My presentation future of training-final.ppt

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My presentation future of training-final.ppt

  1. 1. TRAINING & DEVELOPEMENT Instructor:Yrd. Doç. Dr. Melek Birsel Topic: The Future of Training & Development By: Fathe Mahdi Wozir Dec,13,2012
  2. 2. CONTENTS (24 Slides)1. FUTURE TRENDS THAT WILL AFFECT TRAINING -NEW TECHNOLOGIES -VIRTUAL WORK ARRANGEMENT -DESIGN, CONTENT & DELIVERY METHOD -INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL -PERFORMNACE SUPPORT -PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS -PARTNERSHIP & OUTSOURCING2. A CHANGE MODEL PERSPECTIVE TO TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT -CHANGE RELATED PROBLEMS -STEPS IN A CHANGE PROCESS -METHODS TO DETERMINE WHETHER CHANGE IS NEEDED (BENCHMARKING & PROCESS REENGINEERING) -KEY ISSUES IN IMPLIMENTING CHANGE 2-25
  3. 3. Increased Use of New Technologies forTraining Delivery The use of Online learning, Mobile learning(Ipods) & other Technologies will likely increase in the future. The main reasons include: The cost of new technologies will decrease. Technology will help employees to better serve customers and generate new business. It can reduce training costs (travel, food, housing). It allows trainers to build into training the desirable features of a learning environment (practice, feedback, reinforcement). Training can be delivered at any place and time (contingent employees, alternative work arrangements). New technologies that combine computer science, instructional design & graphic interfece have potential to increase the ability to learn. Examples-Teleimmersion, -virtual retinal display -Digital Avatar -instant messaging -Networking websites -blogs &social soft wares
  4. 4. Increased Demand for Training for VirtualWork Arrangements Virtual Work arrangements Include virtual Teams as well as Telecommuting, work conducted in a remote location. Communication is mainly electronically. Location, organization structure, and employment relationships are not limiting factors in virtual work arrangements. here, Leadership, Shared Value & rewarded Goals are important Two training challenges: Companies must invest in training delivery methods that facilitate digital collaboration. Teams and employees must be provided with tools needed for finding knowledge. 4-25
  5. 5. Increased Emphasis on Speed in Design, Focus in Content,and Use of Multiple Delivery Methods Due to new technology, trainers are being challenged to find new ways to use instructional design. Two Shifts are taking place: -who is leading the learning-from instructor to employee -Place-from workplace to mobile learningTrainers must determine the best way to design Effective Training Rapid Instructional Design (RID)-a group of techniques that allows training to be built more quickly-(time & cost Reduction) Two important principles in RID: Instructional content and process can be developed independent of each other. Resources devoted to design and delivery of instruction can be reallocated as appropriate. 5-25
  6. 6. Examples of RID Strategies 6-25
  7. 7. Increased Emphasis on Capturing andSharing Intellectual CapitalCompanies that recognize the strategic value of becoming a learningorganization & are concerned about the loss of valuable knowledge(e.g. due to retirement) will continue to seek ways to turnemployees’ knowledge(human capital) in to a shared company asset.Trainers & training departments will be charged with managingknowledge & coordinating organizational learning.Sharing knowledge and contributing to intellectual capital willbecome more common as collaborative social networkingtechnology and Web tools make this simpler to implement.Positions like knowledge manager or chief information officerTrainers must be technologically literate. 7-25
  8. 8. Increased Use of True Performance Support Companies are moving away from courseware & classes as performance improvement method to support that is available during work, i.e. true performance support Embedded Learning - occurs on the job as needed; involves collaboration and nonlearning technologies(e.g instant messaging); is integrated with knowledge management. May become increasingly prevalent as companies cannot have employees spend hours on classroom or online learning that is not directly relevant to their current job demands. Formal methods will not disappear but will focus more on development of competencies that can benefit the employee and the company in the long run, but embedded learning will focus on providing the learning that the employee needs to complete key jobs tasks. Embedded learning –task specific, real time content and simulation 8-25
  9. 9. Increased Use of True Performance Support(cont.) Learning is expected as a result of collaboration with employees and machines in the work process. In the future, employees will: be presented with short learning episodes embedded in their work. be alerted when the learning episodes are needed. have direct connections to experts. be continuously connected online wirelessly. have simulations for guidance. Technology available for collaboration includes virtual classroom software and asynchronous tools. 9-25
  10. 10. Functional Areas and Applications of Real-Time Extended Business 10-25
  11. 11. Increased Emphasis on Performance Analysis andLearning for Business Enhancement Training departments are shifting their focus from training as a solution to business problem to a performance analysis approach. Performance Analysis Approach - identifying performance gaps or deficiencies and examining training as one possible solution for the business units. Three ways Training departments will need to be involved are: Focus on interventions related to performance improvement. Provide support for high-performance work systems. Developing systems for training administration, development & delivery that reduces cost & that increases employees’ access to learning Companies are striving to create high performance workplace- & this forces trainers to prepare & provide effective training in interpersonal, quality, and technical skills as well as to help employees understand production system/customer service 11-25
  12. 12. Increased Use of Training Partnerships andOutsourcing Training Training departments will increase partnerships with academic institutions to provide basic skills training and to develop customized programs. The role of external suppliers of training increases. Application Service Provider (ASP) - a company that rents out access to software for a specific application. Helps to offer structured content & custom option. 12-25
