Wilson Doctrine
  194. 194. Non-recognition of all unconstitutional governments in Latin America
  195. 195. US stand was resisted by former Argentine foreign minister, Estanislao Zeballos and others
  196. 196. Saw it as a pretext for continuing and arbitrary North American intervention in domestic affairs of the region
  197. 197. Multilateralism did not flourish in political arena</li></ul>---------------------------------Page 22---------------------------------<br /><ul><li>1830s to 1930s, not a single US intervention led to installation of democracy in Latin America
  198. 198. Mexico, political consequence of military conquest and territorial dismemberment in 1840s
  199. 199. Country endure civil war but not because of US interference, internal factors
  200. 200. Ill-starred importation of a European emperor
  201. 201. Subsequently endure civil war and decades of dictatorship, result of internal factors rather than US influence
  202. 202. In Caribbean Islands, under the Platt Amendment
  203. 203. Cuba had social protest and in 1930s long-term authoritarian rule
  204. 204. Nicaragua and Dominican Republic have similar fates
  205. 205. Haiti – worse instance, endless course of dictatorship after US military occupation for 19 years</li></ul>---------------------------------Page 23---------------------------------<br /><ul><li>Explanations for miserable record
  206. 206. Goals of US policy: geopolitical and economic motivations
  207. 207. Primary purpose for US influence in Caribbean and reduce/eliminate European presence
  208. 208. Protect business investment (banking interests)
  209. 209. Failure to achieve democracy derived from methods employed by US
  210. 210. Little effort to construct, strengthen or bolster economic practices
  211. 211. Oversaw elections from time to time
  212. 212. Nicaragua, Dominican Republic, Haiti
  213. 213. Washington supervised creation of local constabularies that would become agents of dictatorial repression
  214. 214. US failed to promote democracy
  215. 215. Could be argued, US military interventions intended to slow down the prospects for political democracy
  216. 216. Rarity of effort in area stemmed from ambivalence
  217. 217. Woodrow Wilson espoused universal applicability of democracy
  218. 218. Policymakers in Washington and US citizens
  219. 219. Severe reservations about political suitability, capability and desirability of Latin Americans
  220. 220. Americans believed: as result of history, religion, race Latin Americans were incapable of democracy
  221. 221. Rather than waste time, made more sense to concentrate on law and order
  222. 222. Goal of stability came to replace ideal of democracy
  223. 223. Stability required iron hand, neither fault nor responsibility of US</li></ul>---------------------------------Page 25---------------------------------<br /><ul><li>From early 19th century to 1930s, US deployed military power for political democracy
  224. 224. From manifest destiny to Wilson’s democratic crusade: imperialism was justified by the gospel of democracy
  225. 225. Hebert Hoover: articulate the fundamental contradiction underlying these efforts
  226. 226. Goodwill tour of South American in 1928, then-popular president promised US would be respectful of national sensibilities and promote democracy by example, not force
  227. 227. “True democracy is not and cannot be imperialistic”</li></ul>Part IV – Strenghts and Limitations<br />Talons of the Eagle: Dynamics of US-Latin American Relations was written by Peter H. Smith who is a scholar on United States and Latin American relations. Smith is a distinguished Professor of Political Science and Simon Bolivar Professor of Latin American Studies at the University of California, San Diego. Smith was a magna cum laude graduate of Harvard College and received a PhD from Columbia University which shows he received an exceptional level of education on the field. His position at an accredited university is a value for the source as it was likely to have been thoroughly reviewed by colleagues before publication. Smith has published twenty books and approximately one hundred book chapters or journal articles. His works include Political and Beef in Argentina: Patterns of Conflict and Change (1969) and Democracy in Latin America: Political Change in Comparative Perspective (2005). He is also the coauthor of Modern Latin America (6th Edition, 2005) and has edited or co-edited more than a dozen anthologies. Smith has published many works which is a value for the source as it shows his extensive knowledge on the topic. Also, Smith has edited works of other historians which shows that he is a trusted historian and is respected by his colleagues. In 1981, Smith was president of the Latin American Studies Association which shows he is well acknowledged in his field. <br />One limitation of this source is that although primary sources are given, some quotes are not cited with names. One source, for example, was cited as “one congressman later recounted” (48). <br />Part V – essay Outline<br />Question: Why and how has the US intervened in Latin America between 1898 and 1929?