Project: Youth organizations and subcultures Head project: Shestova Nina Nikolaevna The project was made by students of 11 B form. Balakovo, 2010
<ul><li>The hippie subculture was originally a youth movement that began in the United States during the early 1960s and spread around the world. The word hippie derives from hipster , and was initially used to describe beatniks who had moved into San Francisco's Haight-Ashbury district. These people inherited the countercultural values of the Beat Generation, created their own communities, listened to psychedelic rock and used drugs such as cannabis and LSD to explore alternative states of consciousness. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Hippie fashions and values had a major effect on culture, influencing popular music, television, film, literature, and the arts. Since the 1960s, many aspects of hippie culture have been assimilated by mainstream society. The religious and cultural diversity espoused by the hippies has gained widespread acceptance, and Eastern philosophy and spiritual concepts have reached a wide audience. The hippie legacy can be observed in contemporary culture in myriad forms — from health food, to music festivals. </li></ul>
Early hippies (1960–1966) <ul><li>Some of the earliest San Francisco hippies were former students at San Francisco State College who became intrigued by the developing psychedelic hippie music scene. These students joined the bands they loved, living communally in the large, inexpensive Victorian apartments in the Haight-Ashbury. Young Americans around the country began moving to San Francisco, and by June 1966, around 15,000 hippies had moved into the Haight. Activity centered around the Diggers, a street theatre. By late 1966, the Diggers opened free stores which simply gave away their stock, provided free food, distributed free drugs, gave away money, organized free music concerts, and performed works of political art. </li></ul>
Ethos and characteristics <ul><li>Hippies sought to free themselves from societal restrictions, choose their own way, and find new meaning in life. One expression of hippie independence from societal norms was found in their standard of dress and grooming, which made hippies instantly recognizable to one another, and served as a visual symbol of their respect for individual rights. Through their appearance, hippies declared their willingness to question authority, and distanced themselves from the "straight" and "square" (i.e., conformist) segments of society. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Both men and women in the hippie movement wore jeans and maintained long hair, and both genders wore sandals or went barefoot. Men often wore beards, while women wore little or no makeup. Hippies often chose brightly colored clothing and wore unusual styles; non-Western inspired clothing with Native American, Asia, Indian, African and Latin American motifs were also popular. Much of hippie clothing was self-made in defiance of corporate culture, and hippies often purchased their clothes from flea markets and second-hand shops. Favored accessories for both men and women included Native American jewelry, head scarves, headbands and long beaded necklaces. Hippie homes, vehicles and other possessions were often decorated with psychedelic art. </li></ul>
Singer in the contemporary hippie movement in Russia
Travel <ul><li>Travel, domestic and international, was a prominent feature of hippie culture, becoming (in this communal process) an extension of friendship. School busses were popular because groups of friends could travel on the cheap. The VW Bus became known as a counterculture and hippie symbol, and many buses were repainted with graphics and/or custom paint jobs — these were predecessors to the modern-day art car. A peace symbol often replaced the Volkswagen logo. Many hippies favored hitchhiking as a primary mode of transport because it was economical, environmentally friendly, and a way to meet new people. </li></ul>
A 1967 VW Kombi bus decorated with hand-painting
Politics <ul><li>Hippies were often pacifists and participated in non-violent political demonstrations. The degree of political involvement varied widely among hippies, from those who were active in peace demonstrations to the more anti-authority street theater and demonstrations of the Yippies, the most politically active hippie sub-group. Bobby Seale discussed the differences between Yippies and hippies with Jerry Rubin who told him that Yippies were the political wing of the hippie movement, as hippies have not "necessarily become political yet". Regarding the political activity of hippies, Rubin said, "They mostly prefer to be stoned, but most of them want peace, and they want an end to this stuff.« </li></ul>
The peace symbol was developed in the UK as a logo for the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, and was embraced by U.S. anti-war protestors in the 1960s.
Legacy <ul><li>The legacy of the hippie movement continues to permeate Western society. In general, unmarried couples of all ages feel free to travel and live together without societal disapproval. Religious and cultural diversity has gained greater acceptance. Co-operative business enterprises and creative community living arrangements are more accepted than before. Some of the little hippie health food stores of the 1960s and 1970s are now large-scale, profitable businesses, due to greater interest in natural foods, herbal remedies and vitamins. Author Stewart Brand argues that the development and popularization of the Internet finds one of its roots in the anti-authoritarian ethos promoted by hippie culture. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Metallist is the youth subculture inspired by music in style metal, appeared in 1970th years. Subculture widespread in northern Europe, it is wide enough — in northern America, there is a significant amount of its representatives in southern America, southern Europe and Japan. In the Near East, except for Israel and Turkey, metallist (as well as many other "nonconformists") are small and are exposed to prosecution. </li></ul><ul><li>Metal — the genre of the rock music which has appeared from hard fate in the beginning and the middle 1970th, mainly in England and the United States of America. Metal it is characterised "heavy" Riff the electroguitars deformed by effect distortion , long guitar solo and an aggressive rhythm. </li></ul><ul><li>Metal has enough great number of styles, from rather "soft" (such, as, for example, a classical heavy-metal) to unprepared listeners rather "heavy" and unacceptable for the majority (det-metal, black-metal, etc.). </li></ul>
<ul><li>Word «Metallist» — Russian, derivative of a word "metal" with addition of the borrowed Latin suffix "-ist". Initially it meant workers of the metalwork industry, "tinmen". Metallist in value «the admirer of heavy metal» has become current in the late eighties. </li></ul><ul><li>In English language analogue of Russian «Metallist» is metalhead. Metallists also name slangy words headbanger and mosher, in conformity with behaviour of fans at concerts. </li></ul><ul><li>In each language arise derivative of word Metal for a designation of its admirers. In Spanish — Metalero, in Italian — Metallaro, in Finnish — Hevari (from a word «Heavy»), in Polish — Metalowcy. Admirers of metal name металлистами or metalhead. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Unlike subcultures it is ready also punks, the subculture metallists is deprived strongly pronounced ideology and concentrated, basically, round music. Nevertheless, there are some lines which are considered characteristic for representatives of subculture. </li></ul><ul><li>Texts metal-groups propagandise independence, independence and a self-trust, a cult of "strong personality". The relation to religion variously, but traditionally is considered that metallists are not religious. Despite an abundance of religious and occult mysticism in texts metal-groups, they as a rule do not carry missionary character and are perceived by admirers as allegory. Among admirers black-metal there are pagans and Satanists, but for admirers of other versions it is uncharacteristic. </li></ul><ul><li>In a press there were the researches asserting that intellectual level metalists can be high enough, and the hobby for metal can be an intelligence sign. Among metallists is popular the fantastic and mystical literature (G.Lavkraft, F.Herbert, U.Burrows, etc.), mythology (especially Scandinavian). </li></ul>
<ul><li>Old communication of culture metallists with culture of bikers is known. Motorcycles and speed in general are sung metal-groups as a force and independence symbol, therefore a motorcycle hobby is extended among metallists. In turn, among bikers the heavy-metal is the most popular music. </li></ul><ul><li>Metallists do not associate with the use of drugs, but are considered inclined to the alcohol use </li></ul>
<ul><li>Among many metallists can be described the Typical fashion so: </li></ul><ul><li>• Long hair at men </li></ul><ul><li>• the Leather jacket, a leather waistcoat. </li></ul><ul><li>• Black T-shirts or loose overalls with a logo of favourite metal group. </li></ul><ul><li>• Napulsniki — leather bracelets with rivets and-or (flogging) thorns, belts, chains on jeans. </li></ul><ul><li>• Stripes — Stripes on clothes and other surrounding subjects with images favourite metal-groups. </li></ul><ul><li>• heavy footwear, usual high boots. Short boots with chains — "Cossacks". Shoes (as a rule, sharp-nosed, "Gothic"). </li></ul><ul><li>• Jeans (usually dark blue or black), leather trousers </li></ul>
<ul><li>Singer Rob Helford who in the end of 1978 at concerts of group Judas Priest began to put on in leather clothes with metal ornaments has entered the similar form of clothes English metallist. Recently even more often the various army camouflage began to get into clothes metallists. Such things as camouflage army trousers and shorts which rush together with the black T-shirt having a logo of one of metal commands are especially favorite. But it is not necessary to confuse metalists with skinhead as the camouflage is a basic element of clothes of many people. As modern metalists carry leather gloves with the cut off fingers, it is frequent into gloves insert rivets or thorns. </li></ul>
<ul><li>In 80th years the fashion in the metal world was in many respects defined popularity glem-metal, that is in it there were many "colour" things like white, leather jackets, white sneakers, but in the late eighties the beginning 90 more "severe" extended until now was generated and finally practical, suitable for carrying «in a life» clothes by a principle «black Jeans plus kosuha». However the clothes are not the basic attribute of representatives of the given subculture. Among admirers of heavy music it is a lot of those who is indifferent, ironic, and even negatively concerns "dress-code" accepted in party, but thus is interested in directly musical component not less. </li></ul>
A Guide , Girl Guide or Girl Scout is a member of a section of some Guiding organizations who is between the ages of 10 and 14. Age limits are different in each organization. It is the female equivalent of the Boy Scouts . The term Girl Scout is used in the United States and several East Asian countries.
Girl Guides are organized into units/troops averaging 20-30 girls under guidance of a team of leaders. Units subdivide into patrols of about six Guides and engage in outdoor and special interest activities. Units may affiliate with national and international organizations. Some units, especially in Europe, have been co-educational since the 1970s, allowing boys and girls to work together as Scouts . There are other program sections for older and younger girls.
<ul><li>How Guides got their name </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Baden-Powell was a famous soldier who fought in the Boer War in South Africa at the beginning of the 20th century. During the Siege of Mafeking, when the town and British soldiers were besieged by Boer soldiers, B-P noticed how the young boys made themselves useful by carrying messages for the soldiers. When he came home, he decided to put some of his ‘scouting’ ideas into practice to see if they would be any good for young boys and took 21 boys camping on Brown sea Island, near Poole in Dorset. The camp was a success, and B-P wrote his book Scouting for Boys, covering tracking, signaling, cooking etc. Soon boys began to organize themselves into Patrols and Troops and called themselves ‘Boy Scouts’. Girls bought the book as well and formed themselves into Patrols of Girl Scouts. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1909 there was a Boy Scout Rally at Crystal Palace in London. Among all the thousands of Boy Scouts there was also a group of girls from Pinkneys Green, in Berkshire, who spoke to B-P and asked him to let girls be Scouts. B-P decided to take action. </li></ul>
<ul><li>In those days, for girls to camp and hike was not common, as this extract from the Scout newspaper shows: </li></ul><ul><li>« If a girl is not allowed to run, or even hurry, to swim, ride a bike, or raise her arms above her head, how can she become a Scout? » </li></ul><ul><li>B-P's career had been in the British Army. There was an Indian regiment called the Khyber Guides who served on the north-west frontier of India. B-P persuaded the girl ‘Scouts’ that Guides was a very special name of which they could be proud. So, in 1910 the first Girl Guides began. </li></ul>
Since 1910 Guides have spread and there are now millions of Guides worldwide. The World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS) was formed to link together Guides. In some countries the girls preferred to call themselves ‘Girl Scouts’.
<ul><li>Key points </li></ul><ul><li>Things that are shared amongst all Guide Units are: </li></ul><ul><li>The Guide Promise - Girls become Guides by making their Promise. Each country has its own Promise but all have the same 3 parts: duty to God or to your religion; duty to your country; keeping the Guide Law. </li></ul><ul><li>The Good Turn - each Guide tries to do a kind thing for someone else, without payment and without being asked, every day. </li></ul><ul><li>The World Badge - this can be worn on uniform or ordinary clothes. The three leaves of the trefoil stand for the threefold Promise. The vein in the centre is a compass needle, pointing the way and the two stars stand for the Promise and the Law. The colours stand for the golden sun shining over all the children of the world, from a blue sky. </li></ul><ul><li>The World Flag - this is in the same colours as the World Badge and can be carried or flown by any member of the movement. It is often used as the Unit Flag. The three yellow blocks represent the threefold Promise and the white corner represents the commitment to peace of all WAGGGs' members. </li></ul>
The Guide Sign - the three fingers stand for the three parts of the Promise. The Guide sign is used when making or renewing the Promise and can be used when meeting other Guides. It may also be used when receiving a badge or at the end of meetings. The Motto - Be Prepared - This means that Guides are ready to cope with anything that might come their way. The left handshake - this is the way members of the Movement greet each other. The left hand is the one nearest the heart and so shows friendship. Thinking Day - on the 22 February each year Guides think of their Guide sisters all around the world. The date was chosen at a World Conference because it was the birthday of both the Founder and the World Chief Guide. The World Centres - there are 4 Guide homes in different parts of the world: Our Chalet in Switzerland; Pax Lodge in London; Our Cabana in Mexico; and Sangam in India. The World Chief Guide - Olave, Lady Baden-Powell is the only person ever to have been World Chief Guide. She was the wife of the Founder, Lord Baden-Powell of Gilwell and lived from 1889 to 1977.
Uniforms Individual national or other emblems may be found on the individual country's Scouting article. WAGGGS membership badge-the trefoil is the main element in the logo of most Guiding organizations . Uniform is a specific characteristic of Scouting. Robert Baden-Powell, at the 1938 World Jamboree, said it "hides all differences of social standing in a country and makes for equality; but, more important still, it covers differences of country and race and creed, and makes all feel that they are members with one another of the one great brotherhood".
In the 1909 The Scheme for Girl Guides, the uniform for the newly emerging movement was given as: Jersey of company colour. Neckerchief of company colour. Skirt, knickers, stockings, dark blue. Cap - red biretta, or in summer, large straw hat. Haversack, cooking billy, lanyard and knife, walking stick or light staff. Cape, hooked up on the back. Shoulder knot, of the 'Group' colour on the left shoulder. Badges, much the same as the Boy Scouts. Officers wear ordinary country walking-dress, with biretta of dark blue, white shoulder knot, walking stick, and whistle on lanyard. Guide uniform varies within cultures, climates and the activities undertaken. They are often adorned with badges indicating a Guide's achievements and responsibilities. In some places, uniforms are manufactured and distributed by approved companies and the local Guiding organization. In other places, members make uniforms themselves.