Chronic Obstructive Disorder


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Chronic Obstructive Disorder

  1. 1. COPDChronic Obstructive Lung Disease<br />Developed by: <br />Dana Hughes, RN, PhD<br />Miners Hospital, University of Utah<br />Libbey M. Chuy, MPH<br />Asthma Program, Utah Department of Health <br />
  2. 2. Overview<br />What is COPD?<br />How do I know if I have COPD?<br />How common is it?<br />General population<br />Mining population<br />What increases my risk of developing COPD?<br />How can I prevent getting COPD?<br />How is COPD treated?<br />
  3. 3. What is COPD?<br />A set of lung diseases that limit air flow and is not fully reversible.<br />COPD patients report they are “hungry” for air<br />Usually progressive and is associated with inflammation of the lungs as they respond to noxious particles or gases<br />Potentially preventable with proper precautions and avoidance of precipitating factors<br />Symptomatic treatment is available<br />
  4. 4. Two Major Causes of COPD<br />Chronic Bronchitis is characterized by<br />Chronic inflammation and excess mucus production<br />Presence of chronic productive cough<br />Emphysema is characterized by<br />Damage to the small, sac-like units of the lung that deliver oxygen into the lung and remove the carbon dioxide<br />Chronic cough<br />*Source: Braman, S. Update on the ATS Guidelines for COPD. Medscape Pulmonary Medicine. 2005;9(1):1.<br />
  5. 5. Primary Symptoms<br />Chronic Bronchitis<br />Chronic cough<br />Shortness of breath<br />Increased mucus<br />Frequent clearing of throat<br />Emphysema<br />Chronic cough<br />Shortness of breath<br />Limited activity level<br />
  6. 6. Normal versus Diseased Bronchi<br />
  7. 7. Emphysema<br />
  8. 8. How common is COPD?<br />About 13.9% of the U.S. adult population (25+ years) have been diagnosed with COPD*<br />An estimated 15-19% of COPD cases are work-related**<br />24 million other adults have evidence of troubled breathing, indicating COPD is under diagnosed by up to 60%***<br /> *Braman, S. Update on the ATS Guidelines for COPD. Medscape Pulmonary Medicine. 2005;9(1):1.<br /> **CDC programs in Brief– Workplace Health and Safety-Work-related Lung Diseases. <br />***COPD Fact Sheet. Oct 2003. www/<br />
  9. 9. COPD-A Major Cause of Hospitalization & Death<br />COPD was the:<br />Leading cause of hospitalizations in the U.S. in 2000<br />Fourth leading cause of death<br />
  10. 10. COPD in the Mining Industry<br />Studies show:<br />An increased number of cases of chronic bronchitis in coal & gold miners<br />Long-term exposures to low levels of silica may lead to the development of chronic bronchitis & emphysema<br />Chronic exposure to coal dust, particularly high levels, may lead to severe respiratory impairment (emphysema) <br /> *Hnizdo & Vallyathan Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to occupational exposure to silica dust: a review of epidemiological and pathological evidence. Occup Environ Med 2003;60:237-243.<br />
  11. 11. COPD Death Rates in Mining Industry1999<br />Coal mining was at the top of a list of industries with a significantly elevated death rate from COPD<br />Non-metal and metal mines were also in the top 5 industries for elevated COPD death rate<br />Top 5 occupations for elevated COPD death rate included:<br />Helpers, mechanics and repairers<br />Mining machine operators<br />
  12. 12. What can cause COPD?<br />Smoking is the primary risk factor<br />Long-term smoking is responsible for 80-90 % of cases<br />Smoker, compared to non-smoker, is 10 times more likely to die of COPD<br />Prolonged exposures to harmful particles and gases from: <br />Second-hand smoke, <br />Industrial smoke, <br />Chemical gases, vapors, mists & fumes<br />Dusts from grains, minerals & other materials<br />
  13. 13. Other Risk Factors for COPD<br />History of childhood respiratory infections<br />Genetic makeup<br />Increasing age<br />
  14. 14. Ways to prevent or slow the progression of COPD<br />Stop smoking, if you smoke, to prevent further damage to your body<br />Smoking cessation is critical for all severities of COPD<br />Avoid or protect yourself from exposures to<br />Second-hand smoke <br />and<br />Other substances such as chemical vapors, fumes, mists, dusts, and diesel exhaust fumes that irritate your lungs<br />
  15. 15. How is COPD Treated?<br />COPD can be managed, but not cured<br />Treatment is different for each individual and is based on severity of the symptoms<br />Early diagnosis and treatment can<br />Slow progress of the disease<br />Relieve symptoms<br />Improve an individual’s ability to stay active<br />Prevent and treat complications<br />Improve quality of life<br />
  16. 16. When should you see your doctor?<br />If smoker, see doctor for baseline evaluation of your lungs<br />When first experiencing shortness of breath or having other lung symptoms<br />When your symptoms get worse<br />Seek emergency medical treatment if:<br />Breathing suddenly becomes more difficult<br />If diagnosed with chronic bronchitis, emphysema or COPD, see doctor 1-2 times yearly to review your treatment plan<br />
  17. 17. What medications are used to treat symptoms?<br />Bronchodilators – <br />Relaxes muscles around airways<br />Steroids <br />Reduces inflammation<br />Oxygen therapy <br />Helps with shortness of breath<br />
  18. 18. What medications are used to prevent complications?<br />Annual flu vaccine <br />Reduces risk of flu and its complications<br />Pneumonia vaccine <br />Reduces risk of common cause of pneumonia<br />
  19. 19. Resources & References<br />American Lung Association. Breathing hazards at work, Workplace exposures can generate breathing hazards, accessed 11/02/06<br />American Lung Association. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Fact Sheet, 2003<br /><br />Centers for Disease Control, DHHS, CDC Programs in Brief-Workplace Health and Safety-Work-Related Lung Disease, 2005<br /> <br />National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, NIH. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Executive Summary, Updated 2003<br />National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, NIH. COPD-Key points and How is COPD treated? January, 2006<br />