<br />Introduction<br />Background sentences (3-4) In the years 1898 to 1929, there were many American interventions on Latin American nations. The Spanish-American War which started in 1898, for example, was fought in defense of the Cubans who were under the rule of Spain. Following the war, the country of Cuba was still largely under United States influence although granted freedom. Most United States intervention displayed the same consistent patterns of force followed by the holding of elections. Thesis StatementBetween 1898 and 1929, the United States intervened in Latin America because of social, political and economic reasons through methods of military force and political intervention. <br />Body Paragraph One<br />Topic SentenceSocial factors led to American military and political intervention in Latin America. Introduce EvidenceAmericans believed that it was the white man’s burden to intervene in Latin America. Evidence “meat” proper citation (paraphrase)This idea came from a poem which argues that whites have a moral obligation to encourage civilizations of other ethics and cultural backgrounds to adopt their ways (Smith)…. Spreading Christianity. Explanation of evidence (connect to the topic sentence)The poem encouraged the unshakable belief that nonwhites were incapable of self-government. It also encouraged the existing belief that whites were the most superior race. The act of imperialism was then justified by the notion that it was God’s will. Introduce EvidenceThe American public supported foreign intervention as instability in Latin America was exaggerated in the press. Evidence “meat” proper citation (paraphrase)Cubans had been rebelling against Spain for their independence for many years. In 1896, Spain responded to the Cuban revolts in Mexico by sending General Valeriano to restore order. To stop the rebellion, Valeriano put rebels in concentration camps with bad conditions. News in America was exaggerated to lure and enrage readers, a journalism technique dubbed as yellow journalism (Spanish-American War).Explanation of evidence (connect to the topic sentence)Yellow journalism enraged many American readers who were sympathetic of Cubans. Americans related to the situation the Cubans were in, having just won their independence from Britain in the 18th century. The public was further pushed when yellow journalism placed blame on Spain for the incident of the USS Maine at Havana Harbor. The public opinion along with political pressure led President McKinley to declare a state of war. Introduce EvidenceThe Spanish-American war was a military intervention in Latin America which was socially influenced. Evidence “meat” proper citation (paraphrase)The Spanish-American War started in 1898 and was a military intervention in Latin America. The United States fought against Spain for Cuban’s freedom. Explanation of evidence (connect to the topic sentence)The outcome of this war was the Treaty of Paris which was the agreement between Spain and US to annex Philippines. Although Cuba was independent from Spain, the US still politically intervened in Cuba’s affairs. This is shown by the Platt Amendment which was added to the newly formed government constitution for an independent Cuba. The Amendment was an agreement that Cuba would have independence but the US reserved the right to intervene in Cuba when interests were threatened. The Amendment lasted until 1934 (Acquiring New Lands).ConclusionThe United States politically intervened in Latin America using force because of social reasons. <br /> Body Paragraph Two <br />Topic SentenceThe United States intervened in Latin American due to political reasons with the use of force. Introduce EvidenceOne political reason for foreign intervention is the threat of European powers. Evidence “meat” proper citation (paraphrase)America entered into the race for colonial power late. Many European nations were already seen as a world power. The importance for European countries to stay out of the western hemisphere. American ideology was different from Europe (Old/New World, monarchy, etc). Americans believed that Germans were a big threat (Healy). Explanation of evidence (connect to the topic sentence)This supported the ideas in the Monroe Doctrine which was a policy introduced in 1923 that stated European interference with the Americas would be viewed as acts of aggression and would lead to US intervention. Introduce EvidenceMoral diplomacy was a factor of political influence.Evidence “meat” proper citation (paraphrase)Moral Diplomacy was a policy under President Wilson which was the idea that only Latin American governments that were democratic would be supported by the US.Explanation of evidence (connect to the topic sentence)Through this policy, the US is again encouraging democracy in foreign nations which also brings up the idea of White Man’s Burden. Wilson hoped that without support of the US, the foreign countries would suffer setbacks (economically, etc) and eventually become democratic. Introduce EvidenceOne main factor which influenced the US interference in the Mexican Revolution was political. Evidence “meat” proper citation (paraphrase)After Portforio’s Diaz dictatorship had ended, Francisco Madero was elected in a democratic election. However, Victoriano Huerta killed Madero and took control. At this point, Wilson intervenes at Veracruz, Mexico by blockading the port but this angered many Mexican citizens the US retreated. When Carranza was put into power, he was supported by the US. However, Villa did not like the ruler and ended up killing Americans and invading city in New Mexico. Wilson sent US military to look for Villa in Mexico for over a year but he was not found. Explanation of evidence (connect to the topic sentence)During Roosevelt’s presidency, he sought to use Mexico’s stability and ties with the US as a basis for cooperation in Latin America as an example to inspire Caribbean leaders. However, this opportunity ended in 1911 at the start of the Mexican Revolution (Healy). This showed that the US did not support governments that were not democratic. ConclusionThe United States used force during interventions that were caused by political reasons. <br />Body Paragraph Three<br />Topic SentenceThe United States’ intervention in Latin America was influenced by protecting economic interests. Introduce EvidenceOne economic influence for Latin American intervention was to find new markets and raw materials. Evidence “meat” proper citation (paraphrase)There was the capitalist idea of ‘expand or die’. The US had many investments in foreign nations. For example, by 1913, the US investments in Mexico had reached a billion dollars in ranching, mining, railroads, etc. (Healy). Explanation of evidence (connect to the topic sentence)The US government was greatly influenced by bankers/investors/etc. to protect US economic interests in other nations. Introduce EvidenceThe construction of the Panama Canal is an event which demonstrates intervention for economic reasons. Evidence “meat” proper citation (paraphrase)Panama was previously a province of Columbia but since 1880s, Panama developed a strong nationalistic movement. US armed forces helped and became active during these movements, spending 200 days in Panama (longest US occupation in any foreign country). In 1903, with the support of Bunau-Varilla and the US government, Panamanians revolted. Roosevelt recognized the new nation two days after the revolt – bought land from Panama. Explanation of evidence (connect to the topic sentence)The construction on the Panama Canal was supported by investors and other businessmen. The distance between NY and San Francisco went from 13,615 miles to 5,300 miles. This canal was a way for merchant ships (and military ships) to move between Atlantic and Pacific oceans. (LaFeber). ConclusionUS intervention in Latin America was influence by economic factors. <br /> Conclusion<br />Rephrase ThesisUS intervention in Latin America in 1898-1929 was caused by social, political and economic factors. Interventions were done through methods of military force and political intervention. <br />Part VI – SEMINAR QUESTIONS<br /><ul><li>How was US imperialism in Latin America justified to American citizens, Europeans and Latin Americans?
  228. 228. American – democracy, hierarchy of races, bringing of civilization, White Man’s Burden, Manifest Destiny, social Darwinism
  229. 229. Latin America – Monroe Doctrine
  230. 230. Europeans – importance for Europe to not interfere with western hemisphere
  231. 231. The US relations with Latin America, aimed at main three audiences
  232. 232. Domestic society
  233. 233. National leaders thought US policy could assist in mobilization of resources
  234. 234. Citizens preferred to believe that US efforts were to serve noble purpose than material self-interest
  235. 235. Provide leaders with weapons for weakening, silencing domestic opposition
  236. 236. Rival powers, especially in Europe
  237. 237. Emphasize importance and warned outside rivals to not interfere
  238. 238. Ideology underlined national purpose and will and presented others with intellectual challenge
  239. 239. Unless rival had ideological rationalization of their own, they would be discouraged from acting
  240. 240. Throughout history, imperialists justified actions over higher mission
  241. 241. Subjugated societies
  242. 242. Spreading ideology was to make local people accept new power arrangements
  243. 243. Colonized interprets situation not as social/national defeat but step towards higher truth
  244. 244. Emphasis on leadership groups that acted as go-betweens
  245. 245. Those would benefit largely
  246. 246. Voluntary help within subordinate societies was crucial to imperial power and control
  247. 247. Without help, the imperialist must rely on use of force
  248. 248. Costly, inefficient and counterproductive
  249. 249. What were the arguments used to promote manifest destiny? How did these initially lead to involvement in the Mexican War?
  250. 250. White Man’s Burden
  251. 251. Territorial expansion in 19th century needed a justification for the US national purpose.
  252. 252. President James K Polk’s contested Britain’s claim to Oregon territory and prepared for war in Mexico during 1840s
  253. 253. Newspaper editor, John L O’Sullivan, New York Morning News invoked will
  254. 254. “….right of our manifest destiny to overspread and possess the whole continent… for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federated self-government entrusted to us”
  255. 255. From that, the idea of manifest destiny emerged
  256. 256. Became a concept which crystallized a sense of national purpose: explanation and rationalization for expansion
  257. 257. Heaven-sent fate
  258. 258. What were seen as major problems for the spread of democracy in Latin America?Pseudoscience; hot tropic not fit for democracy
  259. 259. Culture of being slaves from Europe, hesitant of new powers
  260. 260. History, character and race
  261. 261. Page 13
  262. 262. Racist formulations provided arguments for opposition to war
  263. 263. John C Calhoun saw nothing but trouble in the capture of Mexico
  264. 264. “we have never dreamt of incorporating into our Union any but the Caucasian race – the free white race… I protest against such a union as that! Ours, sir, is the Government of white race”
  265. 265. Only the free white race was capable of democratic government
  266. 266. How did the US view of Latin America both promote and restrict US expansion into the area?
  267. 267. Justification for forceful takeover
  268. 268. Incorporate of other races to American citizens, many up against idea: hierarchy of races
  269. 269. Others were willing to compromise by taking as much land as possible with few people
  270. 270. Purpose of Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was acquisition of territory not incorporation of citizens
  271. 271. Long run, US would await alteration of ethnic composition of Mexican society
  272. 272. With this, country would fall into control of the US
  273. 273. Racial rearrangement would be key to imperial expansion
  274. 274. The issue came up again with the annexation of the Philippines
  275. 275. Racism argument was used to the US advantage
  276. 276. Filipinos were a “decadent race” according to Senator Albert Beveridge but it defined the nature of the imperialist challenge
  277. 277. Empires around the world were engaged in uplifting inferior races
  278. 278. Roosevelt conceded the US was just like any other imperial power
  279. 279. What were the main motivations for US military intervention in Latin America at the turn of the century up to the 1930s? What pattern did these interventions follow?
  280. 280. Varied motivations for these actions
  281. 281. Protection of US economic interests (especially private loans to local governments)
  282. 282. Assertion of geopolitical hegemony (ex. Monroe Doctrine)
  283. 283. Assuring European powers not to meddle in western hemisphere
  284. 284. WWI, protection of Panama Canal
  285. 285. Military control in country, then install government of choice, supervise elections and leave
  286. 286. Most intervention had consistent patterns
  287. 287. Political key was to hold elections
  288. 288. Justified intervention and decision to lift the occupation
  289. 289. US supervision of elections were overbearing – sometimes to point of pre-selection of winner
  290. 290. But actual election was an essential step in the process
  291. 291. US ambassador to British counterparts stated make them vote, if they rebel they can vote again
  292. 292. Did US intervention in Latin America lead to the development of democracy? Why or why not?
  293. 293. US didn’t strengthen, bolsterDemocracy wasn’t fully developed or sustained
  294. 294. 1830s to 1930s, not a single US intervention led to installation of democracy in Latin America
  295. 295. Why were the US efforts to bring democracy to Latin America weak? What became the main goal of the US policy because of this?
  296. 296. US didn’t strengthen, bolster

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