  13. 13. SKILLS FOR FUTURE TRAINERSSome of the major skills needed are:-Matching Training content & Methods to the local culture of work force-Designing a learning space as well as content in a technology-driven learning environments-Use of Multimedia Tools including audio, video, webcast & live action-Use of assessment to determine Trainees’ learning style-Facilitate Learning & stay in touch with employee, managers & business units to identify what they need and act accordingly-Developing & delivering learning that is integrated with the job-Packaging & delivering training in different formats for beginners & experts 13-25
  14. 14. Training and Development From a ChangeModel PerspectiveFirst of all training is a tool to bring change-in b/r, attitude or skillFor new training or development practices to be successfullyimplemented, they must be accepted by the customer (Manager,upper manager, employee).1. Employees must understand reasons for change and agree with the reason.2. Employees must have the skills needed to implement the change.3. Employees must see managers and employees in power positions support the change.4. Organizational structures such as compensation & performance management system must support the change.Change is not easy & resistance might occur at any time. So achange model is developed where the process of change is based onthe interaction among four components of the organization. 14-25
  15. 15. A Change Model 15
  16. 16. Training and Development From a ChangeModel Perspective(Cont.)There are four change related problems that need to be addressedbefore implementation of any new training practice:1. Resistance to change :-Managers’ & Employees’ unwillingness to change2. Control:-change can cause managers & employees to have less control over resources3. Power:- the ability to influence others becomes less(due to autonomy)4. Task Redefinition;- change creates a change in managers’ & employees’ roles & job responsibilities 16-25
  17. 17. Steps in a Change Process(recommendations forsuccessful change) 17
  18. 18. Methods to Determine Whether Change isNecessary From a systems perspective, companies and trainers need to: understand both internal and external environments. Specifically, they need to understand the effectiveness and efficiency of current training practices. Also be aware of other companies’ practices to ensure that their training practices are the best possible. Concerning this, two concepts are forwarded, -Benchmarking & -Process Reengineering 18-25
  19. 19. Methods to Determine Whether Change isNecessary (cont.)Benchmarking-: is the practice of finding examples of excellent products, services or systems (i.e. best practices). It is important component of companies’ quality strategy. By looking at how excellent companies conduct training, a company can identify how its training practices compare to the best practices and also to learn from others. In short, it provides information about other companies’ best practices.Process Reengineering-: is a complete review of critical processes & redesign of those processes to make them more efficient & able to deliver higher quality. Especially important when trainers attempt to deliver training using new technologies. It can be used to review the training department functions & processes or to review a specific training program or development program practice such as a career management system It provides information about the effectiveness and efficiency of training systems within the company. 19-25
  20. 20. The Reengineering Process 20-25
  21. 21. Key Issues in Implementing Change Companies face many forces(previous discussions)-so to overcome this, they have to change (to become successful) Organization Development is a planned, systematic change process that uses behavioral science knowledge and techniques to improve companies’ effectiveness by improving relationships and increasing learning and problem-solving capabilities. 21-25
  22. 22. Key Issues in Implementing Change (cont.) Change Management - process of ensuring that new interventions such as training practices are accepted and used by employees and managers. ¾ of reengineering, TQM, strategic planning & downsizing efforts in our world failed. Thus, Four issues must be considered to facilitate the change management process: 1.Overcoming resistance to change. -involve affected people in planning the change & reward them -divide the implementation of the new practice in to stapes 2.Managing the transition to the new practice. -communicating a clear picture of the future & -creating organizational arrangements for the transition(help 22-25 line, contact person)
  23. 23. Key Issues in Implementing Change (cont.)3.Shaping political dynamics. -Managers need to seek the support of key power groups including formal & informal leaders. - Publicizing the function & value of training & the department -Avoid the most common misconception about training (E.g. Training is not Valuable, it is an Expense not investment, anybody can be trainer, training is responsibility of trainer, etc)4.Using training to explain new Tasks - change not only involve alteration of the way service or process is going to be provided, but also in employees’ & managers’ role. Managers & employees need to be trained to deal with new system 23-25
  24. 24. Key Issues in Implementing Change (cont.)Change Interventions Besides Training, there are several interventions that companies have used successfully to bring about change. These are: Survey feedback - collecting information about employees’ attitudes and perceptions using a survey, summarizing the results, and providing employees with feedback to stimulate discussion, identify problems, and plan actions to solve problems. Process consultation - a consultant works with managers or other employees to help them understand and take action to improve specific events that occur at work. E.g. Analysis of Relationships between employees, the workflow, how decisions are made, etc. 24-25
  25. 25. Key Issues in Implementing Change (cont.)Group Interventions - involves employees from different parts of theorganization. They may also involve customers, and other stakeholdersfrom outside. It brings together the participants in an off-site setting todiscuss problems and opportunities or to plan change.Large group interventions seek to bring about radical change in the entirecompany by involving the entire company systemIntergroup Activities attempts to improve relationships among differentteams, departments or groups. 25-25
  26. 26. THANK YOU FOR YOURPARTICIPATION! 26

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