CHAPTER 4 THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD
PRE-EXPERIMENTAL CLASS
1. One-shot Case Study
2. One-group Pre-test Post-test Design

3. Intact Groups Design

QUASI-EXPER...
Design

Does the design
involve more
than one group
of subjects?

Does the design
involve
administering a
treatment?

Does...
CHAPTER 4 THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD
CHAPTER 4 THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD
SAMPLE
- a portion of a population, serving as a basis for
estimates of the attribute of the whole population
POPULATION
-...
Descriptive
Statistics
provides methods concerned
with summarizing and
describing numerical data.
Uses tables, graphs, an...
CHAPTER 4 THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD
difficulty of controlling all the possible confounding variables associated
with research on human subjects
Classroom res...
a well-documented, highly codified approach to conducting a research with
well-developed quality control procedures
an i...
CHAPTER 4 THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD
The experimental method has often been used in
language classroom research, but with varied success,
since it is so diffic...
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Comparison of main research designs in the experimental method

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Comparison of main research designs in the experimental method

  1. 1. CHAPTER 4 THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD
  2. 2. PRE-EXPERIMENTAL CLASS 1. One-shot Case Study 2. One-group Pre-test Post-test Design 3. Intact Groups Design QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL CLASS 1. Non-equivalent Control (or Comparison) Groups Design 2. Time Series Design 3. Equivalent Time Samples Design MAJOR DESIGNS AND CLASSES OF RESEARCH DESIGNS IN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH EX POST FACTO CLASS TRUE EXPERIMENTAL CLASS 1. Criterion Group Design* 1. Post-test Only Control Group Design 2. Correlation Design 2. Pre-test Post-test Control Group Design* (after Shavelson, 1981)
  3. 3. Design Does the design involve more than one group of subjects? Does the design involve administering a treatment? Does the design involve a randomly selected, randomly assigned control group to compare with the experimental group(s)? Does the design involve some other kind of comparison group? Is a pre-test given? Is random selection used to constitute the sample? Is random assignment used to constitute the groups? One-shot Case Study No Yes No No No No No One-group Pretest Post-test Design No Yes No No Yes No No Intact Groups Design Yes Yes No Yes No No No Non-equivalent Control (or Comparison) Groups Design Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No Time Series Design No Yes No No Yes No No Equivalent Time Samples Design No Yes No No Yes No No Criterion Group Design* Yes No No Yes No Yes No Correlation Design No No No No No Yes No Post-test Only Control Group Design Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Pre-test Post-test Control Group Design* Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
  4. 4. CHAPTER 4 THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD
  5. 5. CHAPTER 4 THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD
  6. 6. SAMPLE - a portion of a population, serving as a basis for estimates of the attribute of the whole population POPULATION - a finite or infinite collection of items under consideration
  7. 7. Descriptive Statistics provides methods concerned with summarizing and describing numerical data. Uses tables, graphs, and charts that display data. Mean Standard Deviation Frequency Polygon Inferential Statistics  concerns with generalizing information of making an inference about a population based only on a sample or portion observed
  8. 8. CHAPTER 4 THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD
  9. 9. difficulty of controlling all the possible confounding variables associated with research on human subjects Classroom research “entails a very large human and institutional factors that can affect research design and outcomes in an unforeseen and unforeseeable ways”. (Rounds and Schachter, 1996) more philosophical problem the issue of subjectivity and objectivity
  10. 10. a well-documented, highly codified approach to conducting a research with well-developed quality control procedures an internationally recognized method of conducting a research there are clear criteria for interpreting the outcomes possibility of making comparisons across studies conducted at different sites may enable researchers obtain grant money or get their reports published
  11. 11. CHAPTER 4 THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD
  12. 12. The experimental method has often been used in language classroom research, but with varied success, since it is so difficult to control all the possible confounding variables that can arise in the research with real people. It is, however, a valuable approach to understanding teaching and learning, and it has influenced many other approaches.